The sliprate of a fault is a basic and important quantity in understanding the kinematic and strain partitioning in a complex fault system. It is also one of the key parameters in seismic hazard evaluation. Spatial and temporal variation of sliprate along faults shed light on their mechanical behavior (Chevalier et al., 2005; Chéry & Vernant, 2006; Frankel et al., 2007; Friedrich et al., 2003; Kirby et al., 2007; Rittase et al., 2014). Determining the sliprate of the signiﬁcant active strike‐slip faults is also important to test end‐member kinematic models for deformation of the Tibet plateau. For instance, one class of models emphasizes localized deformation and relatively fast slip rates along large strike‐slip faults that bound lithosphere‐scale blocks (Avouac & Tapponnier, 1993; Peltzer & Saucier, 1996; Peltzer & Tapponnier, 1988; Tapponnier et al., 1986, 2001; Thatcher, 2007). The other class of models advocates continuous deformation within the plateau, minimizing the role of strike‐slip faulting in accommodating continental deformation (England & Houseman, 1986; England & McKenzie, 1982; England & Molnar, 2005; Molnar & Tapponnier, 1975; Royden et al., 1997, 2008). Thus, intensive efforts have been devoted to determining the Quaternary slip rates along these major faults and to reﬁne associated uncertainties (e.g., Bai et al., 2018; Chevalier et al., 2016; Cowgill, 2007; Cowgill et al., 2009; Gold et al., 2011; Jiang et al., 2017; Kirby et al., 2007; Lasserre et al., 1999, 2002; Mériaux et al., 2004, 2005; van der Woerd et al., 1998, 2002, 2006; Zhang et al., 2007).
With regard to the regional seismic hazard, one cannot determine whether the recent decrease in sliprate is on the way back to slower, ‘geological’ rates or even quiescence due to completion of the strain release or, on the contrary, indicates that aseismic fault slip occurs with more difficulty because it comes nearer to a zone of stick–slip behaviour, subsequently increasing the load on that area. In the first case, a slip event would occur in an advanced stage or at the end of a loading cycle, possibly releasing the total strain of the segment. But, in the other case, one should interpret it as a preseismic feature possibly forecasting a moderate earth- quake which would rupture the bottom part of the seis- mogenic crust. Anyway, since no significant earthquake struck recently the Sittard area, I disagree with Houtgast et al.  who argued for postseismic relaxation creep in the similar case of high creep rate on the Peel Boundary fault, on the other side of the Roer Valley Graben.
(2) Since Middle–Late Pliocene, a N45 ◦ E-trending σ 1 axis trans- pressional regime that homogeneously affects the region, mainly producing faulting.
This last regime corresponds to the present-day one and pro- duces reverse-dextral displacements along the Minab–Zendan fault system. Only one large earthquake (Mw = 5.9, 1983 July 2, latitude 26.3 ◦ N, longitude 57.2 ◦ E; Fig. 2) recorded by the global seismic network highlights the activity of the present-day kinematics of the studied area. The focal mechanism provided by the Harvard CMT database gives evidence for a right-lateral component on a N05 ◦ E- trending (for a dip of 42 ◦ E) focal plane (Dziewonski et al. 1981; CMT 2002), consistent with the regional orientation of the struc- tures and agreeing with the fault system kinematics. The Minab, Zendan and Palami faults connect the Main Zagros Thrust (MZT) with different thrusts of the inner Makran. Consequently, the total expected sliprate of the Minab–Zendan fault system is increasing northwards, by the progressive addition of the slip of each Makran thrust. In addition, the Jiroft–Sabzevaran fault system is linked to the north with the Nayband–Gowk fault system, contributing to transfer convergence deformation northward of Iran, i.e. to the Alborz and Kopet-Dagh deformation belts.
The topographic map of the area shows that the preserved patches of Q2 alluvium show a relatively well-de®ned fan shape geometry (Fig. 4). The position of the apex of the fan at the time of Q2 emplacement may thus be estimated. To do so, we have assumed a conical geometry built on an ellipsoidal base (Bull 1964; Troeh 1965; Blair & McPherson 1994). Theoretical contour lines(red linesin Fig. 4) were ®tted to the observed ones: for each point that de®nes the observed contour lines we compute the theoretical corresponding point, according to the assumed geometry of the fan. The parameters of the theoretical fan have been tuned to minimize the difference between theoretical and observed points following an iterative scheme. The position of the best-®tting apex (red cross in Fig. 4) lies500 m south of the mouth of the Wadi Dahal canyon. Assuming that the Q2 fan was deposited over a relatively short period of time about 120 kyr ago, thismeasurement would imply 500 m of cumulative offset, and hence an estimated sliprate of about 4 mm yr x1 . The construction of the Dahal fan was probably not that short, however. We may nevertheless
The data for the Nayband fault complement the paleoseismic information already available for the Central Iran Plateau (Figure 29). For the Dehshir fault [Nazari et al., 2009], the most recent earthquake (EH-A) occurred shortly before 2.0 ± 0.2 ka [Fattahi et al., 2010]; the available historical seismic catalogs provide no evidence for an historical earthquake in the vicinity of the Dehshir fault. The revised OSL ages (green numbers on Figure 29b) indicate the Dehshir fault hosted at least three earthquakes within the last 20.2 ± 0.8 ka. Considering the age of the most recent event (2.0 ± 0.2 ka) yields an average recurrence interval of large earthquakes at most between 5700 and 6400 years. Similarly, the paleoseismic records of the Anar fault document the occurrence of at least three large earthquakes (EH-A, EH-B and EH-C on Figure 29b) within the last 15 ka [Foroutan et al., 2012]. There, the most recent earthquake occurred sometime between 3.6 and 5.2 ka ago, and the average recurrence interval of the large earthquakes ranges between 2.4 and 5 ka. It seems that large and infrequent earthquakes appear to typify the seismic behavior of the slow- slipping, intracontinental, strike-slip fault systems slicing Central and Eastern Iran. The limited data available, however, fail to document any distance interactions between the seismic behavior of the neighboring fault systems. Both the fact that the recurrence intervals on these faults exceed the time span covered by historical catalogs and the fact that some of these faults have produced large unrecorded earthquakes during the time span covered by these catalogs suggests caution in the regional seismic hazard assessment.
In general, fault slip is governed by a set of dynamical equations relating sliprate and stress through con- stitutive properties. Without considering the form of these equations, constitutive properties should remain somehow stationary over the geodetic (long time scale) observational period. Slip or sliprate is what we infer from surface observations, and the observed fluctuations are related either to stress changes or changes in constitutive properties. Given observations of slow slip across the world in many different tectonic con- texts, this would imply that the evolution of slow slip is controlled mainly by stress perturbations, with a wide range of constitutive fault properties capable of hosting aseismic rupture (we speculate there is little reason to suspect we can characterize all faults with a narrow range of constitutive fault properties). Poten- tial perturbations to the state of stress in the vicinity of a fault, including ocean tides, solid Earth tides, nearby fault slip, hydrology, ice loads variations, erosion, landslides, and many others, cover a wide range of amplitudes and time scales. It is therefore quite unlikely that sliprate would remain constant anywhere. Because perturbations are happening at all times and at all scales, fault slip should show fluctuations at all times and at all scales, and given the nonlinearity of the response, these fluctuations need not to mimic the imposed perturbations; some recent stochastic models with continuously fluctuating slip rates have successfully reproduced some common slow slip observables (Ben-Zion, 2012; Ide & Yabe, 2019). The jury is still out on which mechanical processes control slow slip, but we conclude a synthesis of observational con- straints from different tectonic contexts will be key in paving our way toward a greater understanding of slow slip dynamics.
Through morphological analyses of an offset alluvial fan and the application of multiple dating methods ( 10 Be, 26 Al, 36 Cl, luminescence and radiocarbon), we calculated a late Quaternary sliprate ranging from 2.2 to 6.3 mm/yr. The minimum bound for this sliprate agrees with geodetic rates. The maximum bound, however, is higher than the geodetic rates, but this discrepancy can be partly explained if the TFF accommodates shortening by counterclockwise rotation around a vertical axis. This geodynamic view has implications for seismic hazards in the Tien Shan Range because if apparent GPS rates are slower than the late Quaternary geological rates we may underestimate the probability of large earthquakes occurring along these major strike-slip faults. Indeed, the inferred rates from GPS measurements are very slow and therefore recurrence times are very long. As such, these faults are not always considered as potential sources for large seismic events. Moreover, we know that the absence of large earthquakes (M>7.5) in the instrumental or historical records does not truly represent the full spatial extent of the deformation, and that active faults in the Tien Shan Range rupture during occasional large earthquakes that have been shown to have recurrence times of several thousand years (Abdrakhmatov et al., 2016; Campbell et al., 2013, 2015; Grützner et al., 2017; Hollingsworth et al., 2016; Landgraf et al., 2016).
The geometry observed with small fault strands of variable strikes resembles the geometry observed at fault propagating tip (Perrin et al., 2016; Nicol et al., 2017) and could thus suggest northward propagation of the Mt Gorzano fault system in agreement with the conclusions from Pizzi et al. (2017). The intersegment zone that we define as the distance between the two faults tips (the Mt Gorzano and the Mt Vettore) is 2-5-km-long and coincides with the location of the pre-existing OAS thrust (Figure 11). The presence of the OAS thrust oblique ramp, striking oblique to the main faults might potentially play a key role in guiding the rupture on pre-existing already fractured medium, as it has been observed in numerical models or in relay zone (Klinger, 2010) and already invoked in central Apennines to explain the position of the most recent faults in the relief (Winter & Tapponnier, 1991). In addition, activation of the ~N30° directed OAS thrust ramp at depth during October 30 event has been proposed based on inversion of geodetic data only (Cheloni et al., 2017) or joint invertion of seismograms and coseismic GPS displacements (Scognamiglio et al. 2018). Their derived slip vector on this ~N30° directed dislocation, is a normal slip with left-lateral component, which is also compatible with our determined surface slip vectors (Figure 11).
boundary conditions from stress-free boundary conditions for which slanted snaking is present to no-slip boundary conditions. The procedure allows us to (a) show that convectons in a rotating layer are present even in the presence of the more realistic no-slip boundary conditions, (b) determine the width of the Rayleigh number interval within which they are found, (c) track the morphology changes in the associated bifurcation diagram as the boundary conditions are deformed, and (d) quantify the influence of the conserved zonal momentum on the behavior of this system. We emphasize that homotopic continuation of the boundary conditions is an effective method for finding localized structures in situations where one has no a priori idea of their location, or even if such solutions exist in the first place.
[ 87 ] Although we limited our models to T/D < 1, their
results allow us to make some inferences about how oblique-slip faulting may manifest at depth in cases where T/D > 1, such as at Dolomieu caldera (T/D ~ 2.0) [Michon et al., 2009]. Our T/D = 0.8 models show that oblique-slip faults localize between the reverse and normal ring faults as a result of displacement along either or both of these structures (e.g., Figures 10c and 11c). Past modeling studies [e.g., Holohan et al., 2011; Roche et al., 2000] show that T/D > 1 leads to a vertical succession of such normal and reverse ring faults. Hence, oblique-slip faults are inferred to form not only near the surface but also at depth, wherever suf ﬁcient horizontal inward displacement occurs along in- ward- or outward-dipping ring faults. This inference may help explain the abundance of oblique-slip earthquake source mechanisms observed at depth during the 2007 Dolomieu collapse [Massin et al., 2011] (Figure 1c).
open questions related to the problem of stick-slip waves between an elastic half plane and a rigid one [ 6 ].
During the two last decades, an important issue emerges in the area of elastodynamic problems involving frictional contact following Coulomb's law, namely the friction-induced vibrations under the form of stick-slip waves. Such cyclic responses, generally accompanied with noise emittence, are closely related to the dynamic bifurcation from the steady response to a cyclic vibra- tion in the sense of Poincar-Hopf bifurcation [ 7 ]. In literature, rst studies of stick-slip focused on discrete systems, typically the Van-der Pol oscillator. For such mechanical systems, the formation of stick-slip motion is attributed to a static coecient of friction higher than a kinematic one or to the decay of the kinematic coecient with the sliding velocity.
DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.115.128301 PACS numbers: 82.35.Gh, 62.20.mm, 68.35.Np
Understanding the velocity at which fractures propagate is a key issue in various fields, ranging from mechanical engineering to seismology. When fracture energy becomes a decreasing function of crack velocity (i.e., it costs less energy for a crack to grow faster), a dynamical instability can occur, leading to crack velocity periodic oscillations, as, for example, in friction problems  . During these oscillations, transitions from quasistatic to dynamic crack propagation regimes may then develop  , the latter being prone to trigger fracture front instabilities  . The stick-slip oscillations of the detachment front during the peeling of adhesive tapes is another outstanding example, extensively studied [4–15] . However, it remains nowadays an industrial concern, leading to unacceptable noise levels, damage to the adhesive, and mechanical problems on assembly lines. Thanks to technological progress in high-speed imaging, direct observations of the peeling front dynamics in the stick-slip regime revealed a complex dynamical and multi- scale process [16 –20] , challenging our current understand- ing. In particular, Thoroddsen et al.  observed a regular substructure of a few hundred microns wide transverse bands, formed during the “slip” phase of the stick-slip oscillations by a periodic propagation of rapid fractures across the tape width, intrinsically akin to a dynamic fracture instability  .
with a motion of the partial dislocations and of the stacking fault ribbon in a direction perpendicular to the dissociation plane. This basal slip mecha- nism is similar to the one already identified in Zr . Because of the high energy barrier associated with such a path, basal slip will proceed through the nucleation of double kinks thanks to thermal acti- vation, in agreement with the Peierls mechanism inferred from TEM observations . The same configurations being involved for basal as for pris- matic and pyramidal motion, this explains the wavy slip traces experimentally observed when basal slip is active [15, 16]. Finally, as the Peierls barrier of basal and pyramidal  glide are close, both basal and pyramidal slip are activated at high enough temperature [15, 16].
V. C ONCLUSION AND P ROSPECTIVES
The proposed system shows the possibility to detect the heartbeat activity at 16 GHz for different power levels. The Doppler radar system is tested and compared to simultaneous electrocardiogram. The heartbeat activity is detected for transmitted power between 0 and -25 dBm and for a distance of 1 m between the person and the antennas. Both heartbeat rate and heart rate variability are extracted from the proposed system and compared to the reference signal. A high accuracy is observed for the average HR: its relative error varies between 0 and 3.5%, while it varies between 2% and 21% for HRV. A smoothing technique is applied as well to the orignal signals in order to improve the detection accuracy. The relative errors decrease to 0.5 – 1.5% for the HR, and to 1 – 6% fot the HRV.
being an indirect measurement of the front velocity, follows a similar power law (Fig. 6 ), we propose the kinetic criterion as a plausible mechanism for the transition.
The spreading of a liquid on a substrate colder than freezing temperature, at imposed velocity, can show continuous or discontinuous dynamics. We characterized and measured the transition between these two regimes for two liquids (hexadecane and pentadecane) in partial wetting conditions and relatively low hysteresis with the substrate. The transition between continuous and stick-slip dynamics appears below a critical imposed velocity V c , which value depends on T = T m − T s ,
Cure rate models have a broad range of application in many fields, such as medicine, public health, and especially in cancer studies. Researchers in these studies are interested in waiting time until occurrence of the event of interest, as well as the proportion of instances where the event never occurs, known in this case as the cure fraction. In general, there are two types of models for estimation of the cure fraction. The first one is the mixture cure rate model. This type of models assumes that the whole population is composed of two groups of subjects, susceptible subjects and insusceptible (or cured) subjects. The second model is non-mixture cure model, based on number of cancer cells which remain after treatment. This thesis devises and presents a review for cure rate models form early studies to recent articles. Since there is not a comprehensive review on cure rate models, my mission was to put all models together in a single and coherent notation.
value of ν, attained by spheres, is ν = 1, while for example ν decreases monotonically for spheroids as the aspect-ratio is increased.
We first consider six different micro-swimmer shapes and plot their optimal slip profiles obtained by solving (2.14) in Fig. 3. In each case, we also show the flow fields in both the body and lab frames. The optimal slip velocities plotted against the arclength, measured from north pole to south pole, are shown in the insets. In the case of a sphere (Fig. 3(a)), we recover the standard result that the optimal profile is a sine curve (Michelin & Lauga 2010). The optimal slip velocity of the prolate swimmer, shown in Fig. 3(b), ‘flattens’ the sine curve in the middle while that of the oblate swimmer, shown in Fig. 3(c), ‘pinches’ the sine curve. Additionally, the peak value of the optimal slip velocity is low for the prolate swimmer, and high for the oblate swimmer, compared to the spherical swimmer. Next, we consider three shapes corresponding to different shape families. In Fig. 3(d), we consider the ‘wavy’ configuration obtained by adding high-order axisymmetric modes to the spherical shape. The optimal slip velocity follows the general trend for that of (a), while lower slip velocities are observed at the troughs, qualitatively consistent to those obtained in Vilfan (2012). The spherocylinder (Fig. 3(e)) resembles closely the prolate spheroid of Fig. 3(b) with the same aspect ratio, its optimal slip velocity being nearly the same (albeit with a slightly narrower plateau and higher peak slip velocity). Finally, we investigate the optimal slip velocity of the stomatocyte shape (Fig. 3(f)), which is the only non-convex shape among those considered here. Similar to that of the oblate swimmer, the general slip velocity is like a pinched sine wave. However, one distinguishing feature is that slip velocity is nearly zero over part of its surface, namely the cup-like region in its posterior.