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Bioncontrol of wheat against Septoria Tritici Blotch: new elicitors

Bioncontrol of wheat against Septoria Tritici Blotch: new elicitors

BIOCONTROL OF WHEAT AGAINST SEPTORIA TRITICI BLOTCH: NEW ELICITORS Geraldine LE MIRE 1 , Ali SIAH 2 , and M.Haissam JIJAKLI 1 Univ. Liège - Gembloux Agro-Bio Tech- 1 Laboratory of Urban and Integrated Phytopathology - Passage des Déportés ,2. B-5030 Gembloux, Belgium 2 ISA Lille, 48 Boulevard Vauban, 59046 Lille, France

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Caractérisation morpho-culturale et sporulation chez une population marocaine de Septoria tritici, agent de la septoriose du blé

Caractérisation morpho-culturale et sporulation chez une population marocaine de Septoria tritici, agent de la septoriose du blé

Osburn et al., 1987). La variabilité culturale des isolats de S. tritici a été fréquemment analysée et différents variants de ses isolats ont été décrits dans plusieurs pays (Cordo et Lindquist 1987; Cordo et al., 1993; Fitzgerald et Cooke 1989). Eyal et al., (1987) ont introduit quelques milieux de culture solides pour produire l’inoculum de S. tritici et observer son polymorphisme, comme le PDA (Potato Dextrose Agar amendé avec 4.5 % d’extrait de levure), et YMDA (extrait de levure + extrait de malt + dextrose + agar). Parmi les milieux liquides utilisés, il y’a le milieu YS (extrait de levure + sucrose), le milieu Fries modifié, et le milieu PDY (Potato + dextrose + extrait de levure). Guo et Verreet (2008) ont utilisé les milieux YMDA, PDA et CA (extrait de carotte + agar), WLA (extrait de feuille de blé + agar) et Czapek Dox Agar. Le but de cette étude est de déterminer les phénotypes culturaux de Septoria tritici à travers un échantillon de 60 isolats représentant les principales régions productrices du blé au Maroc, et leur importance. Pour optimiser la croissance et la sporulation du champignon, quatre milieux de culture ont été testés pour leur efficacité.
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Spring air temperature accounts for the bimodal temporal distribution of Septoria tritici epidemics in the winter wheat stands of Luxembourg

Spring air temperature accounts for the bimodal temporal distribution of Septoria tritici epidemics in the winter wheat stands of Luxembourg

time of infection* Fig. 4. Differences between average daily air temperatures (A), average daily precipi- tation (B) and average daily relative humidity (C) measured before early (on average 245 days after sowing (DAS), see Fig. 3 ) and late Septoria tritici epidemics (on average 270 DAS). Vertical lines represent standard deviations. Averages and standard devia- tions were calculated from all early and all late epidemics for the period between 2004 and 2010. *The putative time of infection was estimated by subtracting the latent period (20 d, Henze et al., 2007 ) from the point of time when early epidemics were observed (245 DAS).
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VALIDATION OF “PROCULTURE” MODEL TO PREDICT SEPTORIA TRITICI DEVELOPMENT ON WINTER WHEAT IN THE GRAND-DUCHÉ OF LUXEMBOURG IN 2001.

VALIDATION OF “PROCULTURE” MODEL TO PREDICT SEPTORIA TRITICI DEVELOPMENT ON WINTER WHEAT IN THE GRAND-DUCHÉ OF LUXEMBOURG IN 2001.

Introduction One of the most serious foliar diseases on winter wheat in the G-D of Luxembourg which farmers need to take into account when deciding upon fungicide application during stem elongation is septoria leaf blight caused by Septoria tritici Roberge in Desmaz (anamorph of Mycosphaerella graminicola) (El Jarroudi et al., 2001).

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Plasticity of winter wheat architecture modulated by sowing date and plant population density and its effect on Septoria tritici epidemics

Plasticity of winter wheat architecture modulated by sowing date and plant population density and its effect on Septoria tritici epidemics

Dans ce travail, nous nous intéressons au pathosystème blé-Septoria tritici, dans lequel l'architecture joue un rôle important. En effet, les spores de Septoria tritici sont propagées par les éclaboussures de pluie depuis les feuilles infectées du bas du couvert vers les nouvelles feuilles saines. Notre travail s’est appuyé sur un modèle pré-existant d’épidémie de la septoriose, Septo3D. L'architecture du blé a été étudiée pour une gamme de densités et de date de semis. Les différences de phyllochrone entre traitements ont été dans une gamme susceptible de modifier le développement de la septoriose. Ces variations ont été représentées par un modèle descriptif qui tient compte du nombre de feuilles final et de la photopériode. Une description détaillée des variables d'architecture à l'échelle des organes et du couvert a fourni une documentation originale et complète sur la plasticité de l’architecture du blé. Ces données ont été utilisées pour paramétrer la description du blé dans Septo3D. Globalement, les traitements étudiés ont conduit à de fortes différences de la densité de végétation au cours du temps. Les dynamiques de développement de la septoriose ont été suivies pour trois traitements de densités contrastées. Les cinétiques de la maladie simulées par le modèle étaient conformes aux mesures expérimentales. Bien que, l'approche nécessite davantage de validation, les résultats confirment que l’approche Plante Virtuelle apporte un nouvel éclairage sur les processus et les caractéristiques des plantes qui impactent les épidémies. En conclusion, nous proposons quelques perspectives en vue de nouvelles applications et améliorations de l’approche.
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A wheat cysteine-rich receptor-like kinase confers broad-spectrum resistance against Septoria tritici blotch

A wheat cysteine-rich receptor-like kinase confers broad-spectrum resistance against Septoria tritici blotch

Seyed Mahmoud Tabib Ghaffary 2,9 , Théo Poucet 1,10,11 , William Marande 3 , Hélène Berges 3,12 , Steven Xu 4 , Maëlle Jaouannet 5 , Bruno Favery 5 , Julien Alassimone 6 , Andrea Sánchez-Vallet 6,13 , Justin Faris 4 , Gert Kema 2,14 , Oliver Robert 7 & Thierry Langin 1 The poverty of disease resistance gene reservoirs limits the breeding of crops for durable resistance against evolutionary dynamic pathogens. Zymoseptoria tritici which causes Septoria tritici blotch (STB), represents one of the most genetically diverse and devastating wheat pathogens worldwide. No fully virulent Z. tritici isolates against synthetic wheats carrying the major resistant gene Stb16q have been identified. Here, we use comparative genomics, mutagenesis and complementation to identify Stb16q, which confers broad-spectrum resis- tance against Z. tritici. The Stb16q gene encodes a plasma membrane cysteine-rich receptor- like kinase that was recently introduced into cultivated wheat and which considerably slows penetration and intercellular growth of the pathogen.
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The tolerance of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) to Septoria tritici blotch

The tolerance of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) to Septoria tritici blotch

notyping. This chapter is, to some extent, a feasibility study using the results of Bancal et al. ( 2015 ) that indicted the senescence timing of the leaves and the Thousand Grain Weight (TGW) to be the main determinants of the wheat tolerance of Septoria tritici blotch (STB). Yet determinism of senescence timings and TGW is not well understood. An important genotype (G) effect would confer high heritability required by plant breed- ers. Conversely, understanding environment (E) or G×E effect is required by agriculture consultants. In order to identify the main factors associated with the variations of I and TGW, a dataset (almost balanced) was selected gathering the results of former experi- ments in nine season-locations (E) and including up to nine cultivars (G) contrasting for senescence, TGW and STB resistance. The dataset was improved to obtain many cli- matic, phenological and agronomic variables to resemble what would be obtained from high throughput phenotyping. Then, a method was proposed, composed of three succes- sive steps to identify the variables which are important to explain I or TGW, and to model the I or TGW response understanding the influence of E or G. To do so, the senescence timing and the TGW were first modeled by an holistic approach, without a priori, that applied the random forest modeling (RF). The RF results were used to identify the most important explanatory variables, as a starting point for the following stepwise multiple linear regression. Multiple linear regression thereby proposed accurate fits of response variables using five to seven explanatory variables. Variance component analysis (VCA) was used to quantify E, G or G×E variability of every response variable or important ex- planatory variable. Finally the E, G or G×E variability was investigated on the multiple linear regressions through the E or G simple regressions between partial residuals.
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A wheat cysteine-rich receptor-like kinase confers broad-spectrum resistance against Septoria tritici blotch

A wheat cysteine-rich receptor-like kinase confers broad-spectrum resistance against Septoria tritici blotch

presence of only two candidate genes in this 272 kb interval, Crk6 and Unk1 (Fig. 1 ). Stb16q encodes a cysteine-rich receptor-like kinase. To func- tionally validate these two candidate genes a set of complementary approaches were used. First, both candidate genes were sequenced from Stb16q-carrying accessions M3, TA4152-19 and the suscep- tible line ND495. Both SHWs shared the same haplotype for Crk6, which differed by 5% compared to the ND495 haplotype (Supple- mentary Fig. 3). Similarly, the same Unk1 haplotype was observed in both SHWs whereas the susceptible haplotype had a large insertion of 78 bp (Supplementary Fig. 3). Second, we evaluated the association of candidate gene haplotypes with STB resistance in a panel of 76 SHWs. Sequencing the Unk1 CDS (546 bp) and the genetically diverse Crk6 region corresponding to the first exon (853 bp) from the entire SHW panel revealed five and 11 haplotypes, respectively (Fig. 2 and Supplementary Fig. 3). All accessions car- rying either Crk6 or Unk1 haplotypes from accession TA4152-19 were resistant to all Z. tritici isolates at the seedling stage (Supple- mentary Data 2). Third, we developed an EMS mutagenized population from TA4152-19 and phenotyped 310 M 2 families with
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Influence de l'architecture du couvert de blé et de la technique de pulvérisation à bas volume sur l'interception foliaire du fongicide et le développement de Septoria tritici

Influence de l'architecture du couvert de blé et de la technique de pulvérisation à bas volume sur l'interception foliaire du fongicide et le développement de Septoria tritici

tritici mais aussi à valider l’hypothèse des techniques d’application raisonnées sur le principe du bas volume et l’optimisation des doses. Pour cela, il a été prévu d’étudier l’interface fongicide-champignon via un essai fongicide ainsi que l’interface fongicide-feuille via des mesures d’interception foliaire en utilisant un traceur. Les résultats montrent plus de rétention pour la technique du bas volume par rapport aux volumes conventionnels bien que cela ne se traduise pas par une augmentation de l'efficacité biologique. La réduction des doses accroit considérablement le niveau de maladie et affecte le poids de mille grains. Les résultats ont également montré de grandes différences de dépôts entre deux stades de croissance, respectivement 32 et 39 (échelle Zadoks). La rétention à un stade donné dépend de la variété et/ou des conditions climatiques (il n’a pas été possible de dissocier ces deux critères). Les dépôts foliaires diffèrent entre les strates foliaires. La rétention entre les strates semble être liée à la densité du couvert, mais doit être prise en compte séparément pour chaque volume de pulvérisation, variété et stade phénologique.
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Using crop-pathogen modeling to identify plant traits to control Zymoseptoria tritici epidemics on wheat

Using crop-pathogen modeling to identify plant traits to control Zymoseptoria tritici epidemics on wheat

Corresponding author: p.czembor@ihar.edu.pl Septoria tritici blotch (STB) of wheat (Triticum aestivum), caused by the fungal pathogen Mycosphaerella graminicola (anamorph: Zymoseptoria tritici, syn. Septoria tritici), is present in most wheat-growing areas worldwide. Host resistance is the most economical and safest method of controlling the disease and information on resistance loci is crucial for effective breeding for resistance programs. In the study we used a set of 83 wheat cultivars registered in the Descriptive List of Agricultural Plant Varieties (COBORU 2012), 110 cultivars from other European countries and 25 cultivars/lines with identified STB resistance loci. The wheat genotypes were tested on adult plant stage under polytunnel conditions with watering system. Fully expanded flag leaves were sprayed with spore suspension of IPO92006 Z. tritici isolate. After incubation period, the percentage leaf area covered by necrosis (NEC) and covered by pycnidia (PYC) were measured on flag leaf of each wheat cultivar/line that were used in agglomerative hierarchical clustering (AHC) analysis with UPGA algorithm (unweighted pair-group average). Three groups of wheat cultivars/lines were identified and the largest group comprised 170 resistant genotypes with NEC 12.4%─82.1% and PYC 1.1%─53.5%. Within this group, set of 43 highly resistant wheat cultivars were identified (NEC 1.1%─41.8%, PYC 1.1%─31.9%): TE9111, Capone, Lear, Intro, Bombus, Fermi, Heros, KWS Erasmus, Oxal, Tabasco, Elixer, Dacanto, RGT Kilimanjaro, Florett, Sukces, Reciproc, Frument, Desamo, Edgar, Colonia, RGT Djoko, Addict, Forum, Famulus, Pionier, Amifor, Mandub, Memory, Terroir, Julius, Joker, Solitar, Kranich, Grapeli, KWS Dacanto, Eron, Marcopolo and Celebration. In addition in the same subgroup two genotypes with identified resistance loci were classified: Florett (QTL-3B, QTL-6D, Stb6 and Stb15) and TE9111 (Stb11, Stb6 and Stb7). This may suggest that resistance to STB in European cultivars is contributed mainly by quantitative loci and those with main effects. Presented work (phenotyping data) is a part of larger project aiming at identification of resistance genes to Septoria
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Employing Weather-Based Disease and Machine Learning Techniques for Optimal Control of Septoria Leaf Blotch and Stripe Rust in Wheat

Employing Weather-Based Disease and Machine Learning Techniques for Optimal Control of Septoria Leaf Blotch and Stripe Rust in Wheat

Moshou, D., Bravo, C., West, J., Wahlen, S., McCartney, A., Ramon, H.: Automatic detection of ‘yellow rust’ in wheat using reflectance measurements and neural networks. Comput. Electron. Agric. 44, 173–188 (2004) Odilbekov, F., Armoniene, R., Henriksson, T., Chawade, A.: Proximal phenotyping and machine learning methods to identify Septoria tritici blotch disease symptoms in wheat. Front. Plant Sci. 9, 685 (2018). https://doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2018.00685

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Wheat receptor-kinase-like protein Stb6 controls gene-for-gene resistance to fungal pathogen <em>Zymoseptoria tritici</em>

Wheat receptor-kinase-like protein Stb6 controls gene-for-gene resistance to fungal pathogen <em>Zymoseptoria tritici</em>

What is so encouraging about the first successful unpicking of a wheat gene that confers resistance to a devastating fungal disease is the promise it holds for deciphering other resistance genes, en route to a natural barrier to infection, at a time when the fungus has already developed tolerance to most types of fungicides. The gene, called Stb6, confers resistance to Septoria tritici blotch (STB, or Septoria), the main leaf disease of wheat in temperate regions and a major threat for wheat production globally, capable of halving crop yields. The disease is caused by the resilient fungal pathogen, Zymoseptoria tritici.
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Evolution and Plasticity of the Transcriptome Under Temperature Fluctuations in the Fungal Plant Pathogen Zymoseptoria tritici

Evolution and Plasticity of the Transcriptome Under Temperature Fluctuations in the Fungal Plant Pathogen Zymoseptoria tritici

In contrast, there are fewer studies in genera deprived of historical model species, such as for filamentous fungi ( Fisher and Lang, 2016 ). To fill this gap, we investigated the transcriptome evolution of the wheat fungal pathogen Zymoseptoria tritici. Toward this goal we analyzed the effect of temperature fluctuations on gene expression evolution and gene expression plasticity. Like other microorganisms, Z. tritici is an interesting model for experimental evolution due to its short generation time, small genome and the ease to maintain it in the laboratory. Z. tritici is a filamentous fungus, an ascomycete of the Mycosphaerellaceae family, and is the main causal agent of the Septoria Tritici Blotch disease of wheat ( O’Driscoll et al., 2014 ; Fones and Gurr, 2015 ). Z. tritici is a haploid species that multiply asexually in vitro by budding ( Steinberg, 2015 ). Nowadays this species becomes a good fungal model with growing interest to study its genome evolution since the publication of a complete reference genome ( Goodwin et al., 2011 ). The genome of the reference strain has 21 chromosomes, including 13 gene-rich core chromosomes (CCs) and 8 accessory chromosomes (ACs) carrying less genes and more repetitive elements. While much attention has been paid toward genes underlying the ability of the pathogen to overcome the immune system of its host (through QTL linkage mapping ( Meile et al., 2018 ; Stewart et al., 2018 ), or genome wide association studies ( Hartmann et al., 2017 ; Zhong et al., 2017 ), we still have a poor understanding of the potential ability of Z. tritici to adapt to abiotic changes. Very few studies have found contrasted temperature sensitivity among natural population samples ( Zhan and McDonald, 2011 ) or QTLs for thermal adaptation ( Lendenmann et al., 2016 ). Transcriptome studies in the fungal pathogen Z. tritici are fairly recent and aimed for the most part at characterizing the waves of up- and down-regulated genes in association with symptom development inside the host plant ( Kellner et al., 2014 ; Rudd et al., 2015 ;
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Transformation avec la bactérie Agrobacterium tumefaciens de deux Ascomycètes Septoria musiva et Septoria populicola, agents phytopathogènes du peuplier

Transformation avec la bactérie Agrobacterium tumefaciens de deux Ascomycètes Septoria musiva et Septoria populicola, agents phytopathogènes du peuplier

85 pu par la suite sélectionner certains phénotypes, qui rendent difficiles la transformation. Par la suite, toutes les deux transformations (soit tous les 15 jours), des conidies conservées à - 80°C étaient ensemencées sur du milieu frais pendant 7 jours, puis récoltées et à nouveau ensemencées 7 jours pour une seconde transformation. Cette pratique a pour but d’éviter cette sélection. Un autre matériel qui aurait pu être utilisé chez S. musiva et S. populicola est les protoplastes. Cependant, les protoplastes chez S. musiva ne sont pas faciles à obtenir et à maintenir (Tanguay, communication personnelle). Qui plus est, l’étude menée par Zwier et al., (2001) sur Zymoseptoria tritici (anciennement Septoria tritici, Stuckenbrock et al., 2012) n’a pas montré de différences significatives entre la transformation avec des conidies et des protoplastes. L’étude menée par de Groot et collaborateurs (1998) montre également que le nombre de transformants sur l’espèce Aspergillus niger est du même ordre de grandeur entre les protoplastes et les conidies. Bien qu’il s’agisse, dans ces deux cas, d’espèces différentes par rapport à S. musiva, on peut émettre l’hypothèse que l’utilisation de protoplastes n’aurait pas permis d’obtenir plus de transformants. Qui plus est, la transformation a été retestée par Philippe Tanguay, et a donné des transformants pour pPT1 et pPL1, avec les conidies de S. musiva (Tanguay, résultats non publiés). Cela montre donc que la transformation avec les conidies par A. tumefaciens fonctionne.
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Origin, Migration Routes and Worldwide Population Genetic Structure of the Wheat Yellow Rust Pathogen Puccinia striiformis f.sp. tritici

Origin, Migration Routes and Worldwide Population Genetic Structure of the Wheat Yellow Rust Pathogen Puccinia striiformis f.sp. tritici

Abstract Analyses of large-scale population structure of pathogens enable the identification of migration patterns, diversity reservoirs or longevity of populations, the understanding of current evolutionary trajectories and the anticipation of future ones. This is particularly important for long-distance migrating fungal pathogens such as Puccinia striiformis f.sp. tritici (PST), capable of rapid spread to new regions and crop varieties. Although a range of recent PST invasions at continental scales are well documented, the worldwide population structure and the center of origin of the pathogen were still unknown. In this study, we used multilocus microsatellite genotyping to infer worldwide population structure of PST and the origin of new invasions based on 409 isolates representative of distribution of the fungus on six continents. Bayesian and multivariate clustering methods partitioned the set of multilocus genotypes into six distinct genetic groups associated with their geographical origin. Analyses of linkage disequilibrium and genotypic diversity indicated a strong regional heterogeneity in levels of recombination, with clear signatures of recombination in the Himalayan (Nepal and Pakistan) and near-Himalayan regions (China) and a predominant clonal population structure in other regions. The higher genotypic diversity, recombinant population structure and high sexual reproduction ability in the Himalayan and neighboring regions suggests this area as the putative center of origin of PST. We used clustering methods and approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) to compare different competing scenarios describing ancestral relationship among ancestral populations and more recently founded populations. Our analyses confirmed the Middle East-East Africa as the most likely source of newly spreading, high- temperature-adapted strains; Europe as the source of South American, North American and Australian populations; and Mediterranean-Central Asian populations as the origin of South African populations. Although most geographic populations are not markedly affected by recent dispersal events, this study emphasizes the influence of human activities on recent long-distance spread of the pathogen.
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Elicitor screening to protect wheat against Zymoseptoria tritici

Elicitor screening to protect wheat against Zymoseptoria tritici

C3 5 0.1 0.0095 30  Molecules EGL 1, 2, 3 and 4 contributed to reduce Zymoseptoria tritici symptoms by at least 40%  For each molecule, all concentrations were efficient  Adjuvants added to treatment did not have an impact on disease infection

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Surfactin protects wheat against Zymoseptoria tritici and activates both salicylic acid- and jasmonic acid-dependent defense responses

Surfactin protects wheat against Zymoseptoria tritici and activates both salicylic acid- and jasmonic acid-dependent defense responses

2.2.2. Plant Treatment, Inoculation, and Infection Level Assessment At the 3–4 leaf stage (third leaf fully expanded), the plants of each pot were sprayed to runoff with 30 mL of one of the treatment solutions using a hand sprayer. Plant inoculation was performed 5 days after treatment. Inocula were prepared by washing the Z. tritici cultures with 10 mL of sterile distilled water, and the resulting spore suspension was adjusted to the desired concentration using a Bürker cell. Inoculation was performed by spraying the plants of each pot to runoff with 30 mL of a spore suspension (10 6 spores mL −1 of distilled water) amended with 0.05% (v/v) of Tween20 (Sigma-Aldrich). Immediately after inoculation, each pot was covered with a transparent polyethylene bag for 3 days, in order to ensure water-saturated conditions suitable for spore germination. The disease level was scored at 28 days post-inoculation by measuring the percentage of the third leaf area covered with symptomatic lesions (necrosis and chlorosis) bearing pycnidia. Values correspond to the average infection levels scored on the third leaf of plants treated with water, surfactin or Bion. Linear mixed-effects model analysis was realized, and the Tukey multiple comparison procedure at p = 0.05 was used to compare the mean disease severity of the treated plants. Two independent biological experiments were performed with 40 technical repetitions (40 plants) for each condition.
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Pyricularia graminis-tritici is not the correct species name for the wheat blast fungus: response to Ceresini et al. (MPP 20:2)

Pyricularia graminis-tritici is not the correct species name for the wheat blast fungus: response to Ceresini et al. (MPP 20:2)

14 BGPI, Univ Montpellier, CIRAD, INRA, Montpellier SupAgro, F-34398 Montpellier, France 15 Department of Plant Biology, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ 08901, USA In a review article published in this issue of Molecular Plant Pathology , Ceresini et al. (2019) wrongly treat the wheat blast fungus as a new species, Pyricularia graminis-tritici ( Pygt ), fol- lowing the proposal of Castroagudin et al. (2016). Despite the host specificity implied by the name Pygt , the proposed species concept includes isolates that cause major disease epidemics on finger millet and turf grasses (Castroagudin et al ., 2016, 2017). These authors also conclude, based on little evidence, that ‘the hypothesis of grass-specific populations for the overall Pyricularia oryzae species complex is falsified’. In addition, they stress that the rice blast fungus, which they describe as P. oryzae , ‘may not provide a suitable model for understanding the biology of Pygt ’. All of these conclusions are misinformed and have serious con- sequences. International quarantine regulations are needed to block the movement of this fearsome seed-borne blast fungus through the trade of seed or grain. The Pygt designation magni- fies the challenge by grouping the dangerous, highly aggressive wheat pathogens from South America and Bangladesh, which are readily distinguishable from other P. oryzae lineages, with non-wheat pathogens that are already found worldwide and are not known to be virulent on wheat or rice. Careful biological
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