Some recent studies have been interested in reporting biases related to self-assessed health, which is the most regularly collected measurement of health in household surveys. Even if this indicator is a good predictor of mortality (Idler and Benyamini, 1997) and health care utilisation (DeSalvo et al., 2005), it is also the result of a complex aggregation process of several elements that an individual knows on his health status. Initially, self-assessed health integrates morbidity, which depends not only on diseases and on functional limitations for which he is treated, but also on diagnosed health problems, and thus, on interactions with health professionals. This measurement being subjective, it also integrates personal expectations of good health, which are influenced by social and cultural environments. Several studies have highlighted discordance between health perception and other health indicators considered to be more objective. The literature underlines four sets of factors that can affect individual health judgement and therefore self-assessed health. A first group is related to the nature of pathologies from which the individual suffers. For example, Van Doorslaer and Gerdtham (2003) observe that hypertensive men report a better health than women at a given death risk. Age and gender also influence reports: women would report a poorer health status than men for similar levels of incapacities. Moesgaard et al. (2002) explain it by the fact that women would have higher expectations of good health. In addition, Baron-Epel and Kaplan (2001) show that old people more favourably judge their health status than youngest people. Reporting biases related to socioeconomic status are also found. In France, self-assessed health is affected by optimism biases for both rich people and the poorest people for a given clinical health (Etilé and Milcent, 2006). Lastly, health perception seems to depend on cultural characteristics: an Australian study shows that indigenous population declares being in better health than general population in spite of higher incidence rates of serious health problems (Mathers and Douglas, 1998).
psychological well-being. A sample item is: “During the past week, how much of the
time has your physical health or emotional problems interfered with your social activities (like visiting with friends, relatives, etc.)?” Following a standard coding algorithm using the 12 items, the tool provides two scores ranging 0-100, with 100 indicating the highest level of QoL and 50 indicating the population average. The two scores are Mental Component Summary (MCS) and Physical Component Summary (PCS). MCS reflects the dimensions of mental health, social functioning and psychological role limitations, while PCS reflects the dimensions of physical functioning, physical role limitations and physical pain (Gandek et al., 1998; Leplège, 2001; Misery et al., 2010; Ware & Gandek, 1994; Ware Jr & Sherbourne, 1992).
strengths and limitations
The strengths of our study include the longitudinal design, standardised assessment tools and broad adjust- ment for confounders. In addition, this study investigates self-rated health among college students, a population that has received less attention in the literature. Although the study sample included only a fraction of the original i-Share cohort, the number of participants was still rela- tively high compared with the available studies in the area. A set of limitations should be taken into consider- ation, however, to interpret the findings properly. First, a sampling bias could have arisen since participants were mainly healthy female students. Since young females usually have lower self-reportedhealth than males, caution should be taken regarding extrapolation of the results to males. 42 Further research is needed with a larger
The purpose of this exploratory study was to compare SRH in Dakar and in Tessekere and determine the main predictors of self-rated health in both environments. Overall, our results showed that self-rated health is better in Dakar than in Tessekere. As the literature often indi- cates, people living in rural areas exhibit a less favorable health status than those in urban areas, and consequently, self-rated health is also worse. This is also true in Senegal, and is explained at once by demographic effects (a younger urban population) and socio-economic characteristics: the urban population of Dakar enjoys greater economic well-being, and has far more basic facilities (electricity, running water) and social services (hospitals, health centers, schools, paved roads). But as many authors have pointed out, the definition and process of for- mulating an answer to the question of self-rated health differ according to individuals’ physical and cultural environments, thus making direct comparison difficult between proportions of people stating they are in good or poor health in Dakar and in Tessekere.
Patterns of thought: population variation in the associations between large- scale network organisation and self-reported experiences at rest
Hao-Ting Wang 1 , Danilo Bzdok 2,3,4 , Daniel Margulies 5 , Cameron Craddock 6 , Michael Milham 6 , Elizabeth Jefferies 1 & Jonathan Smallwood 1 .
for example), the more likely she is to self-report a level of income higher than that reported by her husband. These results provide an original test of the collective model.
In a second stage, we estimate the total labor supplies of household members (market work plus domestic work) using 3SLS. We first use the sub-sample of households who report equal income-sharing to derive the labor supply parameters. The parameters of the sharing rule are then identified in a second stage using the whole sample. We are thus able to calculate the marginal effects of wages and non-labor income on the sharing rule: these show, in particular, that the female income share is more sensitive to female wages than to male wages. The full identification of the sharing rule allows simulating full income-sharing. For an average couple, with the husband aged 41, with one child, and living in the Urals, we find that a full income share of 45% is allocated to the wife.
Mean ± Standard Deviation and range [minimum; maximum] are reported. BMI= Body Mass Index; BDI = Beck Depression Inventory; STAI = State-Trait Anxiety Inventory; AUDIT = Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test. NA: not available ; a : an alcohol unit = 10g of pure ethanol
Table 3: Prevalence, severity and nature of the sleep complaint on the PSQI in healthy controls (HC), alcohol use disorder patients without Korsakoff’s syndrome (AUD) and alcohol use disorder patients with Korsakoff’s syndrome (KS).
(MAeq and LAeq) and the time of the half-day. The results show that a high intelligibility, which corresponds to a high MAeq value, significantly increased the self- reported fatigue, the sound annoyance and the sleepiness experienced by the participants. On the other hand, an increase of overall level did not significantly modify these values. Lastly, the results of this experiment were compared to a previous experiment conducted by Kostallari . We concluded that, for all sound conditions, in both experiments, speech noise has a higher impact on the self-reported fatigue of the participants, compared to stationary noise or to the ‘speech like’ amplitude-modulated noise.
recruited by mailing based on large population-based listings including electoral rolls
. Once in the study, these women were contacted by mail or telephone every four
months to collect information about any falls and new fracture events. They had to
complete a mail questionnaire annually investigating hospitalisation, new health
to enable and empower individuals, or explore our own understandings of the world around us. It is a social world mediated and constructed by seeing, talking and sense- making, but each of these can be too easily taken for granted. The following narrative is a reminder of human fragility in the context of healthcare needs that extend beyond the ‘blind’ rhetoric of health policy. It is the personal account of a ‘wounded story teller’,[2,3] where loss precipitated a new way of ‘seeing’ familiar environments. Illness is often spoken about in episodic terms and, if mapped as a journey, charted by the discourse of those in control. Sickness connotes lack of control, adoption of a ‘sick role’, and surrender to the knowledge(s) of a body of experts. Illness is never planned, seldom predicted, often disguised, and easily denied by delusions of invulnerability.
The group with the highest discordance was individuals with negative self-reported status, with most discordant participants having serological evidence of vaccination. In parallel, most dis- cordant participants describing effective vaccine from their clin- ical history were in fact non-immunised. From the risk-factor analysis, the groups with discordant negative and vaccinated HBV-status were similar: mainly individuals linked to regions of intermediate/high HBV-prevalence and not under the national health insurance plan. Knowledge about HBV transmission fac- tors are generally good in these patient groups compared with others [ 26 ], yet they have evidenced difficulties in differentiating between negative and immunised statuses [ 27 ]. Moreover, general practitioners in France sometimes have difficulty in correctly interpreting HBV serologic results [ 28 ], possibly leading to fur- ther confusion among these individuals. More fostered education on HBV-status by trained specialists has demonstrated success in increasing understanding of HBV disease in Hmong and Asian/
Vegetarian diet (VD), that includes the partial or total removal of meat, poultry, fish from the diet, (vegans also exclude dairy products and eggs), is increasingly widespread among the general population [ 1 – 4 ]. The reasons for adopting this dietary profile are attributable to ethi- cal, environmental, and social concerns [ 1 , 2 , 5 – 10 ]. Health aspects of such a diet are also more and more emphasized. Indeed, health benefits of the VD, especially on ischemic heart disease and cancer have been widely reported by cross-sectional and prospective cohort studies during the last 50 years [ 11 – 14 ]. Generally speaking, vegetarians tend to be more health conscious, with a lower body mass index (BMI), and in better health when compared with omnivores, giving this type of diet a clear appeal in the population of subjects suffering from chronic diseases [ 15 ]. Furthermore, several health crises surrounding meat erupted in recent years (including animal bone meal or mad cow disease), and the world health organisation (WHO) has classified in 2015 red meat and processed meat as Group 2A, that is "probably carcino- genic" to humans [ 16 ]. Finally, VD patterns (in comparison to meat-based diets) are more sustainable because they use substantially less natural resources and are less taxing on the envi- ronment [ 17 – 19 ]. Adopting a VD may therefore seem a beneficial diet in many ways in the future.
One important aspect of prevention of upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders (UEMSD) is the implementation of surveillance systems, even though there is no universally accepted way of defining UEMSD (complaints or specific positive testing). 1 Some authors propose a multilevel model for surveillance of UEMSD, with questionnaires and checklists used initially for a quick assessment. 2-4 Nordic-style questionnaires exploring symptoms experienced over the past year are considered useful tools for this purpose. 5 However, although studies have evaluated questionnaire validity, very few have longitudinally followed subjects with symptoms, especially those without any positive physical findings. Symptoms are sometimes considered an initial stage of UEMSD. 6 The European consensus definition of UEMSD proposes that the first step in assessing UEMSD should take symptoms into account but not physical signs. 7 A study in one company suggested that workers with self-reported symptoms evaluated by questionnaire had a significantly higher risk of developing UEMSD a year later. 8 Our objective was to study the outcomes three years later of workers with self-reported symptoms and with or without positive physical examinations in a larger survey of repetitive work.
Dietary data were collected using web-based, self-administered 24-h dietary records via an interactive interface. At enrollment and yearly thereafter, participants were invited to provide three 24-h records (during one weekend day and two weekdays) [ 26 ]. These records were randomly assigned over a two-week period. The web-based dietary assessment method relies on a meal-based approach, recording all foods and beverages (type and quantity) consumed at breakfast, lunch, dinner, and all other eating occasions. First, participants filled in the names of all food items eaten, and then they estimated portion sizes for each reported food and beverage item according to standard measurements (e.g., home containers, grams displayed on the package) or using photographs available via the interactive interface. These photographs, based on a validated picture booklet [ 30 ], represented more than 250 foods (corresponding to 1000 generic foods) in seven different portion sizes. The accuracy and validity of web-based 24-h dietary records have been assessed by comparison to interviews by trained dietitians [ 29 ] and against 24-h urinary biomarkers [ 31 , 32 ].
Even if researchers have the opportunity to include various gender-related variables in multivariate modeling of various health outcomes (examples of gender-related variables in- clude time spent on child care, occupation, number of working hours, types of leisure activities, stress (Bekker 2003 )), the calculation of a single composite score is a statistically effi- cient option (Glynn et al. 2006 ). Various approaches have been proposed to derive composite gender indexes using existing data (Lippa and Connelly 1990 ; Pelletier et al. 2015 ; Smith and Koehoorn 2016 ; Canadian Institutes of Health Research 2017 ). For example, Smith and Koehoorn ( 2016 ) assigned a numerical value to each response category of four gender-related variables available in the Canadian Labour Force Survey (responsibility for caring for children, occupation, number of hours of work, and level of education). They then created a gender score by summing these variables (Smith and Koehoorn 2016 ). Although the proposed approach was simple and the resulting gender index showed face valid- ity and sensitivity to change, the method was subjective since assumptions and categorizations were made about what an- swers were more feminine or more masculine. In contrast, other statistical approaches may be used to minimize re- searchers’ subjectivity surrounding the processing of variables for the computation of a composite index. Using gender- related variables available in the GENESIS-PRAXY cardio- vascular study, Pelletier et al. ( 2015 ) derived a gender score using a principal component analysis and a logistic regression model where sex served as the dependent variable for the calculation of a propensity score.
In order to make the concept applicable to the practice of health care organisations, a self-assessment tool for hospitals and large health care organisations was developed [ 11 ]. The questionnaire comprises 9 standards, 22 sub-standards and 160 items (see Table 1 ). It is intended to be completed by a one-off multidisciplinary panel of individuals in charge of quality in the broadest sense (Quality and safety offi- cer but also nurse or medical head of department, operational or logistics manager, director of human resources, for example) inside the organisation that performs the self-assessment. Is the hospital site avail- able in several languages? Does public transport clearly indicate the destinations and stops to get there? Is there a clear guiding system within it? Are specialized and trained interpreters available? When referring to other providers, are patients helped to schedule appointments and is useful information transmitted? These are all items that lead to an “or- ganisational diagnostic ”, highlighting strengths and weaknesses of the organisation in terms of organisa- tional health literacy. By raising awareness at manage- ment level on this usually sparsely invested area of quality of care, and by helping to identify preferred action track, the V-HLO can constitute a milestone for an organisation to become health literate [ 12 ]. Moreover, this one-off process is relatively “light” to achieve (a few hours for each participant of the panel), and thus complementary to more demanding external recurrent accreditation or participatory ac- tions [ 13 ]. In a feasibility study in Austria, 9 hospitals adjudged the tool to be understandable, relevant and usable [ 14 ].
Our second objective is to specify an econometric model that beats the benchmark of relative utility, and to restore the power of microeco- nomic theory, by taking a life cycle's view of job's choice and by giving a new ordinal interpretation of happiness and satisfaction judgments. We achieve these two tasks in the paper. Specically, we argue that the job satisfaction reported in questionnaires is always conditional on the individual's having previously chosen and experienced that job. It is the mere judgment that the respondent would now repeat his past choice if he had to choose again. We view reported job satisfaction not as a measure of felt utility, but as a potential choice conditional on past ex- periences which may be simply called a posterior choice of own job. The latter choice is conditional on available information at the time of the survey including the \surprises" which occurred since the time of the choice. Moreover, we maintain that communication in the form of re- porting satisfaction or dissatisfaction in a questionnaire is fundamentally an act, which reveals an ordinal preference exactly like the purchase of an item would. The reason is that, if you wish to make yourself under- stood by other persons with whom you communicate but who cannot feel physically what you feel, you must convey messages that have an ordinal value because only the latter will mean the same to all. The life cycle model which we derive from this new interpretation in the paper is con- sistent with the earlier ndings of Duncan and Easterlin but also makes new stark predictions, conrmed by the data. It readily explains why so many persons usually report themselves as happy or satised, why they are typically more satised with their job than with their pay or with the government; why the frequency of those reporting job satisfaction increases (is U -shaped) with age; why job satisfaction negatively cor-
This paper reports on the use of a Web 2.0 solution by sixteen 14/15 year-old pupils in a formal learning context. The gathered data provides a first appreciation of how the participants saw the action of tagging resources as affecting five dimensions of their learning experience: satisfaction, judgment of learning, effect on recall, effect on understanding and sense of personalization of the learning sequence. Based on these self-reported judgments, a discussion is opened on the mere decision to divert highly complex Web 2.0 tools into “ordinary” learning tools. The study also raises side questions about how pupils give an account of their learning experience and how they balance, or not, content and process aspects is such a description.
The paper applies the collective model to the analysis of intra-household inequality using self- reported income scales. Starting from a collective model including household production, our key assumption is that the income level that household members report corresponds to their true income sharing. Using Russian data (Rounds V to VIII of the Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey), we apply the results for couples who report the same level of income to identify the sharing rule for the whole sample. This method allows us to obtain not only the derivatives, but also the sharing rule itself. From simulations for an average couple with one child living in the Urals, we find that a full income share of 45% is allocated to the wife.