Knowledge tests were offered to all secondaryschoolstudents (N = 511) on 3 different moments (pre-post-retention).
(1) Kay, R. H. & Knaack, L. (2008). A formative analysis of individual differences in the effectiveness of learning objects in secondaryschool. Computers & Education, 51, 1304–1320.
1,200 questionnaires have been collected in general schools; 600 in vocational schools. After a first analysis, several questionnaires were discarded according to the poor quality of answers (students ticking the boxes on the same side of the scale or writing inappropriate comments …). The 1,061 remaining questionnaires in the general schools represented 28% of their overall population. In the vocational schools, only 98 questionnaires were selected (10% of the overall population). We decided to meet 30 additional students proposing them verbal assistance to get a better rate of answers. Finally, the database comprised answers from 1189 students. Data were processed using the 2006 Statistica software. The X² test was used to determine the influence of the variables. We also used the test of comparison of two proportions to analyse of the difference between subgroups. The limit of .05 for significance has been chosen.
Participants are from the New Approaches New Solutions (NANS) longitudinal data set (2003– 2008). A stratified random sampling strategy was designed to select schools representative of all schools in disadvantaged areas of Quebec in terms of geographical location and size. The initial sample for this study comprises 6126 students from 57 low SES French-language secondary schools across the province of Quebec (Canada). Most participants (n=5055) were followed from grades 7 to 11 which correspond to the first and last year of secondaryschool in Quebec. A subset (n=1071) was followed from eighth grade. Consent was obtained for 77% of the eligible participants. The NANS sample is mostly Caucasian (91.3%) and approximately represented by gender (54.4% females). For the present study, the sample included all students aged 15 or 16 with available data in grade 10, as well as available data at baseline, in either grade 7 or 8. (n=3880). Follow-up data in grade 11 from these participants were also used as part of study design. A total of 2161 participants (55.7%) were available at follow-up in grade 11. Missing data on background variables collected at grades 7-8 ranged from 0% to 22.5%. Written informed consent was obtained with signatures from all parents and participants. All self-reported
Methods Data sources
The study was approved by the Institute of Statistics of Quebec ’s Ethics Committee. Four databases were used for the present study. The ﬁrst database was the Quebec Health Survey of High SchoolStudents (QHSHSS) 2010–11 survey (26) , which provided data on students. It is a representative survey conducted by the Quebec Institute of Statistics (Institut de la statistique du Québec; ISQ) at the request of the Ministry of Health and Social Services (Ministère de la Santé et des Services Sociaux). It focuses on physical health and lifestyle habits, as well as on mental and psychosocial health. The target population consists of secondary-schoolstudents in public and private schools, both Francophone and Anglophone. The sampling of the participating schools was random, based on their health region and grade level, in proportion to their size, from all schools with students at each given grade level. Also, the sample was selected to be representative of the province as well as of each of the sixteen Quebec health regions participating in the self-administered computerized survey (two additional regions, Nunavik and Terres-Cries-de-la- Baie-James, were not included in this survey), with an additional sample being collected for eight of the selected health regions. Classes were then selected in each school for a given grade level based on a list for a standard social science course, resulting in a selection of multiple classes from the same school, in some instances. The sample consisted of 63 196 Quebec secondary-schoolstudents. The survey was administered in both French and English between November 2010 and May 2011 by more than forty ISQ interviewers in teams of two in 470 schools and 2651 classes. The participation of the students was on a voluntary basis. Con ﬁdentiality was ensured by the ISQ and data access was provided according to the ISQ con- ﬁdentiality policy. Information on health (e.g. self-rated health, self-reported weight), lifestyle habits (e.g. physical activity, smoking, alcohol and drug use, sexual behaviour) and sociodemographics was collected for the participating students (27) . A total of 32 000 (50·7 %) students provided responses regarding their lifestyle habits.
The robots' architecture was initially based on LEGO bricks with sensors controlled by a LEGO MINDSTORMS® programmable unit (Figure 1). When considering kids and school capabilites, others technologies have been introduced such as Arduino® (or equivalent) boards and 3D printed elements (Figure 2). Each robot is named by its creators. The purpose of the contest is to challenge team composed of full classes or few students from primary schools (aged from 10 to 11), middle schools (“collège”, aged from 11 to 15) and high schools (“lycée”, aged from 16 to 18) to remote handling problematics. Junior high school team of students can be held within their established technological school programmes (in 7th, 8th and 9th grades or within interdisciplinary educational programme projects). Secondaryschoolstudents can integrate the competition to their first and final year of high school technological programmes (in science, engineering or technology). In 2019, ITER Robots becomes part of the regular syllabus for primary schoolstudents as a technology lesson.
1.2.3 Types of Speaking
Since speaking is a means of communication used to interact with others. Brown (2004) suggested five basic types of the speaking skill. To begin with in imitative speaking, students repeat a word or perhaps a sentence of others. This imitative contains different components of language, such as phonetics, lexical and grammatical properties. The second type is intensive speaking, this type is the production of short chunks of oral language is designed to show competence in a narrow band of grammatical, phrasal, or phonological relationship such as intonation, stress and rhythm. The speaker must be conscious of semantic properties in order to be able to respond correctly. Thirdly, responsive speaking which involves brief interaction and test comprehension. Students reply when the teacher asks them, but they respond with a very short conversation, such as standard greetings and small talk, simple requests and comments, and so on. Then, interactive speaking is different from responsive speaking in the length and complexity of the interaction, which sometimes includes multiple exchanges and/or multiple participants. Finally, extensive speaking involves speeches, oral presentations and storytelling. In this case, the speaker has a chance to speak without interruption from the listener; where the listener replies just through nonverbal responses.
The Sourdun Internat d’Excellence (boarding school of excellence) was opened in September 2009. It concentrates significant resources on lower and upper secondary pupils from poorer backgrounds and at the median of the French attainment distribution. In 2009 and 2010, the boarding school received more applications than it had places. Places were randomly allocated to the eligible pupils, leading to the formation of two perfectly comparable groups, the group attending the boarding school and a control group. This report presents the results of tracking the school careers of these pupils, now that they have all reached baccalauréat age. 47% of the pupils in the control group obtained the general baccalauréat, whereas this figure was 68% for the pupils at Sourdun. This increase of 21 percentage points is due partly to a drop in the number of pupils leaving without a qualification (this effect is observed mainly among the girls) and partly to the substitution of the technical baccalauréat with the general baccalauréat (this effect is observed mainly among the boys). The results show that it is possible to radically transform the school careers of pupils from poorer backgrounds, undermining the notion that education policy is powerless to overcome inequality. But by investing significant resources in pupils with average attainment levels, Sourdun does not answer the question of what to do for pupils with the lowest attainment levels.
and Professor Thierry Karsenti of the Université
de Montréal, holder of the Canada Research Chair
on Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) in Education. At this meeting, the first of many, it was agreed to set up a research project that responded to both the scientific objectives of the Canada Research Chair on ICT and the constant concern of the Eastern Townships School Board to find ways to maximize the academic success of students throughout the region. After a number of discussions with the school board administration and school principals, it was decided to launch a study with the aim of gaining a better understan- ding of the benefits and challenges of using laptops in primary and secondary schools in the Eastern Townships School Board. This school district won the distinction of being the first in Canada to wi- dely distribute laptops to its students. In the last eight years, the board has handed out around 5,600 laptops, mostly to students in grades 3 to 11. It is also noteworthy that all the teachers, technicians, education support staff and students with learning problems were provided with laptops. This study was therefore the product of an exemplary collabo- ration between a group of primary and secondary schools and the university research community. The Eastern Townships School Board appeared to provide a highly favourable setting for a study on the benefits and challenges of using laptops in pri- mary and secondaryschool. In fact, when the 5,600 laptops were distributed to the great majority of the students, the school board advanced from 66th po- sition in the province (out of 70 school boards) in 2003 to 23rd in 2010, a remarkable improvement. It was therefore particularly relevant to seek a deeper
When asked how AI works, the majority of students, 53.9% of them, reported that they didn’t know or were unsure. Those who gave responses primarily described the interaction design of voice agent technologies. One student wrote, “Siri, Hey Google, and Alexa are all devices you can talk and interact with. For example if I were to say ‘Alexa, put on Anne-Marie,’ she would start to play music by Ann-Marie.” Another student wrote, “if you say a name the AI will turn on, if you ask a question it will turn on and answer.” In fact, many students described question-asking as inherent to AI, writing, “it helps people answer questions and it helps suggest things to look up” or “they all help you with questions you have”, and “You can ask it a question and it will search [for] an answer for you.” A few students acknowledged that AI is programmed and created by humans, writing, “It is programmed by humans to make decisions about how to do its job based on its situation” or “Someone programs the software and it makes life easier”. Additionally, two students referenced internet connectedness, stating “this AI builds its own code to provide an answer from the internet” or “you would start a conversation with it then it would search the internet with a [sic] answer.” One student also showed some understanding of sensors and rules- based AI, writing, “AI is a robot using sensors in feel, sight, and sound to produce answers and “if statements.”
Extensive evidence suggests that parental separation during childhood correlates with negative outcomes in offspring. However, the importance of parental separation relative to the presence of a stepparent remains poorly documented. Involving a sample of 639 French university students, we investigated the link between parental separation and academic performance, as measured by the level of success demonstrated at high school final exam (Baccalauréat). We showed that students who experienced parental separation scored significantly lower at this exam. More precisely, absence of the father during the year of preparation for the Baccalauréat was negatively associated with exam score, particularly when the students lived with their single mother. The presence of a stepfather could compensate partly for the absence of the biological father and lead to an intermediate score. The effects were independent of the child’s sex. These results are discussed in the context of evolutionary theories of parental investment.
Tests were taken online in the computer lab of students’ schools. Boarders took them with their classmates. To ensure that treatment and control students were taking the test in somewhat comparable conditions, we randomly selected three classmates to take the test with every student not enrolled in the boarding school. We also took extensive steps to prevent cheating: we sent research assistants to the boarding school to serve as test proctors; the programming of the test ensured questions did not appear in the same order on neighboring computers, so that neighboring students would not answer the same question at the same time; students could only bring a pen and a sheet of paper to the test room. Students not enrolled in the boarding school were scattered among 169 schools. Most of them were in the local school district of Creteil, but some of them were in other areas of France. Due to budget constraints, we could not send research assistants to monitor the tests in each of these 169 schools. This is problematic as this implies that the level of oversight on the exam might be different in the treatment and in the control group. To mitigate this problem, the Department of Education wrote to the principals of all of these schools to require that our test be monitored by someone from the school. Because the tests were taken online, we can check whether students who took the test out of the boarding school spent more time on the test than was allowed. We do not find evidence of this (see Table 12 in the Appendix). 12
What software systems are used in the teaching and learning of geometry: for example, Cabri, Geometers Sketchpad, Geogebra.
Colleagues were also asked whether they felt that currently, students having little experience of geometry when they enter university, that this lack of geometrical experience is detrimental to their progress at university.
Our work is the first international comparison of teachers' conceptions on Evolution / Creation, using several questions on precise and large samples to identify the importance of creationist ideas in the context of their national, religious, economic, cultural and political backgrounds. This research concerns 19 countries: 13 in Europe, 5 in Africa and one in Middle East: 7050 teachers filled out a questionnaire including several questions on Evolution vs. Creation. Half of them are in-service teachers, the other being at the last year of University before teaching. They are teaching in Primary Schools as well as in Secondary Schools (Biology, or Language). The percentages of teachers' radical creationist conceptions differ more from one country to another (from 2% to 90%) than among religions inside each country. There are some, but not so important, differences between Biology teachers and other teachers. The teachers' conceptions also differ with the level of teacher training: more they are instructed (in any matter), more they are evolutionist.
IRIT, UMR CNRS 5505, Paul Sabatier University, I I 8 Route de Narbonne, 31062 Toulouse Cedex 9, France
ASE/, Jean Lagarde center, 1 Avenue Tolosane, 31520 Ramonville-Saint-Agne, France
Background: The mathematical input in text editors by disabled students is demanding both at the functional level (motor disorder) and at the cognitive level (attention, visual-spatial, memory) and generates fatigability little productive and effective gain. To reduce these demands, HandiMathKey, a mathematical keyboard software was designed by applying a usercentered method. The aim of paper is to report how different disabled students have appropriated HandiMathKey in a middle school by an observation carried out by a multidisciplinary team. The hypothesis is that HandiMathKey can be learned and used by all students with disabilities.
Two studies tested this role by first looking at the relationship between BSM through pupils’ explanations of school success and failure in terms of efforts and their beliefs about meritocracy in society at large (Study 1) and then by looking at the conditions under which the endorsement of BSM is increased among low status students (Study 2). Although low status pupils connect their explanations of school success (and failures) in terms of efforts to the belief that people get what they deserve in society, this connection is weaker for high status pupils. We believe that, unlike low status students for whom having a diploma is particularly important to climb the ladder, for high status students, having a diploma matters less for determining their future status. This issue is well exemplified by a participant’s statement in a research interview ( Brinbaum et al., 2007 , p. 109): “Someone with no diploma today still has less chance to get better along than someone else, in particular when one is not coming from a favorable background, of course. Since if ‘you are born with a silver spoon in the mouth,’ you should go well because you have parents who introduce you everywhere, because you have relations and money.” We suspect that BSM may fulfill a palliative function for low status students to deal with their uncertain future position in the social hierarchy. Moreover, Study 2 shows that, contrary to high status students, for low status university students, reminding them of the harsh selection process operating at university leads them to paradoxically endorse BSM even more. Indeed, this particularly severe selection renders uncertain their probability of achieving upward mobility and emphasizes how dependent they are on the school system. Consequently, selection increased low SES students’ reliance on BSM. Thus, taken together, the results of the two present studies document in a complementary way how BSM may serve a justifying function for low status students and help them maintaining the perception of the system as being fair and as a system in which success is possible for everybody.
was asked to inquire students point of view on schools nowadays and whether it makes it easy for the students to adhere to the rules that their schools impose. Whereas, the eleventh question and the twelfth questions (do you think respect exists between teachers and students nowadays?) and (do you think are there many disputes between students and teachers nowadays?) aim at answering if respect is still the dominant aspect that governs the relationship between teachers and their learners, and investigating if it turns out to be the opposite nowadays, and whether the unfriendliness and hostility is taking place in our schools today. Furthermore, the questions thirteen and fourteen (do you think the reason for a student misbehaving is due to bad parental education?) and (do you think that parents’ involvement is necessary to prevent disruptive behavior among students?), these questions were asked to inquire whether our respondents put big part of the responsibility on the parents’ shoulders in a sense that they did not raise and supervise their children adequately to prevent them from behaving in such ill manners. However, the questions number fifteen and sixteen (do you think schools nowadays give importance to discipline?) and (do you think students are aware of their schools’ rules?) targets at finding out if the concept discipline is truly given an evident position in our schools, and if it is crucial to highlight the importance of discipline among students in a sufficient degree, aside from measuring learners’ consciousness about their school basics and principles. Whereas the seventeenth and eighteenth questions (what should teachers do about disruptive students?) and (if the students keep their disruptive behavior, what should school administration do about them?) the objective that lies on these questions’ is seeking college students’ judgment on the punitive measures that the teachers and the schools departments need to adopt in order to reduce this phenomenon among schools, and what they should agree on as approaches and methods to keep authority and control over the students. Finally, the last question (what do you suggest as a solution to get rid of disruptive behavior among students?) was asked to figure out students’ points of view on how to avoid the negative impact of the punctuality issues among our schools, and to find out their own solutions to help enhance the Algerian school conditions.
longitudinal analyses of cross-lagged links to more clearly disentangle the directionality of association between the parent-child relationship and peer victimization experiences.
Another limitation concerns the generalizability of the data, both in terms of the covered developmental periods and in terms of sample characteristics. In regard to age range, the fact that consistent measures of self-reported peer victimization were not available prior to grade 4 made it impossible to gauge whether youth in the elevated trajectory groups were indeed bullied throughout primary school. To our knowledge, no study as yet has tracked children’s course of peer victimization throughout the entire primary school period using growth mixture models. Nevertheless, there is evidence that, for some unfortunate children, patterns of persistent victimization may already be established during the preschool period when they first come into contact with peers (Barker et al., 2008). Finally, in regard to sample characteristics, generalization could be limited given that data were based on a twin sample. However, empirical evidence suggests that twins do not differ from singletons in terms of their level of peer victimization, their level of aggression and internalizing symptoms during childhood, or their relationship with parents (Bekkhus et al., 2014; Boivin et al., 2013; Lytton &
These limitations of the “one laptop per child” in- novation may be added to those of the broader area of the pedagogical integration of ICT in education. In this respect, we note that, despite the importance of ICT for society, professional life, and education, the pedagogical use of ICT at school remains an immense challenge throughout the Western world. Many studies have shown that teachers are still failing to take full advantage of ICT in their tea- ching practice (see Balanskat et al., 2006; Becta, 2006; Hutchison & Reinking, 2011; OCDE, 2008; Ramboll Management, 2006). This conclusion has been reached in studies conducted in both North America and Europe. Consequently, even though all education actors—including teachers, princi- pals, and commissioners—talk positively about the educational potential of ITC, their enthusiasm ap- pears to be based largely on intuitive or ideological arguments (Livingstone, 2012) rather than actual experience or know-how.
magnitude manipulations to a higher degree. Second, according to the proportion-judgement account, a leftward (reflecting subtraction) or rightward shift (reflecting addition) starting from a reference point might be necessary to locate the number correctly upon the line (cf. Cohen and Sarnecka, 2014). A closer descriptive look at the results of the contour analysis (Figure 3) and mean PAEs at the quartiles supports this assumption: starting from the mid-point, a leftward shift (from mid-point to the first quartile reflecting subtraction) resulted in higher estimation errors than a shift to the right (from mid-point to the third quartile reflecting addition). Third, further evidence may be derived from neuro-functional level: Berteletti and colleagues (2015) demonstrated that activation of brain areas associated with number magnitude processing (as required in subtraction) were correlated with NLE performance. Furthermore, Ischebeck et al. (2006) provided neuro-functional evidence that a training of subtraction problems in young adults encouraged the application of efficient procedural solution strategies. This result suggests that children with high subtraction skills are more likely to apply sufficient solution strategies (i.e., proportion-judgement) at least in bounded NLE. An explanation for significant associations between bounded NLE and multiplication as well as division occurring not before grade 6 and 7, respectively, might be that, according to German math curricula, multiplication and division are increasingly used with the introduction of fractions in grade 6 (e.g., Bildungsplan Sekundarstufe I, Ministerium für Kultus, Jugend und Sport, Baden Württemberg, 2016). Although all four basic arithmetic operations have already been acquired in primary school (i.e., before grade 5; Huber, Moeller, & Nuerk, 2012), the increasing significance of multiplication and division (i.e., fractions) from grade 6 onwards might enable children to apply proportion-judgement strategies more proficiently, leading to better performance in bounded NLE. Visual inspection of contours on individual levels confirmed the increasing use of reference points with age. This in turn can influence NLE 1