Patients and controls were personally interviewed with the Schedules for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychia- try (SCAN), a semi-structured psychiatric question- naire  . Concerning the patients, information required to reach diagnosis was also obtained from all the clinical and hospital records available. Final diag- nosis was made according to the DSM-IV  and ICD-10  criteria. Current remission was consid- ered as total, if no or few significant symptoms per- sisted, as defined in the “Quality of remissions between episodes” item of the SCAN. The controls were also interviewed with the SCAN for the presence of main symptoms of major psychiatric diagnoses or alcohol/ substance abuse or dependence at the time of examina- tion or at any time during lifetime. All the healthy individuals included in the study were free of any history of psychiatric symptoms, present or past, and were not on any medication. The instruments used to assess self-esteem and social adjustment of all the sub- jects were the Rosenbergself-esteemscale (SES) 
used for the analysis. Ninety-seven participants reported one or more traumatic events: 1 event (n = 27),
2 events (n = 28), 3 events (n = 14), 4 to 8 events (n = 28).
The RosenbergSelf-EsteemScale (RSE; Rosenberg, 1965; French version by Valllière and Vallerand, 1990), a self-report measure comprised of 10 statements (i.e., “Sometimes I feel useless”), was administered. Participants indicated the intensity of their agreement to each statement on a 4-point Likert scale ranging from 1 “absolutely in disagreement” to 4 “absolutely in agreement.” Cronbach’s alpha for the scale was 0.91, indicating a good internal consistency. Self-esteem was examined to explore the individual’s perceived level of self-worth after the occurrence of traumatic events. Although self-esteem is often described as a global feeling of self-worth, research shows that traumatic life events can also have a direct impact on self-attributions (Turner and Butler, 2003). In accordance with methodological suggestions indicating that mediational analysis should emphasize the temporal quality of variables (Kraemer et al, 2005), the current study evaluates self-esteem as a concept that evolves after the experience of traumatic events.
Nous n'avons pas pu identifier les raisons des discordances entre les résultats (qui n'étaient pas imputables au profil de période, aux différences de méthodologie ou aux caractéristiques de la population). L’estime de soi globale a été largement utilisée dans toutes les études et principalement évaluée à l’aide de l’échelle RosenbergSelf-esteemScale. Cependant, la variable d'estime de soi utilisée dans l'analyse variait d'une étude à l'autre. Comparer les résultats, en particulier la force de l'association, était donc difficile. En ce qui concerne le risque de biais, nous avons souligné l’absence de calcul de la taille de l’échantillon pour presque toutes les études. Ceci nous a empêché de distinguer une association non présente d’un manque de puissance statistique. En outre, de nombreuses études étaient basées sur une analyse corrélationnelle (correspondant à des études plus anciennes ou à l’estime de soi en tant qu’objectif secondaire de l’étude). Enfin, un biais de confusion pourrait survenir et limiter la validité de ces résultats en raison d'un ajustement insuffisant, notamment lorsque le sexe n'était pas pris en compte. La plupart des études ont été menées auprès d'étudiants américains, alors que le contexte environnemental et le contexte social sont étroitement liés à l'estime de soi et aux comportements. Le nombre limité de types de populations étudiées peut diminuer la généralisation des résultats. À la vue de ces limites, j’ai dégagé quelques recommandations : poursuivre les recherches pour approfondir les connaissances sur les comportements ayant reçu moins d’attention (tabac, consommation de drogues, nutrition) ou apporter des preuves plus solides de la causalité pour d’autres comportements (alcool, comportement sexuel, exercice, etc.). Ces recherches doivent être axées sur les associations d'estime de soi et de comportement en tant qu'objectif principal et suivre les recommandations internationales sur les études d'observation (recommandations STROBE 29 par exemple). Plus particulièrement, la limitation des biais et une description plus complète des résultats des études (i.e. estimation des effets et intervalle de confiance) devraient être des éléments centraux des futures études dans ce domaine. Si de telles études sont mises en œuvre, une méta-analyse formelle fournissant des estimations groupées deviendrait réalisable et revêtirait une importance capitale pour soutenir la recherche interventionnelle.
. This leaves the disadvantaged social classes generally (self-)excluded from higher education (and particularly the most prestigious and risky courses).
It seems reasonable to suggest, therefore, that students from disadvantaged backgrounds are more reluctant to incur debt than students from privileged backgrounds who often do not need to borrow and who enjoy domestic security. Thus, the former will take on debt only in the case of very high self-assessment of their talent, while the latter will be much more relaxed about being in debt. This implies that provision of access to credit in order to finance studies is not sufficient to enable access to university courses: “The rights given by law are only the explicit, guaranteed and legitimate form of this set of appropriate opportunities, of monopolised possibles, by which the current power struggles launch themselves into the future, controlling for their part the current talents. [Thus the dispossessed classes] tend to apportion their investment in educa- tion in functions of guaranteed profits, thereby anticipating the systemic risks involved” 20
hospitalier universitaire de Sherbrooke (Sherbrooke, Quebec). The basis for developing the FC-CPSES
The FC-CPSES resulted from an adaptation of the Chronic Disease Self-Efficacy Scale (29), which is a 33-item self-administered ques- tionnaire that measures self-efficacy to perform self-management behaviours, manage disease in general and achieve outcomes (http:// patienteducation.stanford.edu/research/secd32.html). Patients are asked how confident they are in performing certain activities at the present time. Each item is measured using a numerical scale ranging from 1 (not at all confident) to 10 (totally confident). The total score of the Chronic Disease Self-Efficacy Scale can be obtained by calculat- ing the mean of the 33 items and ranges from 1 to 10. Higher scores indicate higher self-efficacy. Ten subscale scores can also be calculated using the same method: exercise regularly (items 1 to 3); get informa- tion about disease (item 4); obtain help from community, family or friends (items 5 to 8); communicate with physician (items 9 to 11);
quasi-streamwise streaks; the amplification of sinuous modes supported by the streaks; and the streak breakdown supporting the regeneration of the vortices. The lift-up is associated with the redistribution of streamwise momentum by counter-rotating, spanwise periodic, quasi-streamwise vortices immersed in a basic shear flow. This redistribution leads to the transient amplification of high-velocity and low-velocity streamwise streaks (Moffatt 1967 ; Ellingsen & Palm 1975 ; Landahl 1980 , 1990 ; Schmid & Henningson 2001 ). When the streaks reach sufficiently large amplitudes they become unstable to secondary perturbations via an inflectional, typically sinuous, instability (Waleffe 1995 ; Reddy et al. 1998 ). As this secondary instability is subcritical, sinuous modes can also develop on top of streaks of amplitude smaller than the critical one (Schoppa & Hussain 2002 ; Cossu et al. 2011 ). The breakdown of streamwise streaks finally leads to the regeneration of streamwise vorticity via nonlinear mechanisms. For the process to be self-sustained, the Reynolds number and the spanwise length of the box need to be large enough to allow for sufficient energy amplification by the lift-up effect and the streamwise length needs to be large enough to allow the secondary instability to be sufficiently amplified.
However, most of the tremendous demonstrations reported here have been obtained with individually fabri- cated NEMS based on external transducers (i.e. off-chip) for which actuation and read-out means typically exceed the size of the device itself. These barriers currently limit their widespread use as cheap portable sensing tools. In order to exploit the full potential of NEMS and to start being a viable alternative to their microscale counterparts (i.e. MEMS), the fully integrated transduction (i.e. on-chip) combined with large-scale integration are the ultimate goals to achieve. So far, minimal effort has been focused on the development of nanoresonators with on-chip transducers at the wafer-scale. As the size of the mechanical element is scaled downward so is its motional range and developing suitable transduc- tion techniques of sub-nanometer displacements at high frequencies remains an important technological challenge [ 13 ]. Relevant results in that sense have been obtained mostly at the chip level either by carrying over traditional transduction schemes at the nano-scale from the MEMS domain [ 14 – 16 ] or by delivering brand new schemes exclu- sively adapted to the NEMS realm [ 17 ]. Recent efforts have been made to demonstrate full-wafer fabricated NEMS with integrated transduction means [ 18 , 19 ] but these are rather infrequent, which demonstrates how critical the gap between chip and wafer is.
•Baltes, P. B., & Baltes, M. M. (1990). Successful aging: Perspectives from the behavioral sciences. New York, NY : Cambridge University Press.
•Bouazzaoui, B., Isingrini, M., Fay, S., Angel, L., Vanneste, S., Clarys, D., & Taconnat, L. (2010). Aging and self-reported internal and external memory strategy uses: The role of executive functioning. Acta Psychologica, 135, 59-66 • Kliegel, M., & Zimprich, D. (2005). Predictors of cognitive complaints in older adults : A mixture regression approach. European Journal of Aging, 2(1), 13-23. • Marcotte, T. D., & Grant, I. (2010). Neuropsychology of everyday functioning. New York, NY: The Guilford Press.
Therefore, why do students psychological disengage in an academic context when it does not always serve to protect self-esteem? In mid- rather than early-adoles- cence, it seems to be to protect their self-esteem related to peer-approval domains (social acceptance self-esteem and close friendship self-esteem). Indeed, mid-ado- lescents who discount their academic grades find self-esteem in their relationships with peers. Because only mid-adolescents seem to find protective resources in peers’ approval, at least two explanations are conceivable. First, as suggested earlier, the period of early-adolescence with the transition to secondary school and its numer- ous changes in relationships is a period that may make it more difficult to receive social support from peers. Second, such a result may refer to a peer-group norm (e.g., Davis 2003 ; Ogbu 1997 ) which would become gradually salient during sec- ondary school years. Thus, in mid-adolescence, opposing values of school through discounting of grades could be perceived as valued by peers and give mid-adoles- cents social recognition. Consistent with Sweeting et al.’s ( 2011 ) results, mid-ado- lescents with academic difficulties seek popularity. However, this benefit incurred by discounting among mid-adolescents is met with significant costs. Indeed, discount- ing predicts devaluing; in turn, in mid-adolescence, devaluing is associated with decreased self-esteem (global self-esteem, social acceptance self-esteem and behav- ioral conduct self-esteem). Thus, giving up on an important domain of society such as school leads to a loss of personal worth in the school attainment domains as well as a loss of social acceptance from peers. The paradoxical finding on disengage- ment and social acceptance self-esteem is particularly interesting because it shows that mid-adolescents seem to perceive discounting of grades as acceptable or even rewarding with peers, whereas they seem to perceive devaluing school as leading to reject from peers.
From those definitions, we concluded with the diagnosis of (Debora Bell, Sharon L. Foster, Eric J., 2006) Understanding gender identity disorder first requires an explanation of what is meant by gender identity. As a psychological construct, gender identity has been conceptualized with respect to both cognitive and affective parameters. For this came the importance of this study, where our interests arises to the teenage girls, or the young person whose age falls within the range from 13–19. They are called teenagers because their age number ends with "teen" where (Al-Sahab B, Ardern CI, Hamadeh MJ, Tamim H, 2010) indict that the Girls usually complete puberty by ages 15–17, while boys usually complete puberty by ages 16–17 (Guillette EA &al, 2006) from that we referred to (Panteleimon Ekkekakis, 2013) that, Fox and Corbin (1989) developed the Physical Self-perception Profile (PSPP), which assesses four subdomains of physical self-concept (sport competence, attractive body, physical strength, and physical conditioning) to examined Markus Gerber, 2005) in general that, the Discover body in the lesson of physical education and sport favorite they develop a positive physical self-perception profile. In addition, self- perception components remain central to theories and models of sport and exercise behavior. (Kenneth R. Fox Charles B.Corbin, 1989). From this introduction our intervention interest in the context of the neglect of this aspect of personal teenage girl is contributing to the spread of this phenomenon, especially in mixed of the lesson physical education, which develop Physical self-perception profile where we put the most frequent questions why they do so and what can be done to prevent such activities (Patrick B. Johnson, Micheline S. Malow-Iroff, 2008).
Eshelby’s solution-based homogenization procedures are often formulated from both Hill’s averages relations, equating the set average achieved over the mechanical strains (respectively stresses) of every inclusion constitut- ing the effective medium to the corresponding macro- scopic quantity (see relations (3) and (4) below). One can show that, when both of them are satisﬁed, the model is self-consistent, i.e., leads to the same macroscopic effective properties regardless of the equation used. Benveniste (1987) and several authors shown evidence that both Hill’s average relation could simultaneously be fulﬁlled by the Mori-Tanaka and self-consistent models, but at the cost of some restrictions over the materials microstructure: (i) either the inclusions must have the same Base Volume (BVs), i.e., shape and alignment of the elementary single heterogeneous inclusions accounted for achieving the scale-transition process should be strictly identical, (ii) or the material and inclusions must be isotropic, (iii) or only single or two-phase materials can be reliably modeled. This includes randomly oriented spheroidal particles, pen- ny-shaped particles randomly oriented in a layout, aligned ﬁbers in a composite ply, isotropic aggregates... Analytic expressions of the thermo-elastic macroscopic properties of the effective medium have been elegantly determined for these cases in a series of paper from Benveniste, Dvo- rak, and Chen (1991, 1992) . Some applications also can be found in Pham (2000) or Qiu and Weng (1991) .
Rather than focusing on behavioural monitoring per se, we are primarily concerned with investigating the process of health-related behavioural change in order to better understand how we can design technologies to support it. A cardiac rehabilitation programme (CRP) offers a relatively controlled context in which to study behavioural change. Occurring over a finite period of weeks, a CRP offers an incentive and focus that may not necessarily exist in ‘everyday life’. By investigating this domain we sought to gain an understanding of the potential for technological support within a population with a vested interest in making changes. In particular, we focused on aspects of behavioural change outside of the clinical environment and the interplay between the CRP and everyday life. In some respects any distinction between clinical and everyday change is artificial, as “most of the dynamics of behaviour change take place in patients’ private and work settings” . Our main findings relate to distinctions between implicit and conscious change, tensions between cardiac rehabilitation and everyday life, the importance of self- awareness and self-determination, and an overall reluctance towards unnecessary self-monitoring. This work contributes to the existing body of research within HCI on everyday behavioural change applications and self-monitoring technologies by providing insight into the existing practices of a population who are yet to benefit from recent technological innovations. The findings of this study highlights potential barriers to adoption, but also identifies design strategies that we suggest could reorient self-
23 Japon : L’European Heart Failure Self-Care Behaviour Scale-12 a été traduite en japonais et évaluée selon les critères de fiabilité et de validité auprès d’un échantillon de 116 patients. L’instrument de mesure a été traduit et adapté à cette population en suivant les standards proposés par David & Geoffrey (2003) et Fayers & Machin (2007) : la traduction, la rétro-traduction, l’évaluation de la compréhension des patients par un prétest et l’évaluation de la validité de contenu de la version traduite effectuée par un comité d’experts réuni en groupe de discussion. Ce comité comprenait un cardiologue et trois infirmières ayant des connaissances et de l’expérience en insuffisance cardiaque. Un test-retest a été fait à un intervalle de deux semaines pour vérifier la fidélité de l’outil selon le critère de la stabilité temporelle. Le coefficient de corrélation intraclasse était de 0,69. Pour les éléments individuels de l’outil, le coefficient Kappa était de 0,33-0,87. La cohérence interne a été évaluée par le coefficient alpha de Cronbach qui était de 0,92. Pour ce qui est de la validité de construit, celle-ci a été mesurée en vérifiant la relation entre l’EHFScB et une sous-échelle, le Self-Care Agency Questionnaire (SCAQ), qui concerne l’habileté à réaliser les activités d’auto-soins pour les patients atteints d’une maladie chronique. Le coefficient de corrélation de Spearman était de -0,29 (p < 0,05), ce qui, pour les auteurs, a confirmé l’hypothèse de validité convergente. Ces derniers ont procédé également à l’analyse factorielle confirmatoire pour tester l’unidimensionnalité de l’échelle, unidimensionnalité qui n’a pas été confirmée avec certitude (Kato et al., 2008).
Self-assembly. 1 mL of a solution of the L ligand (at 6 × 10 −3 mol L −1 in THF) and 1 mL of a solution of Fe(oTs) 2 ·6H 2 0 (at 2 × 10 −3 mol L −1 in THF) were simultaneously
added to 4 mL of the native NP mixture under vigorous mixing. The precursor concentrations were adapted to obtain 0.2 eq. of L and 0.06 eq. of Fe per introduced Pt. The brown solution was agitated for 2 hours. Drops of the crude solution were deposited on specific substrates for each characterization (see below). The remaining solution was partially evaporated to a viscous liquid called ‘gel state’. Evaporation was stopped when an equivalent of 50% in mass of solvent remained in the system. A particular care to avoid evaporation has to be taken for characterization as the THF is particularly volatile. Further evaporation to dryness led to a dark-brown powder called ‘powder state’. The self- assembly experiments have been repeated several times and led to reproducible results. The systems presented here come from optimization of the experimental conditions, in the scope of a larger study where diﬀerent parameters have been tested (varying the equivalent numbers, the nature of the counter-ions, the order of addition of the building blocks, etc.).