Root system architecture

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archiDART: Plant Root System Architecture Analysis Using DART and RSML Files

archiDART: Plant Root System Architecture Analysis Using DART and RSML Files

The archigrow function will successively locate and read the lie and tps files created by DART, compute a growth rate matrix and plot the vectorization results at selected observation dates for each analysed root system. First, archigrow will check if all arguments have been written in the suitable mode. If res and rotation are specified, the function will check if the numeric values required by these arguments are positive. If is.null(numdate)=FALSE, the function will also automatically check if the numeric values in numdate are positive and sorted by increasing values. If an error occurs for one argument, the code stops and the corresponding error message will be returned by the function. Second, the function will use inputlie and inputtps to locate and read the raw lie and tps files created by DART. To run archigrow efficiently, DART files must have been saved with their appropriate extensions (.lie or .tps). If inputtps contains a single tps file, it will be used by archigrow for each lie file located in inputlie. If inputps contains more than one tps file, the number of tps files in inputtps must be equal to the number of lie files in inputlie and corresponding lie and tps files must have the same name. If an error occurs at this step, a message will be returned by the function. Third, archigrow will compute a growth rate matrix containing for each root constituting the vectorized root system its corresponding growth rate value at each observation date. Finally, archigrow will plot each vectorized root system located in inputlie at the observation dates specified by numdate. By default (when is.null(numdate)=TRUE), only the root system architecture at the last observation date will be plotted. If is.null(numdate)=FALSE, archigrow will plot only the root system architecture for the selected observation dates.
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Spreading the (soil water) wealth: insight into the complexity of root system architecture

Spreading the (soil water) wealth: insight into the complexity of root system architecture

To gain further insights into the mechanism driving bidirectional hydraulic distribution, Liu et al. (2021) set up an ambitious experiment combining measurements in 14 roots from five trees under three contrasted irrigation regimes over 2 years. The bidirectional characteristic was only evident in surface roots that were not connected to a vertical root (also called a sinker). Contrary to other hydraulic distribution mechanisms that occur when plant transpiration is very limited or null, bidirectional water flow was only detected during the day when the plants were transpiring. Sap flows in the upper part of the roots were always centripetal and proportional to the sap flow of the stem and to the transpiration of the whole plant. However, sap flow in lower roots exhibited centripetal and centrifugal patterns for low and high soil water content, respectively.
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Root foraging capacity depends on root system architecture and ontogeny in seedlings of three Andean Chenopodium species

Root foraging capacity depends on root system architecture and ontogeny in seedlings of three Andean Chenopodium species

249 Fitter 1991; Glimskär 2000; Paula et al. 2011; Roumet et al. 2006; this study), suggests a general ontogenetic shift 250 in the root topology of annual plant species, with lateral roots emerging in ever greater numbers (increasing

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Analysis and modeling of the root system architecture of winter wheat seedling

Analysis and modeling of the root system architecture of winter wheat seedling

L’archive ouverte pluridisciplinaire HAL, est destinée au dépôt et à la diffusion de documents scientifiques de niveau recherche, publiés ou non, émanant des établissements d’enseignemen[r]

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Influence of bio-intrusion barrier made of Calamagrostis canadansis and Kalmia angustifolia on root system architecture and growth of tree species established on mine covers

Influence of bio-intrusion barrier made of Calamagrostis canadansis and Kalmia angustifolia on root system architecture and growth of tree species established on mine covers

willows.. Seasonal amount , growth and depth distribution of fme roots in an irrigated and fertilized Salix vim.inalis L. Effects of pre-planting soaking on growth and survival of[r]

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Rhizobacterial volatiles influence root system architecture, biomass production and allocation of the model grass Brachypodium distachyon (L.) P. Beauv.

Rhizobacterial volatiles influence root system architecture, biomass production and allocation of the model grass Brachypodium distachyon (L.) P. Beauv.

 The growth promotion effects can be linked to modifications in shoot development and root architecture (length and branching)  Irrespective of the considered variables, Bacillus subtilis GB03 volatile compounds induced the most significant changes

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Exploring pearl millet root system and its outcome for drought tolerance

Exploring pearl millet root system and its outcome for drought tolerance

48 1.4 Discussion Here, we analyzed root system architecture at early stages of the pearl millet life cycle. We named the different roots following the current standards in terms of monocotyledonous root nomenclature (Hochholdinger et al., 2004). One striking feature of early pearl millet root development is the very rapid emergence and vertical growth of the primary root (7 cm day -1 in our experimental conditions) compared to other cereals (3 cm day -1 for maize and wheat ; Muller et al., 1998; Pahlavanian and Silk, 1988; Pritchard et al., 1987). In contrast, root branching started relatively late after seedling germination (6 DAG). The X-ray CT experiment confirmed this global dynamics of early root system formation. Traditionally, pearl millet is sown at the very start of the rainy season. As it was domesticated in Sahel (Oumar et al., 2008) and is mostly grown in areas characterized by light soils with a low carbon content and water retention capacity, we hypothesize that the observed developmental pattern can be favorable to the rapid colonization of deep soil horizons that retain some water. This might therefore be an important adaptive strategy to deal with early drought stress. The observed anatomy of pearl millet roots is consistent with those found in other cereals such as rice (Rebouillat et al., 2009), wheat, barley and triticale (Watt et al., 2008) or maize (Hochholdinger, 2009). A striking difference between the different root types comes from the number of central metaxylem vessels: one (or two) in the primary root, always more than two in the crown roots, including the root emerging from the scutellar and coleoptile node. Interestingly, our analyses identified three different lateral root types on the basis of their diameter and radial anatomy. Variation in lateral root anatomy has been reported in other cereals, with numbers of distinct types varying from two in rice (Rebouillat et al., 2009) to five in wheat (Watt et al., 2008). Recently, a more detailed characterization of cortex cell layers present in rice lateral roots revealed that 3 types of lateral roots exist in rice (Henry et
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Analysis of 3D structural root architecture data of trees grown on slopes

Analysis of 3D structural root architecture data of trees grown on slopes

A methodology to analyse 3D coarse root system architecture of trees grown on slope is presented in this poster. The methodology is applied to two Quercus alba trees located in sloping ground, exposed in situ by using high-velocity air jetting. We propose the following additions to the published 3D root architecture data analysis (e. g. Danjon et al. Plant Soil 211 - 1999, Danjon et al. New Phytol 168 - 2005):

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Root System Markup Language: toward a unified root architecture description language

Root System Markup Language: toward a unified root architecture description language

estimators, such as total root length or the maximal depth of the root system convex hull (Galkovskyi et al., 2012). However, an increasing number of research questions now require precise quantification of root system architecture. As an example, nutrient or water deficiencies can have strong effects on root development (Al-Ghazi et al., 2003; Hammer et al., 2009; Péret et al., 2012; Gruber et al., 2013; Kellermeier et al., 2014) and only accurate root reconstruction allow the quantification of these effects. In addition, functional structural plant models are becoming increasingly popular to investigate the belowground ecophysiology of crops (Draye et al., 2010; Comas, 2013; Dunbabin et al., 2013; Lobet et al., 2014) and models require a precise quantification of root system architecture, either to evaluate root developmental parameters or as a direct model input.
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Root System Markup Language: toward an unified root architecture description language

Root System Markup Language: toward an unified root architecture description language

The past few years have seen the development of a variety of solutions for the analysis of root system images (see Lobet et al. (2013) for an updated listing). Several of these solutions deal with root architecture per se and consider explicitly the morphological and topological properties of the root system (Table 1). Such a variety of software solutions reflects the coexistence of complementary approaches to the analysis of root systems. As a direct consequence of this diversity, many independent root system architecture representation and storage have been implemented, leading to multiple datasets lacking common structure, which restricts the possibilities to compare root system architecture structures or measurements obtained using different tools, or to validate new algorithms.
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Root cause analysis of actuator fault based on invertibility of interconnected system

Root cause analysis of actuator fault based on invertibility of interconnected system

With respect to the above results, fault symptoms can be detected without having the capability to pinpoint the root causes of these faults. For example, Benaïssa et al. (2008) show that decrease of measured temperature in HEX/reactor may be due to decrease of fluid flowrate, this implies an actuator fault. With the help of above FDD algorithms, we can detect and isolate the actuator fault, but fail to realise the root cause of the fault in that particular actuator. The involving candidate root causes of this fault could be valve clogging, stop of utility fluid pump or leakage. A main reason that leads to this is that actuator is treated as a component, rather than a dynamic system in the process. Varying failure signatures are denoted by the changes of elements of the input matrix function. Therefore, the applications of the above FDD methodologies mainly limit to the existence and the isolation of a fault at a global level, while seldom further efforts are made for root cause analysis (RCA) of the detected fault. However, a single disturbance may indicate more than one candidate of root causes. Hence, the determination of these malfunctions of subcomponents, especially those small and incipient faults, before they become serious has important influences on safety and productivity.
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A Component-Based Power System Model-Driven Architecture

A Component-Based Power System Model-Driven Architecture

Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/TPWRS.2004.836178 Fig. 1. The main components of the power system MDA. two separate parts: full system generation time and turnaround time for small incremental changes. The later is much more important because of its greater impact on productivity. Namely, small changes are far more frequent during development than full system recompiles.

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Dependable system architecture for businesses : analysis of an enterprise resource planning system

Dependable system architecture for businesses : analysis of an enterprise resource planning system

" SAP's Enterprise Services Architecture provides Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) support.. This means, SAP system applications could be accessed as services.[r]

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Root cause analysis of actuator fault based on invertibility of interconnected system

Root cause analysis of actuator fault based on invertibility of interconnected system

With respect to the above results, fault symptoms can be detected without having the capability to pinpoint the root causes of these faults. For example, Benaïssa et al. (2008) show that decrease of measured temperature in HEX/reactor may be due to decrease of fluid flowrate, this implies an actuator fault. With the help of above FDD algorithms, we can detect and isolate the actuator fault, but fail to realise the root cause of the fault in that particular actuator. The involving candidate root causes of this fault could be valve clogging, stop of utility fluid pump or leakage. A main reason that leads to this is that actuator is treated as a component, rather than a dynamic system in the process. Varying failure signatures are denoted by the changes of elements of the input matrix function. Therefore, the applications of the above FDD methodologies mainly limit to the existence and the isolation of a fault at a global level, while seldom further efforts are made for root cause analysis (RCA) of the detected fault. However, a single disturbance may indicate more than one candidate of root causes. Hence, the determination of these malfunctions of subcomponents, especially those small and incipient faults, before they become serious has important influences on safety and productivity.
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Developmental Modulation of Root Cell Wall Architecture Confers Resistance to an Oomycete Pathogen

Developmental Modulation of Root Cell Wall Architecture Confers Resistance to an Oomycete Pathogen

API Controls Endomembrane Trafficking to Establish Cell Wall Properties Compatible with Infection Processes To investigate whether altered actin dynamics in api result in quantitative differences in secretory processes, we monitored how fast the plasma membrane integral aquaporin PIP1-GFP fusion is redeployed after photobleaching ( Figure 5 A). The recov- ery of PIP1-GFP fluorescence after photobleaching was signifi- cantly reduced in cells of division and elongation zones of api roots, but no difference was observed in generally slower recov- ering mature root cells ( Figures 5 B–5E). This suggests that altered endomembrane dynamics are restricted to those root tis- sues that display pronounced activity. We subsequently moni- tored brefeldin-A (BFA)-induced BFA-body formation in the outer cortex of api root elongation zones over time using a GFP secre- tion reporter system [ 43 ]. These analyses revealed that accumu- lation of GFP-labeled endomembrane compartments into a BFA body was delayed in api, resulting in the formation of small BFA bodies ( Figures S6 A and S6B). This delay was not caused by dif- ferences in general chemical permeability between wild-type and api mutants ( Figure S6 A).
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Architecture and models of the DANAH assistive system

Architecture and models of the DANAH assistive system

Individual activation of devices may become tricky espe- cially when they are repetitive. For instance, leaving a user’s room involves switching off the lights and the TV, and open- ing the door. Without the help of an assistive system, each action has to be performed individually requiring the user to move. DANAH offers the user to act on devices from its place using some presentation interface, for instance a GUI. But even if moving is no longer required, the user still has to individually perform actions, thus choosing first the device to control, and then the action to perform on it. For the disabled, this can be a serious concern, as some users are not capable of accurate enough clicks or selection. Repet- itive and frequently performed actions should be gathered into one single action and presented to the user. Scenarios aim to provide a mean of automation for repetitive actions by allowing the activation of actions from various devices in some order. In the following, we present first the device model, then the concept of scenario and its modeling.
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Characterization of pearl millet root architecture and anatomy reveals three types of lateral roots

Characterization of pearl millet root architecture and anatomy reveals three types of lateral roots

International de Recherche Agricole pour le Développement, Montpellier, France Pearl millet plays an important role for food security in arid regions of Africa and India. Nevertheless, it is considered an orphan crop as it lags far behind other cereals in terms of genetic improvement efforts. Breeding pearl millet varieties with improved root traits promises to deliver benefits in water and nutrient acquisition. Here, we characterize early pearl millet root system development using several different root phenotyping approaches that include rhizotrons and microCT. We report that early stage pearl millet root system development is characterized by a fast growing primary root that quickly colonizes deeper soil horizons. We also describe root anatomical studies that revealed three distinct types of lateral roots that form on both primary roots and crown roots. Finally, we detected significant variation for two root architectural traits, primary root lenght and lateral root density, in pearl millet inbred lines. This study provides the basis for subsequent genetic experiments to identify loci associated with interesting early root development traits in this important cereal.
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Unexpectedly low nitrogen acquisition and absence of root architecture adaptation to nitrate supply in a [i]Medicago truncatula[/i] highly branched root mutant

Unexpectedly low nitrogen acquisition and absence of root architecture adaptation to nitrate supply in a [i]Medicago truncatula[/i] highly branched root mutant

( Fig. 5E ; Supplementary Fig. S3F , G available at JXB online). A lower total free amino acid content was observed in the roots of TR185 compared with WT roots ( Fig. 6A ). However, no sig- nificant differences were observed between TR185 and the WT for their root levels of GLU and ASP, and for both genotypes, the level of these two amino acids was lower under LN than under HN supply ( Fig. 6B , E ). By contrast, TR185 had a lower level of GLN and ASN, and no significant effect of N supply was observed for these two amino acids ( Fig. 6C , F ). A genotype effect was also observed for PRO, THR, and LYS, at least at the 14-day stage ( Fig. 6D , G , H ). Arginine (ARG), histidine (HIS), isoleu- cine (ILE), SER, phenylalanine (PHE), and all the derivatives of a a a a
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An automated image-processing pipeline for high-throughput analysis of root architecture in OpenAlea

An automated image-processing pipeline for high-throughput analysis of root architecture in OpenAlea

86 Fig. 2. One image of the Arabidopsis data set Fig. 3. One image of the Rice data set To allow processing and analysis of large experimental data, the proposed framework organises images data sets in a two level structure. At the bottom, root sequences contain a time sequence of images where each image contains several root systems for a specific experimental modality (e.g. one genotype in one environment condition). On top, root sequences are organized in projects that first automate common processing of image sequences, and second allow comparative analysis of different experimental modalities. All images of the project are processed through a three steps pipeline (see fig 4):
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Rhizobacterial volatile organic compounds modulate biomass production and root architecture in Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh.

Rhizobacterial volatile organic compounds modulate biomass production and root architecture in Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh.

and Technolo quencing b OLAND) is nging proces arying hydrau (semi-continu d similar biom eactors with onditions are d reactor per ogy atch reactor s a one-stage s start-up. In ulic pa[r]

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