KEYWORDS pmhs; denuded ribcage; interpolation; dissection; angle
Great improvement was achieved to protect vehicle occupants in case of a motor vehicle crashes thanks to the development of restraint systems such as seat belts and airbags . These systems increase the mechanical coupling between the human body and the vehicle to minimize the risk of severe injuries to the thorax and the head during a crash. As a result, they may induce injuries, such as rib fractures because of the loading applied to the thorax by the seat belt. Predict- ing and preventing injuries to the thorax is of particular interest as severe injuries occurred predominantly in the thorax in side impact (Welsh et al. 2009 ) and in elderly subjects. Significant efforts were put in the development of computational finite element models of the thorax to accurately predict the rib fractures created because of an impact (Li et al. 2010 ). While the mechanical response of the individual human ribs has been widely studied (Charpail et al. 2005 ; Kindig 2009 ), only few studies reported on the contribution of the inter- costal muscles (ICM) on the ribcage impact response (Vezin & Berthet
It is encouraging that low radiation techniques are being developed to estimate 3-D thoracic dimensions in spine deformity, but the validation of this technique in this report seem based solely on statistical analysis, not on pulmonary function testing or breath- hold CT scans. The relationship between pulmonary function tests and ribcage deformity will be reported in a further study. We did observe good correlations between pulmonary function and ribcage geometrical parameters. However, before
and robust identification of the ribcage structures. Extensive experiments demonstrate the superior accuracy in classifica- tion performance of our proposed descriptors (in comparison to intensity-based descriptors used in ) as well as signif- icant classification performance improvements (up to 25%) on data-sets subject to posture changes and random noise ad- dition. The remainder of the paper is organized as follows: Sec. 2 describes our overall segmentation framework, Sec. 3 our proposed shape descriptors, and Sec. 4 presents our ex- perimental results.
Efforts have been made to quantify the 3D deformity of the ribcage from medical imaging, for instance with optical methods (Charles, Marcoul, Schaeffer, Canavese, & Diméglio, 2017; Hocquelet et al., 2016), computerized tomography (CT, Aaro & Dahlborn, 1981; Nankali, Torshabi, & Miandoab, 2017) and biplanar radiography (Cheriet, Laporte, Kadoury, Labelle, & Dansereau, 2007; Grenier, Parent, & Cheriet, 2013; Jolivet, Sandoz, Laporte, Mitton, & Skalli, 2010). Radiography has an advantage over CT and optical methods, as it is already performed in the clinical routine of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) patients. Moreover, biplanar radiography systems, such as the EOS device, deliver a lower radiation dose to the patient than conventional radiography (Dietrich, Pfirrmann, Schwab, Pankalla, & Buck, 2013)
points are interpolated on this paraboloid. Finally, a cubic spline is fitted to all these points and represents
the final rib. This work showed that by using the standard views (PA-0 and LAT), the reconstruction
gives better results than  and therefore is a better approach for the patient because it implies less
radiation. However, due to visibility constraints, only the lower section of the ribcage can be
mo l es. 20 femoles); meon age: 38.3 y.o. [ 20-85] and meon body mass index (BM I ) : 22.9 kg/m 2
[ 1 5.4 - 29 .5]. Head to feet l ow dose bi-p l onor X-
Rays were ocquired using the EOS system (EOS l maging, Paris, France) follow ed by performing the 30 reconstruc tions of the spine, ribcage and
postero-anterior X-ray images, namely, the PA-0º and PA-20º views, which are oriented toward the patient at respectively 0º and 20º from the horizontal. This manual detection step is very time-consuming and currently limits the associated clinical applications. Indeed, a radiology technician takes about two hours to place all the markers in both radiographs . Another limitation is that the current method is only concerned with rib midlines, leading to a wireframe 3D model in which information from actual rib borders is discarded. Finally, the 3D geometry of the ribs is completely operator dependent, which prevents the extraction of clinical indices from the 3D model of the ribcage for 3D assessment of scoliotic deformities. However, scoliosis involves a rib hump mainly due to a 3D axial rotation of the ribs, which is visible on the back of the trunk and is considered as the main concern for the patient. Thus, it is of paramount importance to improve the accuracy of the 3D reconstruction of the ribcage to be able to take into account the rib hump in the clinical assessment of scoliosis. A prerequisite task for an accurate 3D reconstruction is automatic matching of the anatomical structures identified in a pair of views. Thus, the detection of rib borders, instead of rib midlines, will lead to an automatic matching of high level primitives describing each rib as a whole instead of a set of markers manually identified by an operator, hence providing a more accurate 3D reconstruction of the ribcage.
 Forman JL, Kent RW, et al., Predicting rib fracture risk with whole-body finite element models: development and preliminary evaluation of a probabilistic analytical framework, Ann Adv Automot Med, 56:109-24, 2012.
 Benameur S, Mignotte M, Destrempes F, and De Guise JA, Three-dimensional biplanar reconstruction of scoliotic ribcage using the estimation of a mixture of probabilistic prior model, IEEE Trans Biomed Eng, 52(10): 1713-28, 2005.
« Laisser les sons être eux-mêmes » : telle est la maxime la plus célèbre de Cage. Mais comment y parvenir, si ce n’est en renonçant à les mettre en œuvre, c’est-à-dire en cessant de faire – composer ou jouer – de la musique ? Cage résoudra le problème en faisant appel au hasard : puisque, inévitablement, les sons entrent en relation dès que je pose leur succes- sion temporelle, faisons en sorte que cette rela- tion ne dépende pas de ma volonté ni d’aucune autre volonté, qu’elle soit donc contingente ! Le hasard de Cage est aux antipodes du calcul des probabilités qu’introduisit en musique Xenakis à la même époque. Le calcul des probabilités relève d’une maîtrise – peut-être même de la maîtrise suprême : se mettre en condition pour prédire l’imprévisible. Cage, lui, rejette toute maîtrise, puisque, précisé- ment, son seul but est de laisser les sons être eux-mêmes. Aussi, il choisira des formes de hasard qui peuvent relever d’une codification du destin. Son plus célèbre procédé applique à la composition les hexagrammes du I Ching (le célèbre recueil d’oracles de l’ancienne Chine), comme dans les Music of Changes (1951). Par la suite, Cage sera également l’in- venteur de la notion de partition « indéter- minée » (voir l’encadré : « Les partitions indéterminées », p. 89).
etablit un sch´ ema ´ equivalent tr` es similaire ` a celui pr´ esent´ e par la figure 3.4 .
3.3 Simulations par calculs de champ
Nous avons choisi pour cette ´ etude de caract´ eriser l’effet de peau dans une ma- chine asynchrone triphas´ ee ` a cage industrielle. Cette derni` ere est constitu´ ee de 2 paires de pˆ oles r´ ealis´ ees par quatre bobines de 20 spires chacun. La repr´ esentation en 2 dimensions pourra ˆ etre satisfaite en utilisant uniquement un quart de la ma- chine car les conditions aux limites sont anti-p´ eriodiques. L’effet de la saturation du champ magn´ etique se fait par un entrefer ´ equivalent aux extr´ emit´ es ext´ erieures des barres rotoriques [ Dev02 ]. De plus, le mat´ eriau utilis´ e pour la repr´ esentation des enroulements statoriques a une conductivit´ e nulle. La cons´ equence principale sera une r´ esistance statorique nulle R s = 0. Cette r´ esistance est facilement identi- fiable sur une machine r´ eelle par un simple essai ` a courant continu ou par un essai `
III.30, III.31 et III.32), ainsi que l’augmentation des amplitudes des ondulations de la vitesse et du couple, (voir les figures III.35, III.36, et III.37) plus une augmentation d’amplitudes des courants statoriques pour (voir les figures III.26, III.27, III.28 et III.29).
Lorsque le défaut atteint trois barres cassées, on constate que le courant maximum traversant les barres adjacentes est supérieur au courant rotorique obtenu avec une cage d'écureuil saine. De ce fait, une augmentation anormale du courant dans les barres provoque un échauffement local et conduit à une nouvelle rupture . D'après l'analyse précédent, on peut conclure que la détection d'une ou plusieurs défaut de barres rotorique est très difficile si l'on ne se base que sur l'analyse des signaux .
Cet article est une introduction à cage, une librairie pour l’environnement Max 1 composée d’un certain nombre de modules de haut niveau pouvant être utilisés princi- palement pour la composition assistée par ordinateur. La librairie, actuellement en version alpha, contient un en- semble d’outils dédiés à plusieurs catégories de problèmes typiquement abordés par cette discipline : génération de notes, génération et traitement de profils mélodiques, pro- cessus symboliques inspirés par le traitement du signal au- dio, interpolations harmoniques et rythmiques, automates et L-systèmes, rendu audio, outils pour la set theory, ou- tils pour la gestion de partitions. Ce projet, soutenu par la Haute école de musique de Genève 2 , a principalement
assemblies formed from multiple metal atoms (M) and organic ligands (L)
(Fig. 1A). PolyMOC network branch functionality is dictated by the ligand bite angle, which determines the MOC polyhedral architecture. 19 The Johnson Group reported examples of polyMOC gels with high f through the use of Pd 12 L 24 cuboctahedron junctions, which are assembled from Pd(II) and para-bispyridyl ligands attached to linear poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) chain ends (Fig. 1B). 20 The augmented stoichiometry provided by MOCs is the largest structural differentiator between these materials and classical metallogels, which rely on single metal atom-based network junctions. 21 Similar to other physical gels, the viscoelastic properties of polyMOC networks depend upon the dynamic behaviors of their supramolecular crosslinks. For the bispyridine ligand-based family of M n L 2n cage assemblies, the kinetics of ligand exchange are well studied. 22–26 Large cage assemblies such as Pd 12 L 24 have covalent-like stabilities at room temperature once formed, relying upon the cooperative effect of many labile Pd(II)–pyridine bonds. 22 Smaller cages with lower cooperativity are more dynamic; accordingly, strain and swelling studies of Pd 12 L 24 - and Pd 2 L 4 -based polyMOC networks indicated that lower stoichiometry polyMOC gels are also more dynamic. 20 The half-life of ligand exchange for large M 12 L 24 cages takes 20 days but hastens at higher
The vibration response of pure periodic structures has been studied and efforts made to model them using several different approaches. It is often assumed that the system is one-dimensional which can be considered as the special case of normal incidence for a plate/rib structure , or if an arbitrary angle of incidence is permitted then only bending waves are considered . The resulting simplified theories indicated the presence of stop bands where the travelling wave is attenuated exponentially with distance and pass bands where the structure has minimal effect.
Table 1. Size of meshes and timing for the whole pipeline (user-assisted cages only): M v and M f are the vertices and faces of the input model; BN are the
bending nodes selected in the interactive stage; C v and C f are the vertices and faces of the cage; T pp is the pre-processing time; T ui is the user interaction
time; T bc is the time required to build the base complex; T inf is the time required to inflate the base complex; T nc is the time for the execution of the Nested
Cages algorithm; T tot is the sum of the times in the previous columns rounded to integer. T nc∗ is the time for the final Nested Cages when the model is used
Large Eddy Simulations are employed to investigate the phenomena in rotating ribbed channels with high reliability, but at higher computational costs. Murata and Mochizuki [40, 41] studied the ﬂow and heat transfer by mean of LES taking into account the eﬀects of the Coriolis and centripetal buoyancy forces. To reduce the computational costs, the Reynolds number of these simulations was somewhat lower than the one in real gas turbines. Nevertheless, the Reynolds number was high enough to guarantee fully turbulent ﬂow, hence leading to representative ﬂow and heat transfer. Adbel-Wahab and Tafti  and Sewall and Tafti  employed LES at representative Reynolds numbers (Re=20,000) although reducing the computational domain to one rib pitch and applying periodic boundary conditions. However, the validation was only possible by comparing with the overall experimental data provided by Johnson et al.  since no detailed experimental results were available for that speciﬁc geometry. The experiments of Coletti et al.  were used to validate the LES by Fransen et al.  and by Borello et al. . Fransen et al. , simulated the entire test section in the experiments of Ref.  using the Wall-Adapting Local Eddy (WALE) viscosity model and an unstructured mesh. The simulations led to a good agreement in the static and stabilizing rotation cases. In the destabilizing rotation case, the numerical results did not fully reproduce the experimental mean statistics, likely due to the need for a reﬁned mesh and the potential need to take into account the rotation eﬀects adequately by the sub-grid scale (SGS) model. A ﬁner mesh was presented by Borello et al. , yet reducing the length of computational domain to a single rib pitch and assigning periodic boundary conditions. The latter LES provided a good agreement with the data of Ref.  and a clear view of the secondary ﬂows at the diﬀerent rotating regimes. Recently, hybrid RANS/LES was applied by Kubacki et al.  and by Xun and Wang  in the same conﬁguration as in Ref. . This methodology does not require such a reﬁned mesh, yet reproducing the main ﬂow features under rotating conditions.
This paper examines a periodic rib-stiffened plate and methods to predict the drive point mobility and velocity distribution. It integrates information presented in two earlier papers [1,2] and expands on the results and interpretations. Specifically, this begins by presenting a summary of an analytic model for orthotropic structures with arbitrarily spaced ribs. Measurements and predictions from the analytic model are compared to those from SEA where bending-only, and full-wave models are used. This gives insight into the possible transmission mechanisms at the plate-rib junctions and the limited importance of stop-bands at high frequencies.