Reviewarticle: the best of 2018
Marc J. Claeys, Michel De Pauw, Peter Geelen, Patrizio Lancellotti & Luc Pierard
To cite this article: Marc J. Claeys, Michel De Pauw, Peter Geelen, Patrizio Lancellotti & Luc Pierard (2020) Reviewarticle: the best of 2018, Acta Cardiologica, 75:5, 383-387, DOI: 10.1080/00015385.2019.1611190
For Peer Review
viruses are not reported in this review . Viruses can be either replication-defective or replication-competent. To engineer replication-defective viruses, one or several genes required for viral replication can be deleted. Vectors able to replicate selectively in cancer cells would be of great interest in oncology. A new strategy involving so-called “oncolytic” viruses has been proposed. In this context, the aim is to generate a pathogen for the tumour, which is unable to propagate in, and to harm, normal tissues. Two main characteristics of oncolytic viruses are: (1) they replicate selectively in cancer cells and have self-amplification properties; (2) they have cancer-cell specific toxicity . Some viruses, such as reoviruses, have natural, inherent tumour selectivity [14, 15]. From a general point of view, oncolytic viruses can be engineered in three ways. (1) Viruses can be deleted for genes that are necessary for their replication in normal cells but not in cancer cells. (2) Another possibility is to engineer a virus with genes under the control of a tumour-specific promoter. (3) Viruses can also be engineered to bind to specific tumour antigens on the cell surface [13, 16]. In the first two approaches, the aim is to restrict the replication of the viruses, while the third strategy aims at selective infection of cancer cells. However, viral vectors have many limitations. There is a limiting immunogenicity and there are safety considerations, including a possible insertional mutagenesis for retroviruses and lentiviruses.
3 Review of methods
Studies aiming more or less specifically at assessing agricul-
tural damage have been reviewed and are all listed in the ta- ble 2. Even if the review aims at being exhaustive, languages were a clear obstacle to this. Local literature which has not been cited in an English document may have been missed out.
Assessment of joint functional and proprioceptive abilities is essential for balance, posture, and motor control rehabilitation. Joint functional ability refers to the capacity of movement of the joint. It may be evaluated thereby measuring the joint range of motion (ROM). Proprioception can be defined as the perception of the position and of the movement of various body parts in space. Its role is essential in sensorimotor control for movement acuity, joint stability, coordination, and balance. Its clinical evaluation is commonly based on the assessment of the joint position sense (JPS). Both ROM and JPS measurements require estimating angles through goniometer, scoliometer, laser-pointer, and bubble or digital inclinometer. With the arrival of Smartphones, these costly clinical tools tend to be replaced. Beyond evaluation, maintaining and/or improving joint functional and proprioceptive abilities by training with physical therapy is important for long-term management. This review aims to report Smartphone applications used for measuring and improving functional and proprioceptive abilities. It identifies that Smartphone applications are reliable for clinical measurements and are mainly used to assess ROM and JPS. However, there is lack of studies on Smartphone applications which can be used in an autonomous way to provide physical therapy exercises at home.
1. Land is abandoned or no longer suitable for agricul- ture.
2. Occasional losses of output.
3. Permanent reduction in agricultural output per hectare. A method to evaluate damage to agriculture is recom- mended for each scenario. For the first scenario, it is ad- vised to evaluate economic damage by the reduction in mar- ket value of agricultural land, adjusted for subsidy effects. For the second scenario, it is assumed that one off damages occur to crops that are already in place. In such cases, it is recommended to use the reduction in gross margin adjusted to allow for any savings in avoidable production costs. In the third scenario, a change in flood incidence induces significant permanent changes in the agricultural productivity, possibly involving land use change. Here, changes in gross margins and net margins allowing for changes in fixed costs at the farm scale should be considered. Considering these scenarios is critical before undertaking a CBA. As explained in the in- troduction, although the issue of identification of future land use scenarios is required for economic appraisal of projects, it is out of the scope of this article. However, it may have impact on the relevency of ex-ante studies if those studies do not consider all the possible land use when assessing damage functions.
(Received 24 June 2011; accepted 23 September 2011; published 28 October 2011)
In their rocksalt structure, rare-earth monosulfides offer a more stable alternative to alkali metals to attain low or negative electron affinity when deposited on various III-V and II-VI semiconductor surfaces. In this article, the authors first describe the successful deposition of lanthanum monosul- fide via pulsed laser deposition on Si and MgO substrates. These thin films have been characterized by x-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy, high resolution transmission electron microscopy, ellipsometry, Raman spectroscopy, ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy, and Kelvin probe measurements. For both LaS/Si and LaS/MgO thin films, the effective work function of the submicron thick thin films was determined to be about 1 eV from field emission measurements using the scanning anode field emission microscopy technique. The physical reasons for these highly desirable low work function properties were explained using a patchwork field emission model of the emitting surface. In this model, nanocrystals of low work function materials having a h100i orientation perpendicular to the surface and outcropping it are surrounded by a matrix of amorphous materials with a higher work function. To date, LaS thin films have been used success- fully as cold cathode emitters with measured emitted current densities as high as 50 A/cm 2 . Finally, we describe the successful growth of LaS thin films on InP substrates and, more recently, the pro- duction of LaS nanoballs and nanoclusters using pulsed laser ablation. V C 2011 American Vacuum
3.2. Barannikov idea’s. Not any sequence of allowed bifurcations of the framed Barannikov’s complex is realizable by a sequence of bifurcations of framed Morse complex; at the level of framed Barannikov diagram there is no longer homological condition. Therefore, there is a formal problem which is the following: given a framed Barannikov complex, does there exist a sequence of allowed bifurcations connecting it to the standard Barannikov complex (i.e. one maximum down and one minimum up)? If there is no solution to the formal problem, a fortiori there is no solution to the extension problem without critical point. Now, the question is whether it is possible to answer the formal problem in finite time. This question is solved by the last theorem in Barannikov’s article.
The Second Report on the Health of Canadians (1999)
mentions that despite reductions in substance use and im- provements in education, many Aboriginal communities still experience higher infant mortality rates, suicide rates, chronic diseases, and risk for unintentional injuries than the Canadian population as a whole. While all 12 key deter- minants of health (Public Health Agency of Canada, 2011) apply to the aforementioned issues, culture seems to be particularly dominant since the article specifically takes Aboriginal population into consideration. Some underlying premises could be marginalization (Skinner & Masuda, 2013) and perception of conditions by the Aboriginal peo- ple (Senese & Wilson, 2013). While Snyder and Wilson (2012) are not as specific regarding each determinant, they provide the readers with a wide range of possibilities for low healthcare utilization.
Le calcul, à la clôture de chaque année (n), de cette fraction est fait à partir du bilan comptable et 28 Selon un futur article 1832-3 : « Dès que la société-entreprise est constituée [KBis déposé], elle est une personne morale
associée à l'entreprise commune : toute contribution de la société aux actifs de l'entreprise est considérée comme une affectation par celle-ci à l'entreprise commune de ses biens ou de son industrie et ce en vue, comme les autres associés et chacun selon sa contribution, de partager le bénéfice ou de profiter de l'économie qui pourra en résulter. »