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Exploring sustainable energy future in Reunion Island

Exploring sustainable energy future in Reunion Island

However, Reunion island possesses significant potential in terms of renewables, such as, not only hydropower, but solar, wind, biomass, geothermal and marine energy (Praene et al. 2012). As for some other islands, renewable energy sources are thus sufficiently abundant to explore opportunities for an autonomous, sustainable power system (DESA, 2010; Weisser, 2004). In this context, since the beginning of the 2000s, under the impetus of public policies, essentially fiscal, a new dynamic is initiated and Reunion is committed to the development of renewable energies, mainly photovoltaic (Savidan et al., 2008). Notably, a regional energy agency (ARER) was established, now SPL Energies Reunion, as a tool to develop the island’s resources and educate the public (Sawatzky and Albretch, 2017). Since 2007, Reunion has adopted a strategy for sustainable development that aims to achieve energy autonomy by 2030 based on renewable energy alternatives (ARER, 2009; Robert, 2013). As a first step, the GERRI project, Green Energy Revolution Reunion Island, an economic and social development program centered on the sustainable development of Reunion Island and resulted from the “Grenelle Environment” French environment roundtables, was implemented (CGDD, 2009). It was established in the law "Grenelle 1" No. 2009-967, with several measures designed to help the island achieve its goal of satisfying all of its heating and cooling needs with renewable resources. Notably, all new constructions in overseas departments must install solar water heating. The GERRI project was dissolved in 2013, but electricity and (then) energy autonomies remain a challenge and a goal to reach, enshrined by the Energy Transition for Green Growth Act launched in France in 2015 which sets the objectives, draws the framework and puts in place the necessary tools to build a new French energy model. So, over the past decade the electricity sector of Reunion has experienced significant changes and reform, much of it driven by the adoption of these ambitious renewable energy targets, such as the substitution of the fossil fuels consumption.
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326 (PB-121) - Mammography screening among women living in Reunion Island (South Indian Ocean)

326 (PB-121) - Mammography screening among women living in Reunion Island (South Indian Ocean)

326 (PB-121) Poster Mammography screening among women living in Reunion Island (South Indian Ocean) T. Rajae 1 , M.K. Bendiane 2 , E. Chirpaz 3 , A.D. Bouhnik 1 , L. Bruneau 4 , J. Mancini 5 , L. Huiart 3 . 1 Aix Marseille Univ.- INSERM- IRD- SESSTIM- Economics & Social Sciences Applied to Health & Analysis of Medical Information- Marseille- France, Marseille, Marseille, France; 2 ORS, Marseille, Marseille, France; 3 CHU de la Réunion- Unité de Soutien Méthodologique- Saint Denis- France, Reunion, Reunion, France; 4

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A cross sectional survey to estimate prevalence and associated factors of asthma on Reunion Island, Indian Ocean

A cross sectional survey to estimate prevalence and associated factors of asthma on Reunion Island, Indian Ocean

Discussion The prevalence of current asthma amongst 18 to 44 years olds in Reunion, estimated at 5.4% (95% CI: 4.3– 6.5), is similar to the previously published prevalence in mainland France of 6.0% (95% CI: 5.7–6.4) amongst in- dividuals over 15 years in a 2003 national health survey [ 2 ] and 7.1% amongst those aged over 15 years in the 2012 Institute for Research and Documentation in Health Economics (IRDES) study [ 13 ]. Other studies show clear differences in the prevalence of asthma in young children between the two territories [ 2 , 3 , 7 , 8 ]. This result raises the hypothesis that the percentage of children on Reunion Island whose asthma has resolved by adolescence is greater than in mainland France. This possibility merits further examination through comple- mentary studies.
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Carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae circulating in the Reunion Island, a French territory in the Southwest Indian Ocean

Carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae circulating in the Reunion Island, a French territory in the Southwest Indian Ocean

Background The increasing spread of carbapenemase-producing En- terobacteriaceae (CPE) has been witnessed worldwide over the last decade [ 1 – 3 ]. Therapy of infections caused by these extensively drug-resistant bacteria (XDRB) is limited to few options and associated with an increased morbidity and mortality in comparison with those caused by carbapenem-susceptible strains [ 4 – 7 ]. The large popula- tion flows from Southern Africa and Indian sub-continent to the Indian Ocean islands can contribute to the dissem- ination of XDRB in Reunion Island, a French Overseas Territory located close to Madagascar [ 8 , 9 ]. Hence, the first two CPE isolates detected in Reunion Island were de- scribed in 2011 as NDM-1-producing Klebsiella pneumo- niae and Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica (serotype Enteritidis) retrieved from patients previously hospitalized in Mauritius and India, respectively [ 10 ]. Likewise, the first OXA-48-like-producing CPE was an OXA-232 produced by Escherichia coli found in 2012 in a Mauritian patient who travelled to India [ 11 ]. Spread and epidemiology of CPEs have been previously described in Southern Africa, Arabian peninsula and Indian sub-continent [ 12 – 18 ]. However, these CPEs data in the Southwest Indian Ocean area (consisting of Madagascar, Mayotte and Reunion islands, Mauritius, Comoros and Seychelles archipelagos) are poorly known. Albeit in 2015, 0.04% of E. coli, 0.19% of K. pneumoniae, and 0.48% of Enterobacter cloacae iso- lates were non-susceptible to imipenem in the diagnostic samples in the health care facilities of Reunion Island [ 19 ]. Reunion Island has a population of 850,000 inhabitants and has the same health care level as in mainland France. The University Hospital of Reunion Island (UHRI) is the reference hospital in the Southwest Indian Ocean area (SIOA) for the French overseas people but also for the re- gion inhabitants who need specialized care. The Reunion Island, which connects Europe and the SIOA (with five daily flights), could provide the French mainland territory with NDM-carbapenemase producers [ 20 , 21 ].
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The Moka cattle, an element of the Reunion Island heritage to preserve

The Moka cattle, an element of the Reunion Island heritage to preserve

1 CIRAD, UR 18, 97410 Saint-Pierre, France; 2 INRA UMR 1201 Dynafor, F- 31326 Castanet-Tolosan, France; 3 INRA UR143 URZ, 97170 Petit Bourg, France Introduction To satisfy the needs in animal pulling, in particular for cane sugar transport, cattle were introduced onto the Reunion Island during the 18th and 19th centuries. The animals originated from Madagascar and West Africa. With the mechanization of transport, the use of draught animals was gradually reduced while choices were made to develop a meat production sector with ‘‘improved’’ breeds imported from the mother country. Consequently, the local ‘‘Moka’’ population became residual. Neither conservation action nor recognition has been under- taken for this population which does not benefit from an official status, although rare and at risk. Some breeders preserving this heritage, created an association in 2006 whose general purpose is to preserve and promote the breed, and to defend the interests of Moka breeders. In order to help the breeders in their initiative, we undertook a first characterization study of the Moka breed.
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The Moka cattle, an element of the Reunion Island heritage to preserve

The Moka cattle, an element of the Reunion Island heritage to preserve

The Moka cattle, an element of the Reunion Island heritage to preserve Olivia Fontaine 1- , Jean-Philippe Choisis 2 and Michel Naves 3 1 CIRAD, UR 18, 97410 Saint-Pierre, France; 2 INRA UMR 1201 Dynafor, F- 31326 Castanet-Tolosan, France; 3 INRA UR143 URZ, 97170 Petit Bourg, France

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Seroprevalence of Coxiella burnetii (Q fever) Exposure in Humans on Reunion Island

Seroprevalence of Coxiella burnetii (Q fever) Exposure in Humans on Reunion Island

en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement (CIRAD) CYROI platform, Sainte Clotilde, Reunion, France; 8 UMR 1309 ASTRE, Institut National de Recherche Agronomique (INRA), Montpellier, France After the documentation of sporadic cases of Q fever endocar- ditis, we conducted a serosurvey to assess Coxiella burnetii ex- posure on Reunion Island. Two hundred forty-one stored frozen human sera were analyzed using an immunofluorescence assay. The weighted seroprevalence of Q fever was of 6.81% (95% con- fidence interval, 4.02%–9.59%). Despite the absence of infec- tion in youths <20 years of age, exposure was not driven by age or by gender. There was a spatial disparity in exposure across the island, with higher prevalence being reported in regions where ruminant farms are present. The seroprevalence pattern suggests that Q fever is endemic on Reunion Island.
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Trichogramma chilonis (Hymenoptera : trichogrammatidae) as a biological control agent of Chilo sacchariphagus (Lepidoptera, Crambidae) in Reunion Island : initial field trials

Trichogramma chilonis (Hymenoptera : trichogrammatidae) as a biological control agent of Chilo sacchariphagus (Lepidoptera, Crambidae) in Reunion Island : initial field trials

3 FDGDEC, 97460 Saint-Paul, Reunion, France 4 INRA, Entomologie et Lutte Biologique, 37 Bd du Cap 06606, Antibes, France Abstract The spotted stalk borer, Chilo sacchariphagus Bojer, is a major pest of sugarcane in southern Asia, the Indian Ocean islands and Mozambique in southern Africa. Since 1999, a biological control programme has been developed on this pest in Reunion Island through a partnership between research and development organisations. Trichogramma chilonis Ishii has been shown to be the most naturally efficient parasitoid of the borer in Reunion, following a comparison of the bionomics of different strains of T. chilonis, and one strain was selected for mass production and field release testing. In 2002, two distinct sites, Savannah (SAV) and Sainte-Marie (SMA), were chosen for field experiments. At each site, plots were treated with releases of 150 000 T. chilonis per hectare and compared with untreated plots. In both plots, efficacy of these releases was assessed through damage to sugarcane internodes and mass of millable stalks at harvest. In treated plots, the percentage of bored internodes at harvest was 45% less than the controls at SAV and 36% at SMA. The mean stalk mass was 14% higher in treated plots at SAV, and 12% at SMA, corresponding to increases of 15 and 12 tons of cane per hectare, respectively. These results are presented and improvements in a new trial are suggested.
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Spatial investigation of congenital malformations in Reunion Island (2008-2012)

Spatial investigation of congenital malformations in Reunion Island (2008-2012)

bifida and anencephalies is almost twice (19 cases per 10,000 births) the one reported in mainland France (10 cases). This study aims at describing the heterogeneous spatial distribution of different birth defects and identifying clusters. The exposure to environmental pollutants (such as proximity to farmlands or pollution sites) could explain the occurrence of spina bifida and anencephalies (Rull RP et al., 2006 ; Lacasana M et al., 2006). Therefore this study focuses on comparing the spatial distribution of spina bifida and anencephalies with two other groups of malformations (cleft lip and palate and congenital heart defects) for which the average prevalences in Reunion Island are close to those measured in mainland France. These two are also related to environmental factors (Wang W, 2009 ; Greer W et al., 2005).
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The influenza A (H1N1) pandemic in Reunion Island: knowledge, perceived risk and precautionary behaviour.

The influenza A (H1N1) pandemic in Reunion Island: knowledge, perceived risk and precautionary behaviour.

In our study, multivariate analysis showed that vaccin- ation against seasonal influenza appeared related to a more general preventive attitude, as has also been observed in other studies [31]. This suggests that seasonal vaccination applied before the start of the epidemic, as an initial step towards prevention, had promoted preventive behaviour during the epidemic. Similarly a previous study has shown that undertaking influenza vaccination in the past, greatly facilitates vaccination in subsequent years [32]. Vaccination against seasonal influenza was not part of the recommen- dations against influenza A (H1N1) and no specific vaccine against influenza A (H1N1) was available during the whole H1N1 outbreak in Reunion Island. Nevertheless, 37% of respondents, regardless of their age, believed in the efficacy of the vaccine against seasonal influenza and 14% stated that they had taken this precaution to protect them from influenza A (H1N1). This attitude fitted the logic of previ- ous messages: a vaccine that includes strains that circulated in previous years is also supposed to provide a protection (even partial) against the newly introduced strain. This was what transpired during the epidemic [16]. Vaccination against seasonal influenza was more widely adopted in main France than in the overseas department of Reunion Island (25.6% versus 14%). Of note, however, is the fact that in France, where the specific vaccine against influenza A (H1N1) was available, the use of the new vaccine was lim- ited with a coverage of only 27.4% [25].
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Mapping land cover on Reunion Island in 2017 using satellite imagery and geospatial ground data

Mapping land cover on Reunion Island in 2017 using satellite imagery and geospatial ground data

The Sentinel 2A and 2B satellites (S2A and S2B) have been deployed by the European Space Agency (ESA). The images offer 13 spectral bands with a spatial resolution between 10 m and 60 m. We only keep the 10 bands with a resolution of 10 m and 20 m. The interval between two subsequent acqui- sitions is 5 days considering both satellites. We use the Sentinel-2 (S2) level-2 images provided by THEIA (download site: https://theia.cnes.fr ). These images are corrected for atmospheric effects (Top- Of-Canopy, TOC) and have a cloud mask calculated by the MAJA algorithm [ 3 ]. The first image of the Sentinel-2B satellite was acquired on Reunion Island on July 6, 2017. The satellite was put into oper- ational service in August 2017. So from August we have an S-2 image every 5 days.
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Improving harvest and planting monitoring for smallholders with geospatial technology: the Reunion Island experience

Improving harvest and planting monitoring for smallholders with geospatial technology: the Reunion Island experience

Figure 1 : a) Situation map of Reunion Island in the Indian Ocean (Source: Wikipedia); b) Sugarcane cropped area over Reunion Island: rainfed (green), irrigated (blue) (Source: DDAF 2004). Needs of the sugarcane industry considering cane fields status As for other regions in the world, where sugarcane is cultivated by smallholder growers, data on the extension of the cropped area and crop status are not always recorded and centralized, and the sugar industry has difficulty obtaining updated localized information on the cane fields/blocks boundaries and status. In Reunion, the yield and sugar content are measured when the cane is delivered to the mill and the name of the farmer is consigned. However, no information is given on the field provenance of the cane, making it impossible during harvest season to keep track of progress in terms of area harvested.
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Trophic ecology of marine birds and pelagic fishes from Reunion Island as determined by stable isotope analysis

Trophic ecology of marine birds and pelagic fishes from Reunion Island as determined by stable isotope analysis

Marine fishes. We sampled 20 yellowfin tuna, 40 skipjack tuna, and 45 common dolphinfish from sportfishing vessels. Many individuals were caught in the vicinities of fish aggregating devices (FADs) anchored within 23 km of Reunion Island, where these fish reside and feed while seasonally present in Reunion Island waters (Roos et al. 2000). Each fish was measured using the fork length (FL, from the tip of the snout to the fork of the caudal fin) and weighed when possible. Individuals were sexed during dissection by examination of the gonads. White muscle was sampled in the abdominal area above the vent of the fish and frozen at –20°C. In fish, we chose to analyze δ 13 C and δ 15 N in muscle because (1) it is the most commonly used tissue in trophic studies owing to the smaller amount of lipid and inorganic carbonates and to the low intrasample variability of δ 13 C and δ 15 N measurements (Sweeting et al. 2005), and (2) the isotopic turnover rate in this tissue (half-life around 50 d in yellowfin tuna, Graham unpubl. data) is likely to reflect fish diet in Reunion waters.
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Semi‐Siccative Oils and Bioactive Fractions Isolated from Reunion Island Fruit Co‐Product: Two Case Studies

Semi‐Siccative Oils and Bioactive Fractions Isolated from Reunion Island Fruit Co‐Product: Two Case Studies

The objective of this study is to find a solution of valuation of the by-products generated by the food industry after extraction of the juice of two tropical fruits from Reunion Island, for example, strawberry guava and passion fruit. Two routes are investigated: the extraction of semi-siccative oils from the seeds and the extraction of bioactive compounds from residual pulp and peels. The work involves the determination of the fatty acid profile, carotenoids, tocoph- erol, and phytosterol concentrations in the seed oils obtained by conventional (screw pressing and Solid-Liquid extraction) and non conventional (supercritical-carbon dioxide (SC-CO 2 )
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Seasonality of Human Leptospirosis in Reunion Island (Indian Ocean) and Its Association with Meteorological Data

Seasonality of Human Leptospirosis in Reunion Island (Indian Ocean) and Its Association with Meteorological Data

During the rainy season the soil remains moist and can lead to the formation of pools of water which helps leptospires surviving for a longer period of time, and ultimately can lead to an increase in human and animal exposure to the bacteria. The model of Barcellos and Sabroza [32] shows that during dry periods, high leptospira concentrations in the soil are limited to a few metres around waste accumulation sources. During floods, the infectious bacteria can reach distant areas under the impact of water which increases the possibility of contact with all the population. In Reunion Island, as well as in many tropical countries, the frequency of flooding episodes may increase in the future due to changes in demographic patterns, destruction of ecologically sensitive areas such as wet lands, deforestation, reduction of the rural areas and climate change. Therefore the incidence of leptospirosis might increase in the future without the implemen- tation of appropriate prevention strategies.
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Tropical microalgae isolated on Reunion island (France, Indian Ocean) as sources of antifouling molecules: The BIOPAINTROP project

Tropical microalgae isolated on Reunion island (France, Indian Ocean) as sources of antifouling molecules: The BIOPAINTROP project

adequate coatings and confirmation of the efficiency of these products in both temperate and tropical marine environments. To reach the targeted results, a pluridisciplinary group has been set up with 6 French teams with complementary expertises: (i) HYDRO based on Reunion island and specialized in tropical marine microalgae, (ii) three University laboratories: LCSNSA (Reunion) specialized in natural products valorisation; LBCM (Bretagne) specialized in marine biotechnologies; MAPIEM (Toulon) specialized in polymer materials engineering and marine biocompounds, (iii) Private partners: NAUTIX producing environmental friendly paints, expert in
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On the Link Between External Forcings and Slope Instabilities in the Piton de la Fournaise Summit Crater, Reunion Island

On the Link Between External Forcings and Slope Instabilities in the Piton de la Fournaise Summit Crater, Reunion Island

rockslide (Del Gaudio et al., 2000). Although it is difficult to clearly dis- criminate rain and earthquake effects in some regions (Lin et al., 2008; Tatard et al., 2010), during dry periods of the year, seismicity appears to be the most important triggering factor (Koukouvelas et al., 2015). A third important triggering factor is volcanic activity. It has been shown in several studies that volcanic seismicity, explosions due to eruptive activity, and local surface deformations due to magmatic intrusion and extrusion trigger RFs on volcanic edifices (Calder et al., 2002; Hibert, Mangeney, et al., 2017; Voight et al., 2000). These studies highlight the need for systematic data to improve the understanding of the role of external forcings, especially the influence of small seismicity, in slope destabilization. Here we apply the method devel- oped by Hibert et al.(2011, 2014) to investigate the spatiotemporal evolution of the number and volume of RFs in the crater of the Piton de la Fournaise volcano (Reunion Island). These RFs are subjected to rain, vol- canic seismicity, and deformation. We first explain how we create a catalog of RFs, comprising their occurrence dates, locations, and volumes, using the seismic signals they generate. We then validate these locations and volumes with those obtained from photogrammetric data. Next, we use our RF catalog to analyze the spa- tiotemporal evolution of RFs. We correlate them with external forcings such as seismic and eruptive activity and rainfall. In the last section, we discuss the links between the changes in RF activity and external forcings, in particular the influence of seismic activity and rainfall on the size of RFs.
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Molecular evolutionary analysis of pH1N1 2009 influenza virus in Reunion Island, South West Indian Ocean region: a cohort study

Molecular evolutionary analysis of pH1N1 2009 influenza virus in Reunion Island, South West Indian Ocean region: a cohort study

Materials and Methods Clinical Samples The CoPanFlu-RUN prospective study was conducted between July 21 (week 30) and October 31 2009 (week 44) The CoPanFlu- RUN cohort was selected to be representative of the whole Reunion Island population. We took special attention to select households representing a wide range of geographic locations in order to minimize the repartition bias. For more details about the cohort design, see [18]. A total of 772 households (2,164 individuals) were included in the study. An active telephonic inquiry was conducted to record Influenza-Like Illness (ILI) symptoms occurring in households. Reports of ILI, defined as documented fever ($37.8uC) with at least one symptom of Upper Respiratory Tract Infection (URTI: sore throat, cough, running and or stopped nose or systemic symptom like aching), in at least one member of a household, led to 3 consecutive visits by a nurse (at days 0, 3 and 8 post-report), during which nasal swabs were collected from all family members regardless of their clinical presentation. ILI alerts were managed for the study period and led to the collection of 1,196 nasal swabs belonging to 443 individuals living in 125 households.
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The sterile insect technique for controlling populations of Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) on Reunion Island: mating vigour of sterilized males

The sterile insect technique for controlling populations of Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) on Reunion Island: mating vigour of sterilized males

Copyright: ß 2012 Oliva et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Funding: The project is supported by the Reunion Region Council, the European Social Funds, and the Insect Pest Control Laboratory (IPCL) of the Joint FAO/ IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). This work was supported by the Reunion Island Region Council and the European Social Funds through a PhD grant to CFO. This study was jointly funded by the French Ministry of Health and the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF) within the ‘‘SIT feasibility programme’’ in Reunion. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.
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Trees as net sinks for methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) in the lowland tropical rain forest on volcanic Reunion Island

Trees as net sinks for methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) in the lowland tropical rain forest on volcanic Reunion Island

Meunier JD, Kirman S, Strasberg D, Nicolini E, Delcher E, Keller C. 2010. The output and bio-cycling of Si in a tropical rain forest developed on young basalt flows (La Reunion Island). Geoderma 159: 431–439. Myhre G, Shindell D, Breon F-M, Collins W, Fuglestvedt J, Huang J, Koch D, Lamarque J-F, Lee D, Mendoza Bet al. 2013. Anthropogenic and natural radiative forcing. In: Stocker TF, Qin D, Plattner G-K, Tignor M, Allen SK, Boschung J, Nauels A, Xia Y, Bex V, Midgley PM, eds. Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge, UK & New York, NY, USA: Cambridge University Press, 659 –740.
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