respiratory diseases

Top PDF respiratory diseases:

Climate Change, Migration, and Allergic Respiratory Diseases: An Update for the Allergist

Climate Change, Migration, and Allergic Respiratory Diseases: An Update for the Allergist

Cassim Motala, MD, 8† Ignacio Ansotegui, MD, PhD, 9 Isabella Annesi-Maesano, MD, PhD, 10 for the WAO Special Committee on Climate Change and Allergy Abstract: Local climate changes can impact on a number of factors, including air pollution, that have been shown to influence both the development and attacks of allergic respiratory diseases, and they thus represent an important consideration for the allergist. Migration in- volves exposure to a new set of pollutants and allergens and changes in housing conditions, diet and accessibility to medical services, all of which are likely to affect migrants’ health. This review provides an update on climate change, migration, and allergy and discusses factors for consid- eration when making recommendations for local allergy service provision, and for assessing an individual patient’s environmental exposures.
En savoir plus

6 En savoir plus

en
                                                                    fr

en fr Biomarkers of the cardio-metabolic risk in chronic respiratory diseases : impact of care Biomarqueurs du risque cardio-métabolique dans les pathologies respiratoires chroniques : impact de la prise en charge

5 Abstract Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with related metabolic and cardiovascular comorbidities. Chronic intermittent hypoxia the hallmark of OSA induces deleterious intermediary mechanisms such as oxidative stress, systemic inflammation, insulin resistance and dyslipidemia. Cardiovascular and metabolic comorbidities are also key features of other chronic respiratory diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and obesity hypoventilation syndrome (OHS). Chronic hypoxia and deleterious intermediary mechanisms also trigger occurrence and progression of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. This link between chronic respiratory diseases and liver injury is observed through modifications of specific liver biomarkers in OSA and COPD. A variety of cardio-metabolic biomarkers have been studied for stratification of cardio-metabolic risk and assessing treatment impact in chronic respiratory diseases. The first part of this PhD thesis is a systematic review of cardio- metabolic biomarkers in 3 respiratory diseases: OSA, COPD and OHS.
En savoir plus

181 En savoir plus

Climate change, air pollution and extreme events leading to increasing prevalence of allergic respiratory diseases.

Climate change, air pollution and extreme events leading to increasing prevalence of allergic respiratory diseases.

Urban air pollutants The most abundant components of air pollution in urban areas are nitrogen dioxide, ozone and particulate matter. Sulphur dioxide is particularly abundant in in- dustrial areas. It is estimated that more than 50% of the population of the United States live in areas where levels of ozone, nitrogen dioxide, sulphur dioxide, and particu- lates exceed current National Ambient Quality Stan- dards, as monitored by the US Environmental Protection Agency [6,7]. With its particulate and gaseous emissions, road traffic is the main contributor to air pol- lution in most urban areas. Although associations be- tween air pollution and respiratory diseases are complex, recent epidemiological studies have led to an increased recognition of the emerging importance of traffic-related air pollution in both developed and less-developed coun- tries [6,7]. A number of experimental and epidemio- logical studies confirmed the negative effect of urban air pollution on human health and on allergic respira- tory diseases [5,11-17] and projections of climate vari- ability suggest these effects will increase in the next decades [6,7].
En savoir plus

10 En savoir plus

20-Hydroxyecdysone, from Plant Extracts to Clinical Use: Therapeutic Potential for the Treatment of Neuromuscular, Cardio-Metabolic and Respiratory Diseases

20-Hydroxyecdysone, from Plant Extracts to Clinical Use: Therapeutic Potential for the Treatment of Neuromuscular, Cardio-Metabolic and Respiratory Diseases

Abstract: There is growing interest in the pharmaceutical and medical applications of 20- hydroxyecdysone (20E), a polyhydroxylated steroid which naturally occurs in low but very sig- nificant amounts in invertebrates, where it has hormonal roles, and in certain plant species, where it is believed to contribute to the deterrence of invertebrate predators. Studies in vivo and in vitro have revealed beneficial effects in mammals: anabolic, hypolipidemic, anti-diabetic, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, etc. The possible mode of action in mammals has been determined recently, with the main mechanism involving the activation of the Mas1 receptor, a key component of the renin–angiotensin system, which would explain many of the pleiotropic effects observed in the different animal models. Processes have been developed to produce large amounts of pharmaceu- tical grade 20E, and regulatory preclinical studies have assessed its lack of toxicity. The effects of 20E have been evaluated in early stage clinical trials in healthy volunteers and in patients for the treatment of neuromuscular, cardio-metabolic or respiratory diseases. The prospects and limitations of developing 20E as a drug are discussed, including the requirement for a better evaluation of its safety and pharmacological profile and for developing a production process compliant with pharmaceutical standards.
En savoir plus

35 En savoir plus

Systematic Analysis of Blood Cell Transcriptome in End-Stage Chronic Respiratory Diseases

Systematic Analysis of Blood Cell Transcriptome in End-Stage Chronic Respiratory Diseases

Abstract Background: End-stage chronic respiratory diseases (CRD) have systemic consequences, such as weight loss and susceptibility to infection. However the mechanisms of such dysfunctions are as yet poorly explained. We hypothesized that the genes putatively involved in these mechanisms would emerge from a systematic analysis of blood mRNA profiles from pre-transplant patients with cystic fibrosis (CF), pulmonary hypertension (PAH), and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Methods: Whole blood was first collected from 13 patients with PAH, 23 patients with CF, and 28 Healthy Controls (HC). Microarray results were validated by quantitative PCR on a second and independent group (7PAH, 9CF, and 11HC). Twelve pre-transplant COPD patients were added to validate the common signature shared by patients with CRD for all causes. To further clarify a role for hypoxia in the candidate gene dysregulation, peripheral blood mononuclear cells from HC were analysed for their mRNA profile under hypoxia.
En savoir plus

15 En savoir plus

en
                                                                    fr

en fr Chronic respiratory diseases and oro-pharyngeal dysphagia Pathologies respiratoires chroniques et dysphagies oro-pharyngées

Safe swallowing requires a good swallowing ventilation coordination. The alteration of ventilation could affect this balance and cause several complications, such as aspiration. To study the relationship between chronic respiratory diseases and oropharyngeal dysphagia, we enrolled a systematic review on this subject. This review has shown, despite the limitations in the studies and the different explorations used, that chronic respiratory diseases increase the risk of dysphagia. This result was confirmed by our study. In fact, when screening dysphagia in COPD patients, we found an increase of the risk of impairment in both safety and security of the deglutition. We then complete our work by studying swallowing ventilation coordination in small mammals with chronic respiratory diseases. We found an increase of inspiratory deglutition which make the rats at risk of aspiration. We have completed our work on animals by studying the effect of alteration of ventilatory afferents, by inducing hypercapnia or by the section of the phrenic nerve in rats, on the coordination of swallowing and ventilation. Hypercapnia in rats increased the number of inspiratory deglutition compared to the group of rats in ambient air. This increase was associated with an increase of the ventilatory control at rest and during deglutition. When sectioning phrenic nerve, the swallowing frequency was statistically higher in rats with phrenic nerve section when compared to sham group (26±6 and 20±5 respectively; p=0.0002). All these data suggest the existence of a central coordination of swallowing and ventilation in order to avoid aspiration.
En savoir plus

84 En savoir plus

Vilnius Declaration on chronic respiratory diseases: multisectoral care pathways embedding guided self-management, mHealth and air pollution in chronic respiratory diseases

Vilnius Declaration on chronic respiratory diseases: multisectoral care pathways embedding guided self-management, mHealth and air pollution in chronic respiratory diseases

Multisectoral care pathways embedding guided self‑management, mHealth and air pollution in chronic respiratory diseases ICPs are structured multidisciplinary care plans which detail essential steps in the care of patients [ 52 ]. They promote the translation of guidelines into local proto- cols and their subsequent application to clinical practice [ 53 ]. They empower patients and their carers (health and social). ICPs differ from practice guidelines as they are utilised by a multidisciplinary team and have a focus on the quality and coordination of care. Multisectoral care pathways for multimorbid chronic respiratory diseases are needed [ 54 ] and should incorporate self-management and aerobiology to allow precision medicine with endo- type-driven treatment [ 55 ].
En savoir plus

11 En savoir plus

View of Multicentric studies in respiratory diseases

View of Multicentric studies in respiratory diseases

L ’objectif principal de cette étude était de tester l’effet de l ’ACET sur la durée totale de la ventilation mécanique invasive chez les patients BPCO intubés et ventilés mécaniquement2[r]

5 En savoir plus

View of Respiratory diseases at the emergency department

View of Respiratory diseases at the emergency department

De l’intérêt du dosage des D‑dimères aux urgences chez les patients avec un score PERC négatif dans la suspicion d’embolie pulmonaire.. Freund 1.[r]

4 En savoir plus

Scope and limitations on aerosol drug delivery for the treatment of infectious respiratory diseases

Scope and limitations on aerosol drug delivery for the treatment of infectious respiratory diseases

4.1 Aerosol therapy Aerosol therapy, a practice that has been used since antiquity, is now enjoying a real revival of interest. It consists of "administering drugs in aerosol form into the lungs through the airways". The word "aerosol" is used to define a particle system which diameter is small enough to remain suspended in the air. These particles can be liquid (droplets) or solid (powder), of different shapes and sizes [35]. The main purpose of aerosol therapy is usually the local delivery of the drug, when the lung is the organ targeted by the treatment administered, but it can also be used in certain cases for a systemic administration allowing the drug to reach the general circulation and thus reach its desired site of action [36]. This mode of administration increases the speed and the efficiency of the treatment, and limits the side effects due to the local deposition of drug particles, however, the effectiveness of the treatment is conditioned by several factors, in particular the aerosol deposition site in the respiratory tract, which is influenced by the physical properties of the aerosol, the inhalation conditions and the anatomy of the respiratory airways [35].
En savoir plus

58 En savoir plus

Scope and limitations on aerosol drug delivery for the treatment of infectious respiratory diseases

Scope and limitations on aerosol drug delivery for the treatment of infectious respiratory diseases

4.4 Mechanism and factors influencing particles deposition The pulmonary delivery of drugs in aerosol form is mainly based on two modes of administration: nasal inhalation and oral inhalation. However, several anatomical features (narrower airway light) restrict nasal administration and make oral administration more favourable [71]. In this area, many studies have demonstrated that oral administration is better for particles with a diameter of 5 μm, with a loss percentage of only 20% compared to 85% in the case of nasal administration [64, 72]. The efficacy of inhaled treatments depends not only on the active substance but it is also balanced by the drug proportion deposited in the lungs [73, 74] as well as its site of deposition in the airways. For some substances this proportion is retained in the peripheral areas of the respiratory tract [75]. Thus, the respiratory tract has been the subject of numerous studies over the past 50 years, mainly to assess the dosimetry of inhalants mostly those resulting from exposure at occupational levels [76, 77]. In this context, the results of these studies allowed a better understanding of the mechanisms of deposition and transport of aerosols [33].
En savoir plus

58 En savoir plus

Which Current and Novel Diagnostic Avenues for Bacterial Respiratory Diseases?

Which Current and Novel Diagnostic Avenues for Bacterial Respiratory Diseases?

In this review, we have attempted to highlight the challenges to propose accurate minimally invasive and fast-checking diagnostic methods to identify pathogens in the LRT. We have shown that newly developed diagnostics, often based on connected technologies (artificial intelligence, automated sequencing, electronics . . .), offer promising alternatives to traditional culture-based diagnostics. The availability of ever- growing databases on bacteria responsible for LRTs, associated with user-friendly online analysis tools, should also contribute to accelerate diagnostics. One such example is the free online tool called “MicrobeNet,” provided by the Center for Diseases Control (CDC), that lists genetic sequences, protein and biochemical profiles (enzymatic pathways and metabolism) from rare disease-causing microbes identified worldwide, in hospital and public health laboratories. Significant efforts remain to be done to propose other biomarkers for pneumonia detection and eventually strain identification.
En savoir plus

12 En savoir plus

Innovative DendrisChips® Technology for a Syndromic Approach of In Vitro Diagnosis: Application to the Respiratory Infectious Diseases

Innovative DendrisChips® Technology for a Syndromic Approach of In Vitro Diagnosis: Application to the Respiratory Infectious Diseases

A second restriction of our technology is that we have intentionally targeted our syndrome-based diagnostic to pathogen bacteria potentially implicated in respiratory diseases since most of the multiplex molecular technologies in development or already available in clinical microbiology are designed to identify virus associated with infectious diseases. The reason invoked for this strategy is to avoid misuse of antibiotic therapy. However, almost half of the respiratory tract infections that require hospitalization are caused by co-infection of virus and bacteria [ 2 ]. It is therefore relevant to identify bacterial pathogens to propose the most adequate therapeutic solution. Beside these strategic considerations, it is technically easier to develop a multiplex detection of bacteria since they all bear variable regions of rDNA in their genomes and probes designed on these regions have been shown to be sufficient for their identification [ 30 , 48 – 50 ]. Hence, only a couple of PCR primers are needed to amplify this nucleic acid region, which simplifies the setting of multiplex PCR conditions. Moreover, the use of our machine learning-based algorithm allowed solving the complexity from probe–target hybridization as it can attribute to each bacterium a specific probe pattern for their identification.
En savoir plus

18 En savoir plus

Advances in the pathology of glomerular diseases.: Pathology of glomerular diseases

Advances in the pathology of glomerular diseases.: Pathology of glomerular diseases

Renal pathology and the prognosis of glomerular disease The three major glomerular diseases - lupus nephritis, ANCA-associated glomerulonephritis and IgA-nephropathy – have recently been reclassified [24-26] and for all three, clinical observations have revealed a strong correlation of chronic glomerular lesions with poor outcome [27]. More sophisticated quantification of chronic lesions in the glomerular, tubulointerstitial and vascular compartment were reported to have no additional value over the relatively simple analysis of glomerular scars [27]. Recently, molecular and proteomic studies on renal tissue and urine have been initiated to correlate transcription and peptide profiles with outcome in order to allow a more precise intervention in signalling pathways involved in inflammation and repair.
En savoir plus

12 En savoir plus

Respiratory support in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome: an expert opinion

Respiratory support in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome: an expert opinion

the disease, patient noncompliance or technical problems, particularly at the interface. To improve NIV success rates, the helmet has been proposed as an alternative interface compared to the face mask. In a multicenter, randomized controlled trial (RCT) conducted in four Italian centers in patients with severe hypoxemic acute respiratory failure due to pneumonia, helmet CPAP reduced the risk of meeting endotracheal intubation criteria compared to oxy- gen therapy but with no difference in outcome [13]. To explore the issue of the interface, a recent single-center RCT studied the effect of NIV delivered by helmet or face-mask among patients with ARDS. The authors con- cluded that helmet NIV was associated with significant re- ductions in intubation rates and 90-day mortality [14].
En savoir plus

9 En savoir plus

View of Acute respiratory failure

View of Acute respiratory failure

Patients et Méthodes : Étude rétrospective bi-centrique sur 5 ans com- parant la prévalence des complications chirurgicales potentiellement favorisées par le DV entre les patients ayant [r]

5 En savoir plus

View of Extracorporeal respiratory support

View of Extracorporeal respiratory support

Patients et Méthodes : Il s ’agit d’une étude rétrospective monocen- trique portant sur tous les patients ayant bénéficié d ’une VNI dans le service de réanimation polyvalente universita[r]

5 En savoir plus

View of Neurologic diseases

View of Neurologic diseases

Patients et Méthodes : Tous les patients cirrhotiques admis en soins continus ou réanimation entre octobre 2013 et mai 2014 ont été inclus prospectivement.. Les taux d ’ammoniémie et de [r]

4 En savoir plus

View of Acute respiratory distress

View of Acute respiratory distress

Dans cette étude, la VNI a été évaluée chez deux groupes de patients : les patients avec contre-indication à la VNI (groupe « trop grave » incluant les patients recevant des catéchol[r]

4 En savoir plus

View of Acute respiratory insufficiency

View of Acute respiratory insufficiency

mortalité en réanimation de 73 % chez 15 patients atteints de fibrose pulmonaire idiopathique (FIp) admis dans le service pour insuffisance respiratoire aiguë (IRA) et traités par vent[r]

5 En savoir plus

Show all 877 documents...