• Analysis of the behavior of power networks in the specific areas, specificities of the adopted energy conversion systems and characteristics of any local power network.
1.3.6 Impact of DG on Voltage Regulation
In the power system DG regulate the voltage using the on-load tap changer transformer (OLTC) in substations. It is based on one way power flow where the voltage regulators are connected to the line drop compensation (LDC). Presence of DG in the power system can change the voltage profile in the feeder by switching the direction of active and reactive power flow. DG in voltage regulation has negative or positive impacts; it depends on the characteristics of DG installation areas and distributed generators (Barker and De Mello, 2000). Figure 1.3 shows, DG installed with LTC transformer that fitted with LDC. It also shows that with DG connected to the grid, lower voltage level is obtained in feeder rather than the connection without DG in the grid. The injection of large amount of active and reactive power from DG may cause over voltage in the distribution feeder.
According to current economic relations in energy, renewableenergysources are more expensive than fossil fuels or nuclear power plants, so the rise in energy prices will have a beneficial effect on the economy of renewablesources, as it will reduce or eliminate subsidies and plants using renewablesources will be competitive. It is expected that technological progress will be made towards mitigating or eliminating negative impacts on energy production in those technologies that are climate-dependent (sun, wind and others), primarily in energy storage technologies. Significant progress of all technologies is expected. Climate awareness and accountability for the use of renewableenergysources, not only in the category of economic interest, but also in the contribution of every citizen and firm, is especially expected. When further exploitation of the hydro power plant is needed, design experts and environmental protection experts are also involved in the design of technical solutions in order to find acceptable solutions from the social and energy standpoint. For hydropower plants, it is necessary to protect potential locations for a short period of time, as other areas of the terrain reduce the potential of hydroelectric power plants. A key role in the more substantial use of wind power in BiH will have, along economic and financial measures, the solution of the problems of wind power integration in the power sector through the development and improvement of the current practice and the implementation of advanced regulation measures, including the forecast of wind power generation. The use of solar collectors will increase significantly.
but significant detail that can help discern the optimal mix for a particular situation among a collection of them.
Our results confirm that the optimal mixes of variable renewable energies which account for the predictability of the resource provide more weight to the PV technology and northern regions than the full variance definition. This unexpected result was derived from the effect of low covariances between the PV generation in these northern regions and the wind generation in other highly productive regions. However, the optimization with the proposed risk definition selects these scenarios by means of more realistic optimality and the daily cycle is not being penalized. Our experiments show that the selected mixes also benefit from the good combination that spans from these regions interacting with the installed wind technology. Undoubtedly, the definition of variable renewableenergy deployment plans is not only a scientific question. Besides the identification of optimal deployments in the maximum penetration minimum risk sense, the portfolios show the relevance of multiple socioeconomical and political factors which appeared in the conducted experiments in the form of calibration and play a role in the determination of the optimality of a specific region. However, the results of this study underline the necessity to deal with the variability of predictable and unpredictable components of renewableenergysources separately, since the predictable variability of an energy source should be considered at the planning stage in order to mitigate its associated intrinsic impact on the electric system. The criteria to identify optimal regional deployment scenarios should account for the unpredictable and inherently damaging variations that can cause failures in the electricity supply. The distinction between the predictable and unpredictable components of generation is key from an energy mix design and management point of view. Not accounting for this important distinction drives the installation towards suboptimal scenarios, since it highlights areas with lower resources as having strictly lower risk as well. This result does not accurately represent the risk of PV generation, since two areas following their daily cycles should also be considered as having the same risk.
by source with the reliability constrained scenario with Demand Response for an average day in 2030 during the summer.
4. Share of renewableenergysources : conclusion
A link between Demand Response solutions, reliability, and the development of the energy system, allows a broader assessment of the impacts and limits of Smart Grid solutions. The study showed that a huge implementation of intermittent sources may dramatically decrease both kinetic and magnetic reserves, thus weakening the reliability of the electricity system. However, we have shown that by constraining the reliability level, the power mix can rely on a significant share of intermittent sources, even though the total installed capacity increases. Total installed capacity can be maintained by combining renewablesources and Demand Response solutions while constraining the reliability level. Further developments will also consider other Smart Grid flexibility such as storage .
O NE of the most widely accepted trends in the path toward the de-carbonisation of the electricity sector is the decentralisation of electricity generation assets. This trend challenges common practices in power system operations, where consumer-centric electricity markets now play a key role . Among these new potential markets is the energy community, naturally stemming from the empowerment of final consumers which, according to , have made commu- nity energy an effective and cost-efficient way to meet the energy needs of citizens. An energy community is a consumer- centric electricity market where several community members may exchange, among themselves, electricity produced from their own generation assets. According to some authors, the main barrier to developing these communities is the lack of sufficient legislation ensuring their viability , . Aware of this issue, regional, national, and supra-national authorities are creating new legislations and frameworks that enable the emer- gence of these energy communities. The European Parliament, in the 2018/2001 directive , introduced a series of legal notions such as the renewables self-consumer (or prosumer), and the renewableenergy community (REC). According to this directive, all customers are eligible to participate in an REC while maintaining their previous status as final customers in a liberalised market, meaning that they are free to choose their retailer. Since any customer is, according to this directive, entitled to become prosumer, RECs may be composed of consumers, prosumers, or generation assets owned by the REC. In this context, RECs are managed by a central entity: the energy community manager (ECM).
2.The roles of consumers
• “A new role for consumers—as energy suppliers in their own right—is one particular aspect of this potential step change. A pre-condition for this change is the diffusion of micro-generation technologies into the market which will depend on consumers’ acceptance of micro-generation
4.1.2 Installation of solar water pumps in District Nushki
Azat Foundation Balochistan (AFB) together with National Rural Support Program (NRSP) started “Clean Drinking Water” project with the technical and financial assistance of USAID’s Small Grants and Ambassador’s Fund Program (SGAFP). The project aimed to provide clean drinking water facility to 13 villages of Union Council (UC) Daak and Anambostan of Tehsil Nushki in Balochistan. The project was started in December 2013 and was completed in July 2014. USAID allocated the funds of 11.11 million rupees for the installation of 400 solar water pumps and the construction of water tanks in the selected villages. In total, 400 households (HH) as direct beneficiaries and more than 300 HH as indirect beneficiaries are benefited from the project. The main objective of the project was to reduce the water borne diseases by providing innovative and sustainable infrastructure and to create awareness about safe drinking water and hygiene in the UCs of Daak and Anambostan. Through this project Azat Foundation crafted drinking water schemes functional by using renewable solar energy .
International Association for Energy Economics, Rome, October 28-31, 2014
Several options could help maintain power system reliability. Today, grid operators rely on conventional generators that can be operated in a very short lead-time or that have very good inertia which allows them to absorb fluctuations in power supply or demand. However, they may also use load-shifting or other Smart Grid technologies to control demand and make it more flexible [IEA11]. By implementing all the different options in a single model, we assess which are the most efficient to fulfill operating requirements in regard to contrasted energy scenarios [BOU13a, BOU13b].
2) Point information: Point information refers to HCGP-
specific quantities that are represented by a set of numerical values/graphs/tables, e.g. scatter diagrams, exceedance tables, monthly variability, etc. Point information that has been generated at every single HCGP of the study area is presented in Table 4. Some examples of such information are presented in Fig. 5. Fig. 5a is showing the height-dependant directional distribution of the wave field. We can observe that for this site, wave azimuth window is quite narrow, with a large majority of the waves coming from the west. This information is capital when addressing the issue of farm layout, directionally sensitive devices, anchoring design, etc. Fig. 5b shows the probability of exceedance of a certain wave height and participates in characterizing the access to the site, fatigue aging, loadings on structure, etc. The site-specific wave scatter diagram, used for first approximation of energy yield by a certain wave device is presented in Fig. 5c. Fig. 5d and 5e give the same information as Fig. 5a and 5b but for the current. Fig. 5f1, 5f2 and 5f3 present the annual evolution of monthly wave height, period and power. Low variability of these parameters is preferred when estimating the exploitability of a site. Precise statistics defining the conditions of accessibility of a certain site, often based on the significant wave height, is essential when designing operation and maintenance strategy. This information is delivered in Fig. 6.
Nous sommes étudiants en maitrise Gestion des Projets à l'Université de Québec à Chicoutimi (UQAC). Dans le cadre de nos travaux de recherches de fin de formation, nous effectuons une étude sur l’impact des sources de financement sur le résultat (succès ou échec) des projets d'entrepreneuriat. L’objectif est de déterminer si les sources de financement d'un projet d'entrepreneuriat pourraient impacter le degré d’engagement et de sacrifices d’un porteur de projet pour réussir son projet d’entrepreneuriat . A cet effet nous avons besoin de faire une enquête auprès des entrepreneurs et consultants en entrepreneuriat pour recueillir leur avis et prendre connaissance de leurs expériences. Nous sollicitons votre collaboration pour transmettre en notre nom un courriel de sollicitation aux entrepreneurs de votre base de données et aux consultants intervenants dans votre structure. Il est important pour l’étude que les entrepreneurs participants soient un mélange d’entrepreneurs âgés de plus de 21 ans ayant connu le succès et des entrepreneurs ayant connu d’échec dans le projet d’entrepreneuriat. Vous voudrez bien tenir compte de ces critères en transférant les courriels.
Planning is always a challenging exercise, but the conditions are the moment are unstable if not chaotic. In 2019, the new planning Law became effective in January, its application Decree was issued in May (Nguyễn Xuân Phúc, 2019), and the Prime Minister’s decision on PDP8 contents was issued in October. Some technological costs are falling fast, upheaving the merit order of different options. The grid's nature changes from centralized to decentralized. Power development accelerated. Nowadays it encompasses herding hundreds of small projects, not only planning GW-scale power plants to open years from now. The position of the State is ambiguous, as in a general move towards a market-oriented economy, the energy system remains as a national security asset with many natural monopolies. Instead of command and control, the State has to rely on indirect instruments, and the private sector is agile and fast to move when the incentives are there. Not to mention the global health and economic crisis, on top of climate change redefining energy policy.
Fig. 4. Power available and consumed in the power profiles using genetic algorithm based scheduling plan.
This article focused on presenting and evaluating an op- timization module named RECO that aims to integrate both IT-load power model and Power production to schedule tasks in a cloud datacenter while respecting the possible power envelopes. We presented different algorithms that aim to minimize due date violations while respecting power and resource constraints. Our genetic algorithm approach was able to reduces up to 73% of due date violations while increasing only 1.8% the energy consumption respecting one of the power profiles provided by the power manager. We also presented an evaluation of the impact that the power envelopes can have in the task scheduling, and that more power do not necessarily means better QoS for the IT part, but it is better to optimally decide when this power is delivered. The outputs of the IT optimization could provide interesting load profiles to a power management module.
Various optimization based decision making models for smart home energy management have been proposed in the literature where they are different in terms of considered electric pricing schemes and possible consideration of renewableenergy integration. These existing optimization based frameworks can be classified into deterministic optimization and stochastic optimization models. Deterministic op- timization models typically assume that the home controller has perfect information about the system and forecast data over the scheduling horizon [ 21 , 37 , 73 , 79 ], e.g., perfect information about the elec- tricity prices and renewable energy’s generations. For example, the work [ 37 ] tackles the load power control problem under the flat-rate pricing model where the utility determines the thresholds of energy consumption at different time slots and broadcast these values to end users for load scheduling. The work [ 73 ] studies a deterministic residential microgrid scheduling problem exploiting the smart meter data and thermal load and evaluates the impacts of different forecast parameters such as electricity price, outdoor temperature, and demand on the achievable energy payment. In addition, dynamic pro- gramming and Markov Decision Process (MDP) theory have also been employed to develop an optimal control policy that allocates power consumption for each appliance in a deterministic manner [ 80 , 81 ]. However, the deterministic optimization approach is only applicable to deterministic model, which might result in poor performance for smart homes experiencing uncertainties. The stochastic optimiza- tion approach, on the other hand, can effectively capture various system uncertainties [ 16 , 17 , 57 , 82 ]. In [ 17 ], the model predictive control (MPC) based framework for scheduling home appliances is pro- posed to minimize the electricity cost. Moreover, residential DR algorithms are developed by using the rolling online stochastic programming approach in [ 16 , 57 ].
online applications. This is strengthened further by the ability of the power output control system to readily integrate component real-time thermal ratings in the management of network power flows for increased new and renewableenergy yields. Moreover, since this research project aims to develop and deploy an economically viable real-time thermal rating system, it is important that algorithms are developed with fast computational speeds using a minimal amount of environmental condition monitoring. Thus an inverse distance interpolation technique is used for modelling environmental conditions across a wide geographical area, which offers faster computational speeds than applications such as WAsP. Beyond the research described above, this chapter also suggests potential annual energy yields that may be gained through the deployment of an output control system for generation installations.
6. Concluding remarks
Renewableenergysources could have a minor but non negligible part in the national plan to generate electric power in Vietnam. The candidate grid-connected generation technologies include small hydro, mini hydro, geothermal, solar, wind turbine, integrated gasification cycle based on biomass (rice husk, paddy straw, wood residue), and direct combustion technologies based on biomass (bagasse). The study did not consider nuclear energy option in the analysis due to public acceptance problems related to nuclear waste disposal risks, national backward scientific standard, poor technical and technical capability, weak industrial infrastructure and regulation system, lack of human resources and professional specialists, etc. Moreover, DSM, the important option for utility electric planning, was not used in this paper in order to focus on examining the role of renewables as energy supply side option compared to fossil fuel options. However, both these options are considered in another overall research paper.
In actual power grids, magnetic energy is processed from generators to be time-harmonic, at the frequency ݂ ൌ ߱ ʹߨ Τ , so that all the grid checks synchronism (set around 50Hz in Europe). As a result, the kinetic energy embedded in the whole power system acts as a global and huge inertia against frequency deviation which therefore may only occur on several periods. Denoting long-time averaged values with ∼, the power dynamics experienced by the whole power grid follows:
abroad? That’s what is happening here with wind energy. The current situation is not so different from that of a third world country ”.
Taking the perspective of local governments, the potential advantage of coops (pragmatic legitimacy) seemed off-set by the lack of awareness of such potential (cognitive legitimacy). The study confirmed a total ignorance of municipalities and local governments regarding the potential benefit they would enjoy when getting involved in a coop. Interviewee 3 observed: “what they [the municipalities] are interested in is selling the land for a good price and not wait too long. They only see the short term. They wouldn’t even consider the idea of getting a financial benefit after they’ve sold the land”. REScoop supporters explained how, according to them, private promoters buying the lands exploited the information asymmetry by remaining silent about the profitability of windmills. Several interviewees criticized politicians for being “blind” about these potential benefits, even if improvements were observed. “If politicians only knew what they lose when they negotiate with private promoters… […] Now with the help of [a RES network] we sometimes have the possibility to explain them, give them numbers […], but it’s a bit late, so many contracts have already been signed” (interviewee 4).
School of Electronics, Electrical Engineering and Comp Sci. QUB, United Kingdom
Received: 30 September 2016 / Accepted: 29 April 2017 / Published online: 01 May 2017
An optimization model for the design of a hybrid renewableenergy microgrid supplying an isolated load has been developed. This is achieved in two steps. The first step developed a linear programming model that uses the average pattern of demand, wind, and solar energy to determine the optimal configuration. The second step used a clustering algorithm to investigate the methods of improving the reliability of the system. These include increasing the storage capacity and increasing the rated power of the wind energy conversion system (WECS) or solar energy conversion system (SECS). The results have shown that increasing the capacity of storage is the most economical way of improving the reliability of the system. The model has been verified through applications to a test microgrid of common size. The results have shown a 70% reduction in gas emissions and an 80% reduction in energy costs.
Example of energy system – remote energy hub
• Different scenarios are studied
• Cost of synthetic methane in Europe is calculated as the ratio of total (annualised) system cost to 100 TWh HHV (higher heating value) of methane volume delivered (per year)