Studies that contributed to the epidemiology of NVP have reported conflicting findings, and often failed to account for all possible co-variables necessary to evaluate the mul- tidimensional associations [8-12]. For example, whether race/ethnicity influence NVP is not well established. While some studies indicate that incidence of NVP differs according to women's race/ethnicity [13-18], others show no association [9,19]. The fact that none of these studies accounted for potential confounders could partly explain this variability. Moreover, studies did not always have an explicit and valid classification of race/ethnicity, and nearly all of them were done on pregnant women with HG. The reason for the possible association between race/ ethnicityand NVP is unknown but it has been proposed that differences between racial/ethnic groups could be accounted by important socioeconomic variables . Only three studies used multivariate analyses to evaluate the association between race/ethnicityand NVP and they show contradictory results. The first one failed to demon- strate a significant relationship between race/ethnicityand vomiting , the second showed that White women had less NVP than Hispanics and Blacks , and the third one showed that Black women had less NVP than whites . The racial/ethnic differences in the reporting of health problems is pivotal in order to find out the rea- son why patients experience diseases and treatment differ- ently, and to expand approaches for the improvement of public health [21-23]. Therefore, a study looking at the association between race/ethnicityand NVP, accounting for possible confounders is warranted.
Compte-rendu du livre de Luis Fernando Angosto Ferrández et Sabine Kradolfer (coord.), Everlasting Countdowns. Race,
Ethnicityand National Censuses in Latin American States. Newcastle upon Tyne, Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2012. In Cahiers des Amériques Latines, No. 71, 2013, pp. 204-207.
2 internationales de rassembler, comparer voire fusionner des données nationales pose le problème de la décontextualisation de catégories si bien contextualisées dans le livre.
extent by certain institutional forces and the book market, what Huggan has referred to as “the North American culture industries,” which “increasingly support yet still might be seen, paradoxically, as disfavouring writers from ethnic minority backgrounds” (Huggan and
Siemerling 82). In a similar way, speaking of the burgeoning interest in minority writing in the mid-1990s, Miki sees the anthology in particular as “a marketable container” that serves “to present a ‘variety’ of writers from one ethnic or cultural enclave, all at once as it were” (Broken 119). In the francophone context, Pierre Nepveu sees écriture migrante as having in part become “une étiquette commode,” well suited to the structuring needs of the national literary institution (“Vice Versa” 90). As Simon Harel writes, “Cette appellation [écriture migrante] qui, au moment de sa création, avait une pertinence inventive, a depuis fait l’objet d’une institutionnalisation massive.” The mainstream’s absorption of écriture migrante in Quebec and the latter’s subsequent reduction, Harel claims, is symptomatic of the national literature’s attempt to redefine itself in more open and plural terms following the breakup of the traditional national discourse and the identitarian grounding it had allowed for (Les passages 72). Caccia has also shown himself to be suspect of the rapidity by which écriture migrante was taken up by the literary institution in Quebec, questioning the apparently altruistic motives behind this acceptance whose function more often than not “est justement de préserver la citadelle de l’identité.” “La réception des écritures migrantes s’est faite certes,” he observes, “mais par glissements progressifs, sans remettre en cause le dispositif idéologique de base [de la littérature nationale]. Nous affirmons même qu’elles l’ont renforcé” (“Les écritures” [Gravili] 60-61). Smaro Kamboureli has spoken of the process of institutionalization to which Canadian literature has been subjected to in its entirety. “Sometimes subtly, sometimes crudely,” she states, “it has always been employed as an instrument—cultural, intellectual, political, federalist, and
Terms such as “race” and “ethnicity” have often been used in literary criticism focusing on so-called black British and British Asian writing, and understandably so. Rarely, however, have they been as subtly defined and as carefully contextualized as in Dave Gunning’s Raceand Antiracism, which discusses ten novels published between 1995 and 2006 and explores
Keywords: Bias, Facial analysis, Age, Gender andRace, Soft Biomet- rics, Facial Attributes
The prevalent commercial deployment of automated face analysis systems (i.e., face recognition as a robust authentication method) has fueled increasingly the scientific attention. Current machine learning algorithms allow for a relative reliably detection, recognition, as well as categorization of face images w.r.t. age, raceand gender. We note though, that training and evaluation data for such algorithms is often biased concerning factors such as age, gender, ethnicity, pose and resolution. Very recently Buolamwini and Gebru  reported that algorithms trained with such biased data are inherently bound to produce skewed results. This leads to a significant drop in performance of state of the art models, when applied to images of particular gender and / or ethnicity groups.
Upon my return from studies in England, where I witnessed a much more blatant form of racism than was evident in Belize, I was more sensitive to the real prejudices and discrimination in Belizean society. Soon after my return in 1968, Evan X Hyde and others formed the United Black Association for Development, to denounce the racism endemic in the society and promote pride in one‘s blackness, and I associated with the movement. Still, I felt that the real issue that caused separation, intolerance and prejudice was class, not ‗race‘. Yes, colonialism was racist and it sought to create divisions between peoples of different cultures as part of its strategy to dominate them, but the solution for the colonized people was to refuse to be so divided, and to unite across such divides to struggle for freedom and justice, in particular social and economic justice. I felt, and still do, that the real division was between the rich and powerful and those they kept poor and powerless, and that the ―wretched of the earth‖ 110 should unite along class lines against the oppressors. I became active in the struggle for the independence of Belize, and shortly after we won independence in 1981 I wrote that Belize had become a State before it became a nation. By that I meant that there were still so many differences among its people based on ethnic and other particularities, and that we as a people needed to do more to come together as one people, and to create what we were then calling a ―national identity‖. Since then I have become wary of such terms, and have come to believe that it is wrong to attempt to impose such an identity. And while I still believe that dividing the population into distinct ―ethnic groups‖ is counter-productive, I have come to appreciate the importance that ethnic identification and ethnic consciousness can have for people, particularly when they feel that resources, and respect, are denied them because of their belonging to a particular ethnic group. Still, for me personally, ethnicity is irrelevant, and I certainly do not identify myself as belonging to any ethnic group.
cette question. En effet, une grande partie des études met surtout en lumière les multiples oppressions dont sont victimes les femmes dont l’identité est minoritaire à plus d’un titre. L’intersection sexe/race se trouve parfois réduite à la double discrimination, alors que l’intersec- tionnalité est un concept bien plus vaste et complexe. Une citation de Lisa Webley et Liz Duff, dans “Women Solicitors as a Barometer for Problems within the Legal Profession –Time to Put Values before Profit?”, article publié en 2009, illustre bien cette tendance : l’approche intersectionnelle n’y est même pas mentionnée par son nom, bien que le participe intersected apparaisse (376) 6 .
We examine this possibility in the Canadian context. More specifically, we present results from a unique experimental design that examines support for welfare while varying the race of individual welfare recipients. The experiment allows us to isolate, then, the eﬀect of race on welfare attitudes. Welfare “vignettes” are designed to further test whether racial eﬀects are amplified when cash benefits are involved compared to social services. Results suggest that race does indeed matter to welfare support in Canada, though perhaps not quite in the way we might anticipate given the existing US literature. We discuss these results as they pertain to the literature on racial diversity and welfare; we also suggest that our experimental design provides a powerful framework that can be used to analyze how recipient characteristics aﬀect attitudes towards a wide range of public policies, both within and across countries. But first, we review the existing literatures connecting racial and ethnic diversity to support for redistributive policy.
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Material selection is artful balance between production and customer. The automotive industry's adoption of many materials interrelationships among objectives, such as fuel economy and safety are sufficiently strong that materials are very essential in manufacturing and fabrication. This work designates the process of selecting a material for chassis design. The conclusions drawn on two designs three materials have resulted Ladder chassis can be mainly used for long passenger vehicles or trucks that carry more load than the other types hence the material used should be of considerable stiffness and should be able to withstand the loads exerted. Weight reduction is not of much importance in such cases. In case of space frame chassis which is the type of chassis used for high end road vehicles and some race cars weight reduction is also an important factor which adds to the better handling of the vehicle. Stiffness of material is not of much importance in such cases. In these vehicles aluminum alloys may be used and composite materials like fiber glass can be used without a doubt. Changing materials involves changing processing operations. This can be achieved by demonstrating that light weight design does not lead to any loss of robustness in the daily operation of the road andrace vehicles. Analysis suggest that the cost of vehicle decrease with weight- optimized commercial vehicles.
SUMMARY Raceand medicine
In this article, I argue that the problematic of “raceand medicine”, which has been the object of many recent debates, has a long history that it may be useful to understand better. I show more specifically that, from the very first uses of the concept of “race” in natural his- tory during the XVIII th century, medical concepts and analogies served as important models. These medical models were especially useful to analyze “races” as alterations from an original identity. Different analogies are studied here. 1. The analogy between races’ peculiar temperaments and morbid alterations of human constitution. 2. The analogy between the transmission of the alterations along generations and hereditary diseases. In this second analogy, I differentiate between two models: the degeneration of the human type and the transmission of a molecular alteration of one character. ‡
•The metabolic and cardiac impact of a cycling effort on blood biology is not very well described in the literature. •We aimed to measure the concentration of different
biomarkers (cardiac and metabolic) released during an international cycling race.
•The stress delivered from the physical activity performed during the race induced a significant variation of hsTnT which increased significantly between T0 and T1 (p<0.0001) and stayed higher 3 hours after the end of the exercise (T0-T3: p<0.0001) (Fig.5) .
•The intense exercise delivery by the race induced a significant variation of NT-proBNP, that followed the same kinetic of hsTnT but in smaller proportion. We noticed variations statistically significant between T0 and T1 and between T0 and T3 for NT-proBNP (Fig.6).
AQ3 But we should not
generalize from that observation either and state that men prefer dark-
55 skinned partners. Here again, it would be an invalid generalization.
More generally, do we have enough empirical evidence to state that humans generally use a colour scale to decide whom to associate with and whom to develop all sorts of relations with? It is undisputable that we all see different colours and different skin colours even though we
NOM : WAMBERGUE Prénom : Bérengère
TITRE : Le Golden Retriever : Etude de la race et de ses prédispositions pathologiques
RESUME : Le Golden Retriever est un braccoïde de grande race, aujourd’hui très populaire. D’abord utilisé pour la chasse, l’Homme a confié à ce chien d’autres fonctions, principalement dans le milieu médical. L’étude de cette race est réalisée à travers la description de son standard et de ses prédispositions héréditaires. Les dominantes pathologiques sont nombreuses, les plus fréquentes sont les dysplasies de la hanche et du coude, quelques tares oculaires, la dermatite atopique, l’épilepsie essentielle, moins fréquemment la sténose aortique ou le shunt porto-systémique. Cependant la transmission héréditaire n’est pas toujours démontrée.
La race Rembi a été caractérisée d’un point de vue morphologique en considérant 21 variables quantitatives et 12 variables qualita- tives. L’échantillonnage conséquent de femelles Rembi dans une vaste zone comprenant le berceau de la race a permis d’étudier finement, au travers d’analyses canoniques discriminantes, la struc- turation de la race en Algérie. La considération des variables quali- tatives n’a montré aucune structuration phénotypique quel que soit le facteur considéré (statut de la ferme, zone climatique, mobilité du troupeau, région ou variété). Ces analyses ont postulé en faveur d’une forte homogénéité intrarace, considérant les traits discrets. De même, les variables quantitatives n’ont pas montré de structura- tion forte, excepté pour le facteur région pour lequel les brebis ont présenté des distinctions nettes. Il est à noter que l’analyse sur les deux variétés, Rembi et Sagaa, permet de conclure que le concept de variété n’était pas appuyé par une réalité phénotypique pour ce qui concerne la race Rembi. Les entretiens avec les éleveurs ont révélé que le terme de variété était souvent employé pour dési- gner un troupeau transmis de génération en génération. Parfois une variété peut montrer des particularités phénotypiques marquées : la Sagaa par exemple est caractérisée par des tâches sombres au niveau du cou.
Résumé du PFE : sous titre : Les performances zootechniques du mouton de race Ouled Djellal
Afin d’étudier l’impact, de l’amélioration des performances zootechniques de reproduction et de production, dans un élevage à Sidi Aissa, une expérimentation a été effectuée sur un effectif total de 30 brebis de race Ouled Djellal. L’utilisation de traitement de synchronisation des chaleurs et de stimulation ovarienne, a permis d’aboutir à un taux de fertilité amélioré et qui est de 86.66 %, et un taux de prolificité satisfaisant et qui est de 193.6 %. Donc ces résultats prouvent qu’il est possible d’améliorer les paramètres de reproduction dans la région de Sidi Aissa.
The performances of sows vary on the first 3 rows of career, complicating the work of selection of the breeders. Heritabilities and genetic parameters for the average number of piglets born alive on various rows, as well as for the new criteria, the sums and the variations of the performances been born alive on rows 1 and 2 or on rows 2 and 3, were estimated by the restricted maximum likelihood method. The population studied corresponds to 3554 sows born after the 7th January 2004 and having realized 3 rows of reach before the 16th February 2015. The criterion delta21, defined as the difference of performance between rows 1 and 2, has an heritability of 6%, and its absolute value, has an heritability of 5%, they translate the capacity of the sow to improve or repeat its performances. The criterion somme12, defines as the sum of the performances on the first 2 rows, has an heritability of 26% and translates the potential of prolificacy for the beginning of career. The estimations of the genetic correlations, between the different prolificacy criteria, allowed to highlight 4 scenarios which can potentially answer the problematic and integrate these new criteria. They are compared with a reference scenario appropriate to the study and approaching the current selection in Tai Zumu. The criterion delta21 or its absolute do not allow to optimize the evaluation but bring an additional information. The criterion somme12 requires to delay the selection of a cycle and thus to revise the evaluation in its globality.