Clear advantages for SMEs to use open innovation approaches for the generation of new ideas, and the development of new products and services have previously been identified. However, this study identified that social media tools were only used once during the planning and imagination phase, for business development, and customer acquisition. None of the interviewed firms used social media tools during the introduction and definition phase to either gather feedback on their concepts and design, or to test their concepts and prototypes. Although there are benefits in exploiting such methods, SMEs often lack resources (time, cost, knowledge) in order to efficiently use them for innovation purposes, and the first two phases of the productlifecycle. The lack of resources forces them to turn towards commonly used and familiar platforms, such as Facebook, LinkedIn, Twitter, and YouTube, to perform marketing and customer service support tasks in the later phases of the productlifecycle. In both the systematic literature review and the multiple case studies, SMEs neglect the use of social media tools during the retirement phase. Significant benefits can come from collaboration during this phase. These benefits include, amongst others, improved brand image by recycling outdated products and by continuously offering customer service support, important feedback to remove a product, or simply feedback to initiate ideas to develop new products and start a new productlifecycle.
Key words: Sustainability, LifeCycle Analysis, Eco- Design, Design Process.
The product´s lifecycle varies dramatically, from processors embedded in disposable consumer goods to applications requiring maintenance and support for decades. Taking into account the complete productlifecycle is a design requirement. It covers from the initial product concept, through its operational period, finishing with the replacement with advanced equipment [K2]. The specific concern areas in a lifecycle perspective are: an accurate lifecycle economic model to guide engineering tradeoffs, taking into account requirements for logistics and support during the product operational period, and other issues regarding to refurbishing/retiring/discarding the system at the end-of-life. Despite the fact that the "lifecycle" term has different meanings for various technical communities, the main idea is to expand the traditional engineering emphasis on the "design cycle" to include optimizing utility, profits, and tradeoffs across the entire lifetime of the product being designed. [K1]
LifeCycle Assessment is a “cradle-to-grave” approach for assessing industrial systems. “Cradle-to-grave” begins with the gathering of raw materials from the earth to create the product and ends at the point when all materials are returned to the earth. LCA evaluates all stages of a product’s life from the perspective that they are interdependent, meaning that one operation leads to the next. LCA enables the estimation of the cumulative environmental impacts resulting from all stages in the productlifecycle, often including impacts not considered in more traditional analyses (e.g., raw material extraction, material transportation, ultimate product disposal, etc.) (Ortiz, Castells et al. 2009). By including the impacts throughout the whole productlifecycle, LCA provides a comprehensive view of the environmental aspects of the product or process and a more accurate picture of the true environmental trade-offs in product selection and its associated process. The term “lifecycle” refers to the major activities in the course of the product’s life-span from its manufacture, use, and maintenance, to its final disposal, including the raw material acquisition required manufacturing the product. Figure 1 illustrates the possible lifecycle stages that can be considered in an LCA and the typical inputs/outputs measured (SAIC 2006).
Moreover, PSS has been passed throughout a transition from the primary after-sale services to the current internet based lifecycle solution (Van Ostaeyen et al. 2013). As a result, the competitive capability of companies is not anymore on adding offline services to their product but to propose a smart function or solution to fulfill the customer needs. Additionally, PSS development process is associated with a technological transition in the product “along with its lifecycle” as well as service enablers (Scholze et al. 2016). In this matter, Cyber-Physical System (CPS) can accurately describe PSS new technological approach in integrating ICT in productlifecycle engineering and advanced services (Boehm & Thomas 2013). Connecting Cyber-Physical System to PSS or function design has been proposed by various researchers (Stark et al. 2014)(Lindström & Karlberg 2017). Providing customized, real-time intelligent services are enabled by CPS for traditional manufacturing systems (Yue et al. 2015). In this matter, the design of intelligent service provided by CPS has a very strong Systems Engineering flavor (Yue et al. 2015). As an example, Schuh et al. (2014) proposed the Cyber-Physical System as an enabler for the tool making industry in the service provision (Schuh et al. 2014). In this proposition, the transition from tool provider to the service provider is a progressive process shown in Figure 6.
What is the economic effect of environmental taxation when pollution impacts health? Whereas a vast number of theoretical contributions address this question taking the effect of pollution on mortality into consideration, fewer include the effects of pollution on morbidity. Furthermore, those contributions do not model the interaction between pollution and health over the life-cycle. By contrast, we build a model that takes into consideration the evolution of health over the lifecycle and its consequences on individual optimal choices. In this framework, the effects of environmental taxation are not limited to the traditional negative crowding-out and positive productivity effects. We show that environmental taxation generates new general equilibrium effects ignored by previous contributions. Indeed, as the environmental tax improves the health profile over the life-cycle, it influences investment in health as well as saving, labor supply and retirement choices. We also show that whether those general equilibrium effects are positive or negative for the economy crucially depends on the degree of substitutability between young and old labor.
In part II of this paper we apply CCA to the issue of career choices. The ability to change careers over one’s working life is isomorphic with an option to exchange one asset for another.
Having this option significantly affects the value of one’s human capital, the largest asset that most individuals possess over much of their adult lives. Choosing the optimal strategy involves selecting an initial career and then switching later in life, if the conditions warrant it. Moreover, the switching option affects the consumer’s optimal portfolio mix of safe and risky assets. CCA
Cite this article as: Olivier Bonato and Joel Chadoeuf, Arthropods lifecycle and temperature: beyond isomorphy hypothesis, Journal of Thermal Biology,
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Udo de Haes, H., Sleeswijk, A.W., Heijungs, R., 2006. Similarities, Differences and Synergisms Between HERA and LCA—An Analysis at Three Levels. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment: An International Journal 12, 431-449.
Yang, J., Xu, M., Zhang, X., Hu, Q., Sommerfeld, M., Chen, Y., 2011. Life-cycle analysis on biodiesel production from microalgae: water footprint and nutrients balance. Bioresource technology 102, 159-65.
We build a model that takes into consideration the evolution of health over the lifecycle and its consequences on individual optimal choices. In this framework, the effect of environmental taxation are not limited to the traditional negative crowding-out and positive pro- ductivity effects. We show that environmental taxation generates new general equilibrium effects ignored by previous contributions. Indeed, as the environmental tax improves the health profile over the life-cycle, it influences saving, labor supply, retirement and investment in health. We also show that whether those general equilibrium effects are pos- itive or negative for the economy crucially depends on the degree of substitutability between young and old labor. We complete our the- oretical analysis with numerical examples. Within the range of our parameters, it appears that ignoring those general equilibrium effects results in significantly understating the negative of environmental tax- ation on output per capita and welfare.
3.2.1. Inherent variations with ﬂow differentiation
Inherent variations can be modelled with temporal differentiation of ﬂows or dynamic modelling. For instance, electricity production ( Messagie et al., 2014 ; Vuarnoz and Jusselme, 2018 ; Walker et al., 2015 ) and its use in buildings ( Collinge et al., 2013b ; Collinge et al., 2018 ; Karl et al., 2019 ; Roux et al., 2016b ; Roux et al., 2017 ; Vuarnoz et al., 2018 ; Walzberg et al., 2019a ), cloud computing ( Maurice et al., 2014 ) and wastewater treatment ( de Faria et al., 2015 ) have all been modelled with such approaches. In different ways, all these approaches convert ﬂows into temporal distributions, thus supplementing temporal properties to the core data of the model components in the LCA frame- work. The applicability of such data in other LCA studies is often limited because the temporal information is valid only for the temporal scope of a given case study. A way to address this limitation is to use a reference “time 0” in the temporal distribution as a period of occurrence relating to a starting period of a process ( Beloin-Saint-Pierre et al., 2014 ; Tiruta-Barna et al., 2016 ). This “time mark” creates process-relative de- scriptions, which can be reused in any period of a lifecycle or even for different life cycles. Tiruta-Barna et al. (2016) and Pigné et al. (2020) provided process-relative temporal distribution archetypes for ecoinvent v3.2, applicable to foreground and background datasets. As underlined by Beloin-Saint-Pierre et al. (2014) , the additional efforts needed to provide temporal information for all the ﬂows of LCA data- bases are still signi ﬁcant and the prioritisation of data-gathering re- mains important.
Product placement in movies
Product placements in movies are nearly as old as cinema itself (Turner, 2003; Newell and Salmon, 2004). It consists in putting a product and/or a brand into a movie scene where it can be seen and/or its name heard. The placement can either be paid by the advertiser or result in an exchange of products and/or services such as logistics facilities (Karrh, 1998). Ford paid 30 to 40 millions dollars to place an Aston Martin cars in the James bond named Die Another Day (2002) (Lehu, 2006). But Virgin Cola just gave his product and has not paid to be shown in La boite (2001) from Claude Zidi. Mainly since the end of the 1980’, several researches have contributed to a better understanding of this communication technique coined as “hybrid” by Balasubramanian (1994) since it combines several media techniques. Its positive effect on attitude (Fontaine, 2005), behavior (Daugherty et Gangadharbatla, 2005), and especially its potential impact on brand recall (Brennan, Dubas and Babin, 1999; d’Astous and Chartier, 2000) represent the main core of the research knowledge.
but city indexes adjust costs to a particular location. There are over 20,000 unit price line items available. R.S. Means also delivers its data through its own software, such as Means CostWorks ’98, or uses third party developers to distribute its data (http://www.rsmeans.com/ means/demo/shortlst.html). Whitestone (1998) markets its own product on CD-ROM format. The data from both firms provides costing for unit measures for specific North American locations and, like Yardstick for Costing (1997), they follow the North American 16-Division specification format, i.e., Masterformat (1995). Yardsticks for Costing, a Canadian product, contains metric and imperial unit costs for the eight major Canadian cities; however, there are no plans to market an electronic version at this time.
The growing concerns with climate change and the demands for the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, energy efficiency and conservation of raw materials present considerable challenges to owners, engineers and all construction industries. To address these challenges, there is a need to develop effective approaches for lifecycle design and management of highway bridges that will ensure their sustainability over a long planning horizon, in terms of improved physical performance, cost-effectiveness, and environmental compatibility. These optimized designs and management systems should provide the owners with the solutions that achieve an optimal balance between three relevant and competing criteria, namely: (i) engineering performance (e.g. safety, serviceability and durability); (ii) economic performance (minimum lifecycle costs, minimum user costs); and (iii) environmental performance (minimum greenhouse gas emissions, reduced materials consumption, energy efficiency, etc.).