Keywords: physicaleducationsportslesson, fitness health, female students♀ 1. Introduction
Physicaleducation is an educational course related to the physique of the human body. It is taken during primary and secondary education and encourages psychomotor learning in a play or movement exploration setting to promote health. (Anderson, D, 1989) whereas this practice differs from country to another for example, In France, physicaleducation has been a compulsory subject since 1880 and 1882. Every week the pupils are taught 3 hours of PE in primary school, 4 hours in the first form of secondary school, then 3 hours in high school (Mrs Rajani. J. Dalvi, 2014). While in South America (including Caribbean countries) 73 minutes in primary schools and 87 minutes in secondary schools (Ken Hardman,Ken Green, 2011). Where in Algeria are 2 hours per week in middle and high school (Boubeker YAHIAOUI, 2013) whereas it is absent in university programs where this difference leads us to the short time required to engage the student in physical activity thing confirmed by the studies which indicate that time of physical activity is reduced to improve academic results in many countries. (Marshall, Nick Draper and Helen 2014) Whereas the researchers discovered that exercise influenced specific measures of cognition and academic achievement. (Tomporowski, Phillip, McCullick, Bryan, Pesce, Catherine, 2015)
where Plato decrees the difference between education and teaching is in values from that we come from the reality of tomboy that, school children think as Fashion Witnessed in the Arab society in general and Algeria in particular. Where our educational institutions are mixed, lack of women's sports in the program of physicaleducation and the only law instructions educationally appropriate in recommendation uniforms to present themselves at school our intervention comes to highlighting a taboo topic in our society. Literature informs us by (Hines, Melissa, Golombok, Susan, Rust, John, Johnston, Katie J. Golding, Jean, 2002). There have been few studies of the causality of women's behavior and interests, when they do not match the female gender role. Where in the Arab society we reveal the only study in this topic, come back from Iraq by (Sahira Razak Kazem & all, 2011) where they mention that, the phenomenon has appeared in the beginning of high school, from that, they recommend the conduct of similar studies on other stages and the practice of Women's Sports to reduce the level of this phenomenon. From the proofs our study guides us to explain this phenomenon as an attitude, not Robert M. Arkin, 1984) Obviously, some girls not affected by the AGS syndrome are also tomboys, for this we begin with the definition of the Urban Dictionary, which described Tomboy. As a girl who dresses and sometimes behaves the way boys are expected to, often into more masculine things like "stronger" sports, computers, or cars where American Heritage® Dictionary Described a girl who behaves in a way that is perceived to be stereotypically boyish or masculine. While (Matthew Rottnek, 1999) defined the tomboy ''as a girl who says she's a D'Lane R. Compton, 2014) set that the definition has been documented in the 1553 listing in the Oxford English “ ”
- The "R." correlation coefficient between the school environment and the quality of teaching physicaleducation and sports was 0.424, largest of the tabular value of the estimated value of 0.232 at a degree of freedom 69 and the significance level 0.05, this means the presence of relational positive statistically significant relationship between the school environment and the quality of teaching physicaleducation and sports, and so the researcher explains that the more appropriate and effective school environment include all material components of typical buildings and stadiums and arenas, sports halls and pedagogical means and toilets, as well as lighting and ventilation, and various other sources of learning, to achieve quality of teaching physicaleducation and sports, in the sense that the school environment It has a direct impact on professor teaching practice of physicaleducation and sports, so as to facilitate his employ all of his knowledge, information and competencies process both been associated with, including planning, implementation, and evaluation of the lesson or other necessary skills that make it able to provide quality education distinguished by greater use of playgrounds and means , organizing more care and precision of lessons, feedback more specifically, the diversity of the largest and follow the best of the activities, a greater ability to analyze student needs, higher than the activity and the amount allocated to the learning educational time levels, the economy in time and effort, use of more than one way and style of teaching, and this is what we recognize the fact that the teaching of physicaleducation and sports quality with Professor mainly depend on the appropriate school environment material surrounding it, and this result consistent came with what indicated by each of the study (Sheikh 2011, p. 13) that the quality of teaching influenced by all the school environment elements , and as far as the
Based on the foregoing, it is clear to us that lesson planning component was the most exercise when professors of physicaleducation and sports in terms of the level of performance so take its course towards good, compared to the two elements implementation and evaluation of the lesson, who were less exercise when education professors of physical and sporting terms of the level of performance which focused on degree average, and this guide the teachers answers, and it is to say that the level quality of teaching physicaleducation and sports at secondary school from teachers point of view was average on the whole, they agree this result with the findings of a study (Kubaisi 2010, p. 15), which referred to that there is a decline in the quality of teaching, and also agree in general features with the findings of each of the study (Taleb A. 2011, p. 184) which indicated that there is a lack of professor of physicaleducation and sports competencies professional familiarity, and study (Osman, page 13) which indicated that a weakness in the performance of professors linked to the poverty of the physical environment, the consequent weakness in academic achievement.
Injury is damage with or without violation of the integrity of the tissues caused by any external influence. The following types of injuries: industrial, residential, transportation, military, sports and other Lesson of physicaleducation in Universities of the Republic of Belarus are equal to sports and especially many students attend various sports clubs, where they successfully engaged in your favorite sport.
History of PE/Health Practices in Belgium
PhysicalEducation in Belgium was influenced by sports and PE systems in Europe, but most of all by the Swedish system of gymnastics, then competitive sports (UK), the New Games and outdoor recreation, and more recently by the increasing focus on a healthy lifestyle. Currently, PE is protected as part of the Flemish basic school curriculum by the “Education II Decree.” Until 1968 exercises based on Swedish gymnastics predominated. In 1971 the term “gymnastics” was legally replaced by “PhysicalEducation” which remains the official school subject name. From the 1970s, the content of the PE curriculum has accentuated a dominant sport curriculum from successful competitive sport. Objectives/methods/activities of sports clubs, such as circuit training and power training but also types of game play, were gradually adopted in PE. This evolution resulted in the image of PE being a copy of (competitive) sports. As a reaction to this “sportification” of PE, the “New Games movement” and “outdoor recreation” emphasized recreation during the 1970s and 1980s. Next came the need to promote physical well-being, resulting in an increased attention for physical fitness inside and outside schools. Health-based PE programs/assessments became popular (De
Students’ social behaviors and interactions have been valued and incorporated in two out of five national standards of the Society of Health and Physical Educations in the United States, (SHAPE America, 2014). SHAPE America standards across kindergarten and twelve grades define what students should know and be able to do as a result of their participation in quality physicaleducation programs. Ideally, the implementation of social skills into school curriculum targets student’s achievement of responsible personal and social behavior that respects self and others (SHAPE America, Standard 4), in addition to, student’s recognition of the value of physical activity for health, enjoyment, challenge, self-expression and/or social interaction (SHAPE America, Standard 5). However, in reality, studies have shown that social skills are perceived as automatic outcomes of students’ participation in games and group activities, and it is rarely infused into the curriculum (Ward, & Vidoni, 2009). Instead, social skills are incidentally taught, and often associated to punishment or reprimands of students’ misconducts during lessons (Ward, 2006).
considerable potential for increasing PA in youth. On the other hand, the long-term effects of these modifications were again less well documented.
In summary, Sallis & McKenzie (1991) stated that PE teachers need to adopt a new role and recommended the implementation of a new concept called Quality PhysicalEducation (QPE), aiming to prepare youth for a lifetime of PA and provide them with PA during PE classes. Little more than 20 years later, Sallis et al. (2012) estimated that some improvements had been made 4 (growing support for PE outside the profession; development of evidence-based PE programmes; demonstration of a positive association between PE and academic outcomes; implementation of rigorous direct observation methods aiming to collect data about PE
University of Liege
Despite ‘antifat’ attitude of some PE teachers (Greenleaf & Weiller, 2005) and the PE public relations problem in regard to how obese students are treated (Irwin et al., 2003), it seems evident that this school subject represents a key element in the involvement of the education sector in the fight against the worldwide escalating global epidemic of obesity (Tappe &
An Expanding Field of Research on Student Learning: Gender and Students with Special Needs and Quality PE
Gender Issues in PhysicalEducation
Comparative analyzes on gender equity in PE in different countries show that this important and problematic issue is today better studied all around the world, but still remains problematic for quality PE (for an overview see, Penney, 2002). Many studies report that physicaleducation has a negative impact on girls’ interests in leading an active and healthy lifestyle. The multi-activity model of physicaleducation fails to give equal opportunity to boys and girls (Cogerino & Ruby, 2002; Cothran & Ennis, 1998; Davisse, 2000; Ennis 1998, 1999; Kirk, 2003; Penney 2002; Williams & Bedward, 2001). Research suggests that equity is not gained merely by choosing between single-sex or co-educational classes. Beyond the report, researchers intend to develop new strategies in teaching and in curriculum development to favor gender equity. This needs to be accompanied by an explicit pedagogy that is actively anti-sexist (Costes & Amade-Escot, 2003; Davisse, 2000; Ennis, 1999; Hastie, 1998b; Kirk, 2003; Silva, Bothelho Gomes & Queiros, 2001; Talbot, 1993, 2003; Verscheure & Amade-Escot, 2004; Wright, 1997, 2000). Observation in everyday practice might help the understanding of the co-construction of gender bias in physicaleducation. Exploratory works conducted in my lab have identified the constraints which interfere on teacher and students interactions when the teacher tries to implement equal
The results showed, also, that the critical thought skill in the physical and sportseducation curriculum is included at a very weak rate for all the four years of the middle school education, this is in contrary with the theoretical side where we observe that there are changes at the level of the adolescent mental abilities. “At this age, for the adolescent, the moral concepts start to grow up, and he increases his abilities to inference, to judge, to solve problems and he’ll be capable to analyze, to synthesis and to assemble accurate generalizations”. (Mohammed Titi) This what Alaeddine Kifai (2006) confirmed while saying: “In the adolescence stage, a new mindset appears; critical thought which perfectly reflects a behavior characterized by emotion and mood. Through such a way of thinking, the adolescent want to discover, among what he does face during practicing sport, where the truth and the error exist”. (Kifai,2006. P:345).
A group of experts from the 12 French-speaking institutions involved in PETE has been mandated by the Ministry of Education in early 2017 to identify, design and share teaching devices and tools respecting the principles of the PEE in the specific domain. The project is based on the collaborative didactic engineering model (Goigoux, 2012; Sénéchal, 2016). The approach’s specificity lays on the collaboration between teacher educators and practitioners at each step of the project.
Historical evidences showed that pressure ulcers have been known to exist since ancient times and probably for as long as man has been on earth. Old aged, in specific, thought to be at a greater risk of developing pressure sores due to the reduction of functional capacity of body systems including the integumentary system. Pressure ulcer reduces the individual’s quality of life, and considered as a significant financial burden to the healthcare system. In geriatric hospital in the kingdom of Bahrain, the fast progression of pressure ulcer, after its onset, is found to be significant. This progression indicates lack of regular assessment of elderly patients’ skin condition. This project aims to introduce pressure ulcer assessment tool (PAT) in geriatric hospital as a practice developmental approach. It is expected to promote and facilitate change through educating nurses about doing proper assessment in a sustainable manner. The strategy used to identify the training need is the observation. This idea comes from the perspective that health promotion and disease prevention are of great importance for elderly people, the fact that pressure ulcer is a preventable hospital-acquired condition, and the lack of such vital assessment tool in this area of nursing. Facilitators are trained to reinforce coping skills and help nurses by monitoring the process of change in the field. As the practice development is systematic in nature, McCormack and Manley (2005) practice model of training is adopted in order to implement the change through education. Objectives of the PAT educational program are designed based on Bloom's Taxonomy (1960) behavioural objectives. In order to maintain quality standards of health, a policy to use PAT is enrolled to ensure the nurses’ professional conduct and accountability. The training program is
Self-control factor of the TEIQue was positively correlated with the instruc- tional strategies factor of the TSES . Instructional strategies are related to items such as “how well can you implement alternative strategies in your classroom”, and “how well can you provide appropriate challenges for very capable students”. This means that (at the individual level) teachers with high self-control are more able to challenge the diversity of situations encountered in a classroom. Teach- ers characterized by higher self-efficacy have been found to improve student behavior, learning, and management in the classroom (Chase, Lirgg, & Carson, 2001), and one can hypothesize that they exhibit improved abilities to organize and adapt their teaching to the diversity of classroom experiences, especially in the context of physicaleducation. Physicaleducation teachers face multiple social interactions in a more complex context than classroom teachers. Teachers who have been prepared to teach physicaleducation have specialized knowledge (i.e., movement skills, observational skills) that help them make appropriate decisions and understand how to develop and maintain productive learning in a highly fluid and fast-moving environment (Rink & Hall, 2008). Besides, student physiological and psychological reactions to physical fitness, motor development, competition or body expression are highly personal. Each individual must therefore receive an education related to those personal characteristics. The emotional awareness and emotion regulation of physicaleducation teachers could influence the efficacy of this pedagogical relationship. Students in classes taught by physicaleducation specialists, in comparison with nonspecialists, achieve more, have higher fitness levels and exhibit a more positive attitude toward physical activity (Rahim & Mar- riner, 1997; Sallis et al., 1997).
Strengthen the quality of refereeing
- Moreover, sharing the experiences between all federations might be a source of enrichment (communities of practice)
The case of the team sports with interpenetration
Analysis of the Wallonian situation of referee’s
- A typology of Sports and physicaleducation teacher’s trainers. Complexity of Theory/Practice reports in Sports sciences university training.
- Head of "Objectif STAPS", Ellipses’s collection (11 books) with: Tout-en-Un Licence STAPS (2019) [B.A in STAPS: Curriculum]; L’éducation physique et sportive à l’École (2016) [Sports and physicaleducation teaching in Secondary school]; Méthodologie de l’entraînement sportif (2016) [Methodology of sports training].
Figure 1.Working model of motivation
Data processed in this paper were collected within a broader study aiming to analyze
intrinsic motivation in nine secondary school physicaleducation classes (four girls’ classes and five boys’ classes, grades 10 and 11). In this study, we focused on a boys’ class identified as highly motivated. The level of class motivation was assessed based on students’ answers to a questionnaire focusing on four dispositional factors (see below). Despite a poor socio-economic context, which is usually linked with low levels of motivation, this class showed the highest mean motivation score among the boys’ classes, justifying its selection in the study. The class comprised 20 students all aged from 15 to 17. Their male teacher had an excellent reputation, due to his positive professional attitude and his experience as a pedagogical advisor and high-level coach.