Physical Education and Sports Activities

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Motives to Practice Physical Education and Sports Activities among Pupils of The Final Sections in Secondary Education

Motives to Practice Physical Education and Sports Activities among Pupils of The Final Sections in Secondary Education

This study aims to find out” Motives to practice physical education and sports activities among pupils of the final sections Of secondary education». It tried to answer at some questions regarding the pupils’ differences in respect to sexual variation. This study chose "attitude scale to words physical activity " who discovered it "keynon" and translate it " mohamed assen aalaoui". This search was practiced at choice formed 240 pupils (male and female) secondary school - jijel city .There after distributed and gathered the questionnaires and presenting , and recording the consequence for know the statistic differences between scientific pupils and literary pupils. The results also showed that there were statistically significant differences among students for a changing sex, but as a relative and this in all dimensions studied. Key words: Motives, Physical Education and Sports Activities, Pupils of the final sections of secondary education
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Physical Education Stimulating a Healthy Lifestyle and  Critical Sports Consumption in Belgium

Physical Education Stimulating a Healthy Lifestyle and Critical Sports Consumption in Belgium

History of PE/Health Practices in Belgium Physical Education in Belgium was influenced by sports and PE systems in Europe, but most of all by the Swedish system of gymnastics, then competitive sports (UK), the New Games and outdoor recreation, and more recently by the increasing focus on a healthy lifestyle. Currently, PE is protected as part of the Flemish basic school curriculum by the “Education II Decree.” Until 1968 exercises based on Swedish gymnastics predominated. In 1971 the term “gymnastics” was legally replaced by “Physical Education” which remains the official school subject name. From the 1970s, the content of the PE curriculum has accentuated a dominant sport curriculum from successful competitive sport. Objectives/methods/activities of sports clubs, such as circuit training and power training but also types of game play, were gradually adopted in PE. This evolution resulted in the image of PE being a copy of (competitive) sports. As a reaction to this “sportification” of PE, the “New Games movement” and “outdoor recreation” emphasized recreation during the 1970s and 1980s. Next came the need to promote physical well-being, resulting in an increased attention for physical fitness inside and outside schools. Health-based PE programs/assessments became popular (De
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Sharing good practices in physical education to promote physical activity, wellness and health

Sharing good practices in physical education to promote physical activity, wellness and health

For this purpose, the teacher of physical education can take part in ones’ course, but also organize extracurricular physical and sports activities, stimulate and reinforce active transportation, initiate changes in the school environment and encourage collaborations and interdisciplinary activities (Snyers et al., 2014). However, the impact of teachers in physical education cannot be separated from the objectives set by the school policy and from a concerted intervention by all members of the school community. Indeed, only multisectoral approaches can really lead to changes in the lifestyle of young people (Cale & Harris, 2006). The physical education teacher must therefore become the cornerstone of promoting a healthy and active lifestyle (Tappe & Burgeson, 2004) and also collaborate with other stakeholders in the educational community as it is the case in all projects of comprehensive and active schools. After having been tested in other learning contexts and scientifically validated by the members of the CAPBES, these educational tools and devices will be devoted to being shared with all members of the FWB educational community who can intervene in the field of “Physical activity, wellness and health”.
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The School Environment and its Relation with the Quality of Teaching Physical Education

The School Environment and its Relation with the Quality of Teaching Physical Education

- The "R." correlation coefficient between the school environment and the quality of teaching physical education and sports was 0.424, largest of the tabular value of the estimated value of 0.232 at a degree of freedom 69 and the significance level 0.05, this means the presence of relational positive statistically significant relationship between the school environment and the quality of teaching physical education and sports, and so the researcher explains that the more appropriate and effective school environment include all material components of typical buildings and stadiums and arenas, sports halls and pedagogical means and toilets, as well as lighting and ventilation, and various other sources of learning, to achieve quality of teaching physical education and sports, in the sense that the school environment It has a direct impact on professor teaching practice of physical education and sports, so as to facilitate his employ all of his knowledge, information and competencies process both been associated with, including planning, implementation, and evaluation of the lesson or other necessary skills that make it able to provide quality education distinguished by greater use of playgrounds and means , organizing more care and precision of lessons, feedback more specifically, the diversity of the largest and follow the best of the activities, a greater ability to analyze student needs, higher than the activity and the amount allocated to the learning educational time levels, the economy in time and effort, use of more than one way and style of teaching, and this is what we recognize the fact that the teaching of physical education and sports quality with Professor mainly depend on the appropriate school environment material surrounding it, and this result consistent came with what indicated by each of the study (Sheikh 2011, p. 13) that the quality of teaching influenced by all the school environment elements , and as far as the
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PROFESSIONAL COMPETENCE REQUIREMENTS: THE VIEWS OF SEVERAL PHYSICAL AND SPORTS EDUCATION TEACHERS (CASE IN MOSTAGANEM PROVINCE, ALGERIA)

PROFESSIONAL COMPETENCE REQUIREMENTS: THE VIEWS OF SEVERAL PHYSICAL AND SPORTS EDUCATION TEACHERS (CASE IN MOSTAGANEM PROVINCE, ALGERIA)

In addition, by combining two replies (TICE and knowledge of the activities), twenty-three teachers, 26.43%, define the competence specific to PSE as the ability to carry out exercises correctly and sound knowledge of TICE (information and communication technology in teaching). The others gave quite varied and less significant responses. A large group defined competence in PSE as prior knowledge of the concepts which facilitate the preparation of a teaching session, as well as sound theoretical knowledge and specific practice regarding PSE. The K² test shows that the calculated K² value (K²cal=21.42) is greater than the K² value of the Table (K² Tab=18.31) where the degree of freedom of scope (N-1) is 10, and the level of significance is 0.05. This finding is a statistically significant increase, which explains the large difference in favour of the answer giving the greatest number of choices.
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The impact of the lack of physical education and sports lesson on fitness health-case female students

The impact of the lack of physical education and sports lesson on fitness health-case female students

Physical activity, health fitness and academic results are two very important goals in the student life. Whereas Success in study lies in academic subjects in educational establishment where Marshall, Nick Draper and ‎‎ Helen (2014) indicate that time of physical activity is reduced to improve academic results in many countries thing confirmed in university programs. While Riva L. Rahl (2010) confirms that spending, increased time in structured physical education does not reduce academic achievement and may even contribute to achievement case middle and high school in Algeria. From this perspective, our outcome in this study reveals the contradictions between the two philosophers which agreed the importance of physical education in the component of the curriculum based on declaration of Jane M. Shimon (2011). Where others educators approved that physical education and sports would never be a component of the curriculum based on statement of Dhiraj Kumar Singh (2010) declaration. Whereas our results based on body shape index (ABSI) and body composition BMI as health measures confirm that the absence of lesson physical education and sport is a risk factors on fitness health from that we agreed the philosophers that physical activities are a very important activity in the life of our female students ♀ in different academic specialty and in all levels of life (A K Sayed 2012). Where Helen Toner et al confirm the Sport practice is a physical and a mental effort that we make to use extra energy of our body consume regularly (Helen Toner, ‎ John Reynolds , 2016 ) which guides us that Sport is the key to a healthier life according to Ali Narvani et al (2014) where Frank Webbe(2010) and Tomporowski, Phillip (2015) confirm that the role of physical activity has a great role in the development of brain networks and the adaptive mental function.
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The School Environment and its Relation with the Quality of Teaching Physical Education

The School Environment and its Relation with the Quality of Teaching Physical Education

- The "R." correlation coefficient between the school environment and the quality of teaching physical education and sports was 0.424, largest of the tabular value of the estimated value of 0.232 at a degree of freedom 69 and the significance level 0.05, this means the presence of relational positive statistically significant relationship between the school environment and the quality of teaching physical education and sports, and so the researcher explains that the more appropriate and effective school environment include all material components of typical buildings and stadiums and arenas, sports halls and pedagogical means and toilets, as well as lighting and ventilation, and various other sources of learning, to achieve quality of teaching physical education and sports, in the sense that the school environment It has a direct impact on professor teaching practice of physical education and sports, so as to facilitate his employ all of his knowledge, information and competencies process both been associated with, including planning, implementation, and evaluation of the lesson or other necessary skills that make it able to provide quality education distinguished by greater use of playgrounds and means , organizing more care and precision of lessons, feedback more specifically, the diversity of the largest and follow the best of the activities, a greater ability to analyze student needs, higher than the activity and the amount allocated to the learning educational time levels, the economy in time and effort, use of more than one way and style of teaching, and this is what we recognize the fact that the teaching of physical education and sports quality with Professor mainly depend on the appropriate school environment material surrounding it, and this result consistent came with what indicated by each of the study (Sheikh 2011, p. 13) that the quality of teaching influenced by all the school environment elements , and as far as the
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Preparing physically educated citizens in physical education. Expectations and practices

Preparing physically educated citizens in physical education. Expectations and practices

It seems that PE teachers are often convinced that when they teach, students learn automatically what is taught and become able to use it. It is also important to consider that all students are not equally passionate about one of the traditional values described by the IOC (2016): that of excellence, even with the proviso that it is doing your best rather than winning which is important. Consequently, it must be remembered that a really motivated PE teacher may not meet the expectations of some students who are not persuaded that fitness testing, conditioning, or learning specific sports skills are interesting objectives. If this situation is combined with low self-perceptions, such students can develop negative attitudes towards PE and reject PA (Wiersma & Sherman, 2008). Zeng, Hipscher, & Leung (2011) showed that students’ attitudes towards PE is notably influenced by the perceived benefits of the activities proposed during the lessons. The participation of students could be considered as an
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Referee education in Wallonia - The case of the team sports with interpenetration

Referee education in Wallonia - The case of the team sports with interpenetration

Strengthen the quality of refereeing - Moreover, sharing the experiences between all federations might be a source of enrichment (communities of practice) The case of the team sports with interpenetration Analysis of the Wallonian situation of referee’s

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The situation of school physical education in Belgium

The situation of school physical education in Belgium

Despite of the decree “Education II” (c.p., 1.1.), school physical education has, during the last few years, often been the target of criticism for not reaching one of its main educational goals, namely the preparation of yougsters to adopt a healthy and physically active life-style. The discrepancy between the important role attributed to school physical education with regard to the onset of a healthy and physically active life-style and the low activity level of Flemish children, as reported by Scheerder and colleagues (2000), is according to De Knop and colleagues (2004a) one of the reasons why the effectiveness and value of school physical education are still often being questionned. Several external organisations such as youth movements, sport organisations, sport federations, etc. constantly touch on the “hardware” (e.g., insufficient sport accommodation, lack of curricular time allocation and financial resources) and/or “software” (e.g., unqualified teachers and shortage of official assessments) problems of school physical education to contest the importance of the subject within today’s school curriculum. De Knop (1999) reports that according to these school physical education opponents, the functions of the subject could well be taken over by the large diversity of extracurricular sporting possibilities. Based on the analysis of official reports, Vincke (2001) concluded that also a quarter of the Belgian parents currently object to the importance of school physical education within the school curriculum.
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Research and Education Activities in Electric Power Systems at the University of Liège

Research and Education Activities in Electric Power Systems at the University of Liège

Equal Area Criterion, for multi-machine power systems, and in the nineties to the development of the Single Machine Equivalent (SIME) method. This hybrid method combines time- domain simulation of the full-scale, multi-machine power system model with the identification of the critical subsystem of unstable generators, the construction of a single-machine infi- nite-bus equivalent description of the mode of instability, and the derivation of stability margins and preventive con- trol information from this equivalent. The SIME method imposes no con- straints on the dynamic model used for studying transient instability mecha- nisms. It has been coupled with various time-domain simulation software packages and extensively tested on numerous large-scale power system models (EDF, Hydro-Québec, WECC and other EPRI test systems, Brazilian, Italian and Greek systems, etc.). Besides accelerating the computations of stability margins with respect to pure time domain simulation, its main feature is its ability to identify the physical mechanism of loss of synchro- nism and hence to provide guidelines for preventive and emergency control.
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Constraints experienced by physical education teachers with overweight and obese students

Constraints experienced by physical education teachers with overweight and obese students

Rukavina, P., Li, W., Doolittle, S., Manson, M.L., & Beale, A.K. (2010). Physical Education Teachers’ Instructional Strategies for Including Overweight Students. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 81, sup.1, A67-68. Tappe, M.K., & Burgeson, C.R. (2004). Physical education: A cornerstone for physically active lifestyles. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 23, 4, 281-299.

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Physical education teachers as physical activity promoters: Examples of initial/continuous preparation processes

Physical education teachers as physical activity promoters: Examples of initial/continuous preparation processes

It seems that PE teachers need some support in order to make youths physically active, and adopting a healthy lifestyle. In fact, proposing traditional lessons focusing on sport would not be sufficient to reach these objectives. In this way, PE teacher educators should have two priorities: (1) to clarify the PE teachers’ representations of PA and (2) to identify and share strategies aiming to define their potential actions on the field.

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Aeronautical Activities in the HES-SO. Strengthening Swiss Education 
            and Research in Aeronautics

Aeronautical Activities in the HES-SO. Strengthening Swiss Education and Research in Aeronautics

• Worldwide measurement of water vapor (green house gas) in the atmosphere • Avoidance of humid regions, which lead to the formation of contrails (whitish vapor trails in the wake of engines) and may contribute to the modification of the Earth albedo

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Effects of Cooperative and Self-Learning Strategies on Physical Education and Sport Class

Effects of Cooperative and Self-Learning Strategies on Physical Education and Sport Class

Cooperative Learning activities allowing the students to be active and responsible for theirs learning. Seneca advised the using of Cooperative Learning as he believes "when you teach, you learn twice". Bell and Lancaster have used the cooperative learning to groups in England. The idea of cooperative learning has extended to America, when the Lancaster’s schools have been opened in New York (1806). In the last three decades of the nineteenth century, Colonel Francis Parker has defended the Cooperative Learning, followed by John Dewey who has supported the using of Cooperative Learning groups until it became part of his famous style for learning. The theoretical foundation of Cooperative Learning began in the early 1900s, was founded by Kurt Kafka who is one of the authors of the Gestalt Psychology Theory, who confirmed that the groups are active in whole units, for which the interdependence among members could vary. Kurt Lewin has developed Kafka's notions and explained that the group is the essence of mutual dependence among members [9].
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Does proximity to physical activity infrastructures predict maintenance of organized and unorganized physical activities in youth?

Does proximity to physical activity infrastructures predict maintenance of organized and unorganized physical activities in youth?

Dependent variables At each of the nine survey cycles, participants reported all free-time PA in the past 4 months using a list of 36 activities. This questionnaire is similar to other PA checklists validated among youth (Crocker et al., 1997; Janz et al., 2008; Sallis et al., 1993), and was designed to include PA commonly engaged in by youth in Atlantic Canada (Craig et al., 2001). Using response options including ‘never’, ‘once per month or less’, ‘2-3 times per month’, ‘once per week’, ‘2-3 times per week’, ‘4-5 times per week’, and ‘almost every day’, participants reported (i) how often outside their gym class and (ii) with whom (i.e., alone, organized group or team, siblings, friends, parents) they most often practiced each activity. PA during gym classes were excluded because youth do not have control over activities executed in the context of these classes. Seven activities were classified as UPA, regardless of whom they were performed with (i.e., home exercises, trampoline, games, skipping rope, weight lifting, indoor chores, and outdoor chores) ; Although activities such as trampoline and jump rope can take place in an organized setting in
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Children’s engagement in physical education could be improved by stories and imagination.

Children’s engagement in physical education could be improved by stories and imagination.

1. Stories and imagination could influence affectivity as activities appears more fun and enjoyable. This could also facilitate the memorization and encourage creativity. 2. As children are engaged in an imagination process, they are achieving activities in a more active way, even those activities that are not their favorite ones.

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Quality Physical Education: A Review from Situated Research (1995-2005).: Teacher education ; Curriculum and Content Issues ; Student learning ;

Quality Physical Education: A Review from Situated Research (1995-2005).: Teacher education ; Curriculum and Content Issues ; Student learning ;

approach to content knowledge has been highlighted by recent research on the debate of ideas in PE classroom (Chevalier, & Mahut, 2002; Nachon, Mahut, Mahut, & Gréhaigne, 2001; Wallian & Gréhaigne, 2004; Wright, 1996). This type of studies should also be encouraged. In brief, despite some work there is little research on effective teaching of social interactions and constructive learning processes that are part of many curricular models such as discussed in section 2. At the stage where we are, PE research needs content-specific studies embedded in naturalistic settings to provide research base to guide curriculum, teacher education and student learning. The challenge for research will be in the future to better know the teaching principles which create student apprenticeship, and this, at a level of specificity that can give clear guidelines to teachers and at a grain size that does not over simplify the act of teaching as well as the domain-specific knowledge. This research has to be non only content-specific but also specific to grade levels, specific to the diversity of the school settings, and specific to children with learning difficulties, to girls and boys, to children with special needs, and to disadvantaged youth. Research in Physical Education still has a heavy agenda.
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Future anxiety and its relationship to level of aspiration among physical education students

Future anxiety and its relationship to level of aspiration among physical education students

N°13 (2018/1) (Mars 2018) 333 failure to obtain a satisfactory result for him and the expectations of others toward him in his field such as [I expect that the labor market will not be in need of my specialization in the future], [I think I will not get a suitable job for my specialization in the future]; this dimension consists of 09 items. C- psycho manifestations of anxiety that is meant "a set of mental symptoms, in the individual's appearance, resulting from his sense of anxiety and fear of the future such as [I suffer from constant headache when thinking about my future], [I feel nervous or tense when talking with others about the future]; this dimension consists of 08items. D- somatic manifestations of anxiety that is meant "a set of physical symptoms such as [I always have some stomach upset] this dimension consists of 08 items. E-anxiety about the pressures of life that is meant "a set of economic, family, and social pressures faced by the individual in life, which lead to tension, anxiety and depression and negatively affect his view of the future life such as [the growing rise in the cost of marriage and housing makes me anxious], [I feel extremely pressured as a result of my family's permanent anxiety anout my my future]; this dimension consists of 09 items. The positive and negative attitudes formulated the measure's phrases. Five responses for each item starting from (strongly disagree - I do not agree - I'm not sure - I agree - strongly agree). The scores are distributed from 1 to 5: 1 for "strongly disagree" and five for "strongly agree"; negative item is inversely calculated. The measure consists of 18 negative items and 27 positive items. Therefore the extent of the measure ranges from 45 to 225 scores; the high score refers to the high level of students' future anxiety. For assessing the consistency of the measure, Cronbach's alpha calculated and reliability coefficient of the whole measure calculated as 0.90; the value of reliability coefficient for each dimension of the measure dimensions was respectively (0.82, 0.17, 0.79,0.78 and 0.79).
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Analysis of the representations of school and physical education roles in combating obesity

Analysis of the representations of school and physical education roles in combating obesity

Knowledge and representation ‹ PE teachers are not ready to contribute effectively to the fight against obesity (and sedentariness) ‹ There is a need of collaboration between specialists and physical educators ‹ It seems necessary to develop specific units focusing on how to work with obese students (pre-service and in-service programs)

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