Multiple ontology alignments

Top PDF Multiple ontology alignments:

A GUI for Visualising and Manipulating Multiple Ontology Alignments

A GUI for Visualising and Manipulating Multiple Ontology Alignments

Pontif´ıcia Universidade Cat´ olica do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Brazil 2 Universit´e Toulouse 2 & IRIT, Toulouse, France Abstract. This paper presents a Web-based environment for visualising and manipulating multiple ontology alignments at schema-level. While most solutions are limited to the visualisation of single alignments and are still provided as part of specific standalone matching systems, we propose an open environment that is not bound to any specific system. Within this graphical environment, users can manually create, suppress and edit correspondences and apply a set of operations on alignments (fil- tering, merge, difference, etc.). Evaluating multiple alignments, against a reference one, can also be carried out using classical evaluation metrics. In this demo, all these tasks will be demonstrated.
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VOAR 3.0 : a Configurable Environment for Manipulating Multiple Ontology Alignments

VOAR 3.0 : a Configurable Environment for Manipulating Multiple Ontology Alignments

Pontif´ıcia Universidade Cat´ olica do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Brazil 2 Universit´e Toulouse 2 & IRIT, Toulouse, France Abstract. This paper presents a Web-based environment for visual- izing, editing and evaluating multiple ontology alignments. Users can configure their environment according to their needs and tasks, choosing different visualization modes and creating different profiles. They can apply a set of operations on the alignments (filtering, merge, etc.) and evaluate them against a reference one, using classical metrics. Ontology and alignment libraries allow for users storing and searching them in the system. In this demo, these functionalities will be demonstrated.
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VOAR 3.0 : a Configurable Environment for Manipulating Multiple Ontology Alignments

VOAR 3.0 : a Configurable Environment for Manipulating Multiple Ontology Alignments

Universit´e Toulouse 2 & IRIT, Toulouse, France Abstract. This paper presents a Web-based environment for visual- izing, editing and evaluating multiple ontology alignments. Users can configure their environment according to their needs and tasks, choosing different visualization modes and creating different profiles. They can apply a set of operations on the alignments (filtering, merge, etc.) and evaluate them against a reference one, using classical metrics. Ontology and alignment libraries allow for users storing and searching them in the system. In this demo, these functionalities will be demonstrated.
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A GUI for Visualising and Manipulating Multiple Ontology Alignments

A GUI for Visualising and Manipulating Multiple Ontology Alignments

Universit´e Toulouse 2 & IRIT, Toulouse, France Abstract. This paper presents a Web-based environment for visualising and manipulating multiple ontology alignments at schema-level. While most solutions are limited to the visualisation of single alignments and are still provided as part of specific standalone matching systems, we propose an open environment that is not bound to any specific system. Within this graphical environment, users can manually create, suppress and edit correspondences and apply a set of operations on alignments (fil- tering, merge, difference, etc.). Evaluating multiple alignments, against a reference one, can also be carried out using classical evaluation metrics. In this demo, all these tasks will be demonstrated.
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Ontology-Based Workflow Validation

Ontology-Based Workflow Validation

processes with CPNs supports workflow designers easy to verify the syntactic correctness of workflow processes [8]. On the other hand, OWL DL, which stands for OWL Description Logic, is equivalent to Description Logic SHOIN(D). OWL DL supports all OWL language constructs with restrictions (e.g., type separation) and provides maximum expressiveness while keeping always computational completeness and decidability. Therefore, we choose OWL DL language to represent the CPN Ontology. We believe that the combination of CPNs and OWL DL provides not only semantically rich business process definitions but also machine-processable ones. Fig. 1 depicts the core concepts of the CPN ontology.
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Ontology-Guided Mesh Segmentation

Ontology-Guided Mesh Segmentation

IV. F IRST R ESULTS Even though this work is still in progress, the first results that we obtain are very encouraging. On figure 4 we see the segmentation of the femur using our method and three other methods. In order to make a rather fair comparison, we provide these methods with the parameters that our method finds in the ontology. For the algorithm of [1], we gave number of segments and chose the primitives according to the geometric shapes of the anatomical entities (sphere, cylinder). For the other two algorithms ([8], [17]), we could only provide the number of segments. Our result represents a better match with anatomical entities. Specifically, [1] includes part of the proximal epiphysis in the segment corresponding to the diaphysis; [8] does not segment between the diaphysis and the distal epiphysis, and [17] includes part of the diaphysis in the segment corresponding to the distal epiphysis. These results were to be expected since our method benefits from more information than the other methods (localization information, adjacency relations, relative sizes).
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Measuring the visual salience of alignments by their non-accidentalness

Measuring the visual salience of alignments by their non-accidentalness

The non-accidentalness principle can be interpreted as impos- ing minimal reliability conditions to percepts. A configuration that could have arisen by chance does not provide reliable information and should be rejected. Natural selection evolved reliable percep- tion mechanisms which may obey a similar sound requirement, that no detection should occur in noise ( Attneave, 1954 ). Undoubt- edly, this minimal reliability condition is not the only factor involved in the salience of a particular structure. Nevertheless, it is interesting to evaluate whether this factor alone can predict the visibility of a specific Gestalt to some extent. The purpose of this paper is precisely to study to what extent the a contrario formulation of non-accidental alignments can account for their salience in a large set of stimuli. We shall illustrate that this theory permits to summarize into one single measure, the NFA, the many
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Ontology Repository and Ontology-Based Services – Challenges, contributions and applications to biomedicine & agronomy

Ontology Repository and Ontology-Based Services – Challenges, contributions and applications to biomedicine & agronomy

Abstracts Abstract With the explosion of the number of ontologies and vocabularies available in the semantic web, ontology libraries and repositories are mandatory to find and use them. Their functionalities span from simple ontology listing with metadata description to rich platforms offering various advanced ontology-based services: browse, search, visualization, metrics, annotation, recommendation, data access, etc. Studying ontology repositories opens then a wide spectrum of informatics research questions in areas such as knowledge representation, semantic web, data integration, natural language processing, ontology alignment and more. Ontology repositories are usually developed to address certain needs and communities. BioPortal, the ontology repository built by the US National Center for Biomedical Ontologies is the most important resource in biomedicine. It relies on a domain independent open technology that we have contributed to build (at Stanford) and extensively reused and extended for our research (at University of Montpellier) and applications to biomedicine and agronomy. In this manuscript, we present and discuss six high level challenges for ontology repositories and services: (i) standardize and extend metadata used to describe ontologies and use these metadata to facilitate ontology evaluation, identification and selection; (ii) multilingualism, which requires rethinking ontology repositories to embrace (and encourage) the multilingual semantic web; (iii) all issues related to ontology alignment, not just the automatic generation of mappings, but also their extraction, storage, validation, etc., (iv) the design of better and new generic ontology-based methods especially for processing free text data, (v) the use of ontologies for semantic annotations & linked data; and finally, (vi) scalability & interoperability of the different semantic resources management platforms. For each challenge, we describe and point to results obtained in the context of our ontology repository projects over the last 12-years, especially the NCBO, SIFR, PractiKPharma and AgroPortal projects. We believe our results illustrate potential solutions to move forward in this domain of research.
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2018 — Agnostic content ontology design patterns for a multi-domain ontology

2018 — Agnostic content ontology design patterns for a multi-domain ontology

The RA-EKI architecture model comprises a multi-domain ontology, a cross-industry agnostic construct composed of rich axioms notably for data integration. A multi-domain ontology composed of axiomatized agnostic data model patterns would drive a cognitive data integration application system usable in any industry sector. This project’s objective is to elicit agnostic data model patterns here considered as content ontology design patterns. The first research question of this project pertains to the existence of agnostic patterns and their capacity to solve the semantic heterogeneity problem. Due to the theory-building role of this project, a qualitative research approach constitutes the appropriate manner to conduct its research. Contrary to theory testing quantitative methods that rely on well-established validation techniques to determine the reliability of the outcome of a given study, theory- building qualitative methods do not possess standardized techniques to ascertain the reliability of a study. The second research question inquires on a dual method theory-building approach that may demonstrate trustworthiness. The first method, a qualitative Systematic Literature Review (SLR) approach induces the sought knowledge from 69 retained publications using a practical screen. The second method, a phenomenological research protocol elicits the agnostic concepts from semi-structured interviews involving 22 senior practitioners with 21 years in average of experience in conceptualization.
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Ontology and the Individual

Ontology and the Individual

Let me conclude briefly by explicitly referring to the title of my review. Theorised entities such as markets, individuals, institutions and so on (scientific ontology) have ontological presuppositions that, typically, concern the nature of the basic structures of reality (traditional or philosophical ontology). The process of unveiling such presuppositions informs us about the overall consistency of theories, where we will often find that the scientific premises are in contradiction with the basic structure of reality posited. It is in this sense that we can effectively ‘test’ for the adequacy of any conceived entity, such as the individual. A second possibility is to work directly at substantiating a notion of a chosen entity, in this case the individual (thus engaging in scientific ontology). It is on this count that I am concerned that Davis’ choice to adopt a two-test framework leads him to conflate the two levels of analysis just outlined and that, in the process, he foregoes the rigour of both.
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On Ontology Matching Problems

On Ontology Matching Problems

Keywords: Semantic Web, Ontologies, Ontology Matching. Abstract: Ontologies are nowadays used in many domains such as Semantic Web, information systems… to represent meaning of data and data sources. In the framework of knowledge management in an heterogeneous organization, the materialization of the organizational memory in a “corporate semantic web” may require to integrate the various ontologies of the different groups of this organization. To be able to build a corporate semantic web in an heterogeneous, multi-communities organization, it is essential to have methods for comparing, aligning, integrating or mapping different ontologies. This paper proposes a new algorithm for matching two ontologies based on all the information available about the given ontologies (e.g. their concepts, relations, information about the structure of each hierarchy of concepts, or of relations), applying TF/IDF scheme (a method widely used in the information retrieval community) and integrating WordNet (an electronic lexical database) in the process of ontology matching.
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Spatio-Temporal Alignments: Optimal transport through space and time

Spatio-Temporal Alignments: Optimal transport through space and time

Dynamic time warping Given a pairwise distance matrix between all time points of two time series of respective lengths m, n, DTW computes the minimum- cost alignment between the time series ( Sakoe and Chiba , 1978 ) while preserving the chronological order of the data. Indeed, the DTW optimization problem is constrained on alignments where no temporal back steps are allowed. It can be seen as an OT-like problem where the transport plan must not respect the marginal constraints but instead is a binary matrix with at least one non-zero entry per line and per column, and where the cumulated non-zero path is formed by →, ↓, & steps exclusively. However, the binary nature of this set makes the DTW loss non-differentiable which is a major limitation when DTW is used as a loss function. To circumvent this issue, several authors introduced smoothed versions of DTW ( Saigo et al. , 2004 ; Cuturi , 2011 ; Cuturi and Blondel , 2017 ). Instead of selecting the minimum cost alignment, Global Alignment Kernels (GAK) Saigo et al. ( 2004 ); Cuturi ( 2011 ) compute a weighted cost on the whole set of possible alignments. Similarly, the soft-minimum generalization approach of Cuturi and Blondel ( 2017 ) – called soft-DTW – provides a similar framework to that of GAK where gradients can easily be computed used a backpropagation of Bellman’s equation ( Bellman , 1952 ).
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Measuring the evolution of ontology complexity: the gene ontology case study

Measuring the evolution of ontology complexity: the gene ontology case study

Ko¨hler et al. proposed a systematic method to analyze the quality of terms definitions [29]. Verspoor et al. developed a transformation-based automatic clustering method for detecting similar terms that use different linguistic conventions [30]. Both approaches focus on the classes names or textual definitions but do not consider the relations among the classes. Mungall et al. proposed an automatic reasoning-based approach using logical definitions for classes and mappings to external ontologies that detects potentially missing and incorrect classes and relationships [31]. It should be noted that even if logical definitions are assigned to all new regulation classes as of January 2010, processing all the previous classes is an ambitious ongoing task. Alterovitz et al. proposed an information theory-based approach to automatically organize the structure of GO and optimize the distribution of the information within it [32]. Faria et al. proposed an association Table 5. Simulated evolution of the three Gene Ontology branches between February and March 2010.
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The rise of non-canonical subjects and semantic alignments in Hindi

The rise of non-canonical subjects and semantic alignments in Hindi

is clearly not a universal, and part of the problems raised by the split of subject properties on several NPs only emphasize its weak relevance for certain languages, particularly topic or role oriented languages (Kibrik 1997). The speculative frame which came to dominate Indian culture during the time when the new languages acquired their modern characteristics has not given birth to a new language theory and grammatical descriptive tools. But it was probably instrumental in the emergence of ‘experiencer subjects’, in emotional and cognitive predicates like milan/milnā (‘find/meet’ the truth or spiritual leader, ‘get’ the spiritual revelation, ‘get united’ with God), referring to the crucial experience in the new devotional mystic. Other factors were probably more decisive, such as lexical renewal and contact, in what we can consider as a shift towards semantic alignments. There is a fairly high frequency in the language of alignments constrained by lexical semantics, whose first argument is encoded in the same way as direct and indirect objects (NOM/DAT). (Arkadiev 2008) allowed perfective aspect to rank first among the language specific properties which can trigger semantic alignments in Loma. The Hindi ergative, with its marker born out of a locative and used for DAT/ACC in related languages, may also be viewed as part of a general language shift towards semantic alignments.
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Emotion Ontology for Context Awareness

Emotion Ontology for Context Awareness

II. E MOTION ONTOLOGY FOR CONTEXT AWARNESS Using emotion context is a complex task, the more so due to the potentially huge resources required to model every possible stimulus able to elicit an emotion. However, we can find a ready-made helpful tool in the domain of web semantics[12], which is aimed at structuring data over the web in order to allow sharing and reasoning on it. An ontology[9] is a way to model semantic relations between concepts, with an associated inference engine providing reasoning on the data. As well, an ontology is capable of interoperability with multiple knowledge bases. This characteristic is very important for our purposes because we are searching for a relation between context and user knowledge without needing a complete description of it. So we want to use this capacity to describe how the context can impact emotion experience and reuse descriptions of already-defined concepts to find semantic relations. Our prototype context is restricted to only philia and phobia; our aim in this article is to show the usability of an ontology to describe this restricted context. We intend to extend this EmOCA to more complex contexts in future work.
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NiceTag Ontology: tags as named graphs

NiceTag Ontology: tags as named graphs

3 Modelling tags with the NiceTag ontology 3.1 Tag actions as named graphs Carroll et al. [3] noted that RDF does not provide mechanisms (apart from statement reification) for talking about graphs and relations between graphs. They introduced Named Graphs in RDF to allow publishers to communicate assertional intent and to sign their assertions. The fact that it is often useful to embody social acts with some record clearly resonates with the scenarios of social tagging. Several authors before them proposed to transform RDF triples into quads [1,4,10,11] appending to them an additional URIref or blank node or ID. The definition of [3] is deliberately simpler than [7] and [15] : “A Named Graph is an RDF graph which is assigned a name in the form of a URIref. The
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Ontology-Based Access Rights Management

Ontology-Based Access Rights Management

or SIOC classes for domain or range). FOAF 11 (acronym for Friend Of A Friend) is an RDF vocabulary used in social networks to describe people and and the relations among them. SIOC 12 (acronym for Semantically-Interlinked Online Communities) is another RDF vocabulary that models the concepts of social web applications: forums, blogs, wikis. It reuses some concepts from FOAF and other popular on- tologies (Dublin Core, SKOS, etc.) and it has established itself as the standard. It is now integrated into numerous applications such as the WordPress blog engine and its adoption within the Linked Data 13 project confirms its popularity. A SIOC mod- ule was planned for some time for modeling access rights but it remained empty until recently. Now that it has been populated, we should state the alignment of AMO classes and properties with it. Briefly, the AMO classes Role, Action and AccessType should probably be aligned with those of Role in SIOC Core On- tology and Permission and Status newly added in the SIOC Access Ontology module.
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NiceTag Ontology: tags as named graphs

NiceTag Ontology: tags as named graphs

If the freedom to choose its own labels that is now offered to users was to be properly acknowledged, then there would remain only one conclusion to be drawn. Contrary to subject headings or descriptors whose semantics is rigidly established in line with a single model of interpretation or through a well-ordered lexicon – thanks to a small number of relations established and postulated in order to evacuate every remainder of ambiguity – tags, understood as inscribed labels, are able to comprise various entities, linguistic or not, thus forbidding all global theorizing on the semantics behind their use. In other words, the label of a tag is a blank space that is fit to accommodate any sort of inscribable entities. Any sign. Accordingly, it is therefore completely devoid of any fixed (denota- tional) semantics (See [12] for a thorough vindication of this point of view. The NEPOMUK ontology NAO 9 , back in 2007, also made a similar point).
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Anti-Alignments in Conformance Checking – The Dark Side of Process Models

Anti-Alignments in Conformance Checking – The Dark Side of Process Models

Universitat Polit` ecnica de Catalunya, Barcelona (Spain) jcarmona@cs.upc.edu Abstract. Conformance checking techniques asses the suitability of a process model in representing an underlying process, observed through a collection of real executions. These techniques suffer from the well- known state space explosion problem, hence handling process models exhibiting large or even infinite state spaces remains a challenge. One important metric in conformance checking is to asses the precision of the model with respect to the observed executions, i.e., characterize the ability of the model to produce behavior unrelated to the one observed. By avoiding the computation of the full state space of a model, current techniques only provide estimations of the precision metric, which in some situations tend to be very optimistic, thus hiding real problems a process model may have. In this paper we present the notion of anti- alignment as a concept to help unveiling traces in the model that may deviate significantly from the observed behavior. Using anti-alignments, current estimations can be improved, e.g., in precision checking. We show how to express the problem of finding anti-alignments as the satisfiability of a Boolean formula, and provide a tool which can deal with large models efficiently.
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Formal Ontology Driven Model Refactoring

Formal Ontology Driven Model Refactoring

Our main contributions are: 1 to develop a refactoring technique related to the correct by construction approach; 2 to use the domain specific knowledge in a system model explicitly; 3 to[r]

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