Milk and dairy products

Top PDF Milk and dairy products:

Identification of authenticity parameters in milk and dairy products

Identification of authenticity parameters in milk and dairy products

Los resultados obtenidos en este trabajo demuestran que la espectroscopia de infrarrojo medio (MIR) tiene posibilidades como un método rápido y económico para clasificar la leche y pro[r]

234 En savoir plus

Dairy products and inflammation: A review of the clinical evidence

Dairy products and inflammation: A review of the clinical evidence

Studies addressing the impact of dairy products on in flammatory processes present a contradictory landscape. Indeed, dairy products were reported to be bene ficial, inac- tive, as well as detrimental. For illustration, the ATTICA study reported an inverse relationship between the con- sumption of dairy products and markers of the metabolic syndrome, including the inflammatory markers associated with this syndrome (Panagiotakos et al., 2010 ). On the other hand, the relatively high concentrations of saturated fat and dietary antigens in cow milk have raised concern and some scientists claimed that dairy products are a major cause in the development of chronic inflammatory disorders and autoimmune diseases (Melnik, 2009 ). These opposite statements re flect the wide spectrum of information avail- able in the scienti fic literature on the relationship between the consumption of dairy products and in flammation. Indeed, many articles have been published on this relation- ship, but systematic reviews are scarce (Labonte et al., 2013 ) and incomplete. The association between the con- sumption of dairy products and inflammation in humans, thus merits clarification for the following reasons: (i) milk and dairy products play qualitatively and quantitatively an important role in human nutrition (Haug et al., 2007 ); (ii) inflammation, in particular low-grade systemic inflamma- tion, has a significant impact on human health and longev- ity (Candore et al., 2010 ); (iii) nutrient metabolism and inflammation are mechanistically closely interconnected (Hotamisligil, 2006 ; Calder et al., 2011 ; Klop et al., 2012 ; Calder et al., 2013 ; Hernandez-Aguilera et al., 2013 ).
En savoir plus

30 En savoir plus

Development of innovative and practical management tools to improve sustainability of milk production and quality of dairy products

Development of innovative and practical management tools to improve sustainability of milk production and quality of dairy products

C HAPTER VII P REDICTIONS OF DAILY MILK AND FAT YIELDS , MAJOR GROUPS OF FATTY ACIDS , AND C18:1 CIS -9 FROM SINGLE MILKING DATA WITHOUT A MILKING INTERVAL 103 organizations in many countries use more and more often an alternate morning (AM) and evening (PM) testing scheme since it is less expensive than analyzing one milk sample per cow that includes 50% of a representative AM milking fraction and 50% of a representative PM milking fraction. Since the 1970s, numerous equations have been evaluated for their capacity to estimate total daily yields for traditional production traits (i.e., milk, fat, and protein) from alternate protocols. For example, Lee and Wardrop [8] studied the effects of milking interval (MI; the duration between two consecutive milkings, expressed in h or min; AM or PM) and stage of lactation on daily milk, fat, and protein yields, and fat and protein content. In 1986, adjustment factors for daily milk, fat, and protein yields were reported [9], and these remain the most widely used factors based on their ability to take into account heterogeneous means and variances between MIs and classes of days in milk (cDIM). In 2000, this model was modified [10], and the changes were approved by the International Committee for Animal Recording [11]. At our knowledge, nothing is done currently about FA. The general aim of this paper is therefore to develop equations to estimate the daily yields of the major FAs present in milk, including SFA, unsaturated FA (UFA), mono-unsaturated FA (MUFA), short-chain FA (SCFA), MCFA, and LCFA from a single milking. In addition, C18:1 cis-9 was also studied because this FA is interesting for management purposes [1].
En savoir plus

185 En savoir plus

Selection of milk fatty acid composition for improved dairy products from more fertile and healthier cows

Selection of milk fatty acid composition for improved dairy products from more fertile and healthier cows

FA as indicators of fertility? ► Optimal fertility is vital for profitable dairy production systems but ... it has declined over the past decades. ► Achieve optimal fertility through direct genetic selection? o Genetic variation exists …

30 En savoir plus

Polar lipid composition of bioactive dairy co-products buttermilk and butterserums: emphasis on sphingolipid and ceramide isoforms

Polar lipid composition of bioactive dairy co-products buttermilk and butterserums: emphasis on sphingolipid and ceramide isoforms

Importantly, there is altogether a similarity in MFGM structure and composition across mammalian species. Considering the similarity in PL profile between human milk and BM/BS, these ingredients appear as interesting natural emulsifiers to stabilize infant formula and adjust their content to mimic as close as possible the evolving PL concentrations in human milk during lactation. Other mammalian milk PL could be explored to this aim, including goat and sheep milks, whose PL composition has been recently reviewed (Verardo et al., 2017). Goat milk has similar PL content to human milk. However, milks from cow, goat and sheep all have lower SM proportion than human milk and fatty acid profile of PL varies along species (Verardo et al., 2017). Mare’s milk PL would also provide an interesting source of PL for neonatal nutrition because of the high PL concentration in mare milk lipids (3-5 times more concentrated than in human or bovine milk lipids, and having PC and SM as major PL species like in human milk)(Malacarne et al., 2002). However, mare’s milk PL are far less available as coproduct than BM or BS, and would thus deserve specific production development.
En savoir plus

34 En savoir plus

Effect of feed supply on milk yield and lipid composition in Algerian dairy cows

Effect of feed supply on milk yield and lipid composition in Algerian dairy cows

of the rations of dairy cows concentrate feed based on cereal or oil crop seeds on milk yield (Petit and Alary, 1999; An- drade and Schmidely, 2006; Dos Santos et al., 2011, Bernard et al., 2016). Other studies have focused on the effect of lipid feed in ruminant feeding and its impact on the quality of the cheese produced from the milk obtained (Sanz-Sampelayo et al., 2002; Inglingstad et al., 2016). Recently, distiller’s dried grains with solubles (DDGS), by-products from the alcohol industries (beer and bioethanol), have been usually sold as a high protein livestock feed and are used to feed ruminants. The rapid adoption of these raw materials is a challenge for the animal feed industry (Cozannet et al., 2010). However, the use of residues from the processing of raw plant materi- als for animal feed and its effect on milk quality are poorly documented in the literature.
En savoir plus

9 En savoir plus

Place of dairy products in a holistic vision of the diet

Place of dairy products in a holistic vision of the diet

Tel. : +33(0)1 49 70 71 11, e-mail: ysoustre@cniel.com Dairy are part of diets and dietary guidelines worldwide. They are subjects of intensive research, notably for their associations with chronic diseases and risk factors for them. However, a holistic picture of their health potential within complex diets has never been systematically reviewed. Our objectives were: 1) to update associations between dairy (total, milk, yogurt and cheese) and main chronic diseases and risk factors; 2) to review associations between dairy-containing dietary patterns and main chronic diseases and risk factors.
En savoir plus

2 En savoir plus

A survey of bacteria found in Belgian dairy farm products

A survey of bacteria found in Belgian dairy farm products

1. INTRODUCTION Milk remains one of the principal products of the dairy sector in Belgium, where the farm cow’s milk production reached approximately 3,474.3 millions kg in 2013 (SPF Économie, PME, Classes moyennes et Énergie, 2014). According to the Belgian Dairy Industry Confederation annual report, the sales of dairy products also increased worldwide in 2012 (CBL, 2013). This implies that hygiene concerns, as well as quality control of dairy foods, will continue and the challenges faced by the dairy industry will increase (Hussein et al., 2005). Cheese is a ready- to-eat food easily contaminated on the surface by undesirable microorganisms. Even if some are spoilage microorganisms, which may produce uncharacteristic visual appearance and diminish the commercial value of the cheeses, others are pathogenic such as
En savoir plus

9 En savoir plus

A review of the microbiological hazards of dairy products made from raw milk

A review of the microbiological hazards of dairy products made from raw milk

collected for Europe and are shown in Table 1 , where the detection frequency, the type of food, the method of analysis and the country are given. Frequencies of occurrence were found for several raw milk cheeses, butter and cream. No frequencies were found for butter- milk made from raw milk as such products are less often produced. No Salmonella has been detected in any tested samples of raw milk cheeses, butter and cream with the exception of one publication where the prevalence in cheese was 4.3% (n ¼ 70 samples; Almeida et al., 2007 ). Concerning VTEC in raw milk cheeses, E. coli strains with virulence genes are detected with frequencies between 0 and 55.3%. Farrokh et al. (2013) stated that the prevalence of vtx genes, detected by PCR, does not necessarily re flect the occurrence of a viable E. coli isolate containing those genes. VTEC was also detected in butter ( Messelh €ausser, Beck, Gallien, Schalch, & Busch, 2008 ). As illustrated in Table 1 , L. monocytogenes was detected in raw milk cheeses, butter and cream with frequencies varying between 0 and 41.9%, 3.6 and 29.9%, and 0.7 and 8.3% respectively, although in some cases the numbers were lower than 100 cfu g 1 . Of 70 cheese samples, 11.4% were positive for L. monocytogenes per 25 g, whereby 1.4% contained counts higher than 200 cfu g 1 and 10.0% lower than 100 cfu g 1 ( Almeida et al., 2007 ). Of 474 cheese samples and 519 butter samples, respectively, 0.6% and 0.2% of the samples that were taken in Belgium by the sector of small cheese producers in the Walloon region had counts higher than 100 cfu g 1 ( Sci Com, 2015 ). No Campylobacter were detected in 199 tested raw milk cheeses, which contrasts the higher reporting in raw milk (0 e12%) ( EFSA, 2015; Verraes et al., 2014 ). As indicated in Table 1 , S. aureus was found in raw milk products with frequencies between 5 and 100% in cheeses, and between 1.6 and 20.3% in butter, but the possibility of the strains to produce enterotoxins varies and the share of such strains is dif ficult to deduce from the available information.
En savoir plus

13 En savoir plus

Carbon footprint of Canadian dairy products: Calculations and issues

Carbon footprint of Canadian dairy products: Calculations and issues

The subdivision approach is rarely possible for most of the processes (e.g., crude oil/cake from oilseed press- ing; meat/milk from dairy cows; dairy products from multi-product integrated dairy plants). Although at- tractive, the system expansion approach significantly complicates the study and was not chosen here. First, it implies the identification of all marginal products, which is subject to some subjective economic assessment. Sec- ond, data collection is significantly greater and not nec- essarily available at the provincial level. Third, it can lead to tricky “looped” situations, especially in our case where a marginal product might actually be the co- product of another of our subsystem (e.g., soybean oil might be the marginal product substituting for canola oil). Thus, allocations based on physical properties were preferred because they allow more comprehensive flow analyses that refer to a physical unit of products (e.g., 1 L of milk), and also because mass or energy bal- ances can be calculated. Most of them comply with the LCA guidelines recently published by the International
En savoir plus

15 En savoir plus

Effect of feed supply on milk yield and lipid composition in Algerian dairy cows

Effect of feed supply on milk yield and lipid composition in Algerian dairy cows

of the rations of dairy cows concentrate feed based on cereal or oil crop seeds on milk yield (Petit and Alary, 1999; An- drade and Schmidely, 2006; Dos Santos et al., 2011, Bernard et al., 2016). Other studies have focused on the effect of lipid feed in ruminant feeding and its impact on the quality of the cheese produced from the milk obtained (Sanz-Sampelayo et al., 2002; Inglingstad et al., 2016). Recently, distiller’s dried grains with solubles (DDGS), by-products from the alcohol industries (beer and bioethanol), have been usually sold as a high protein livestock feed and are used to feed ruminants. The rapid adoption of these raw materials is a challenge for the animal feed industry (Cozannet et al., 2010). However, the use of residues from the processing of raw plant materi- als for animal feed and its effect on milk quality are poorly documented in the literature.
En savoir plus

8 En savoir plus

Performance and health of dairy cows incompletely milked during the first five days in milk

Performance and health of dairy cows incompletely milked during the first five days in milk

Carbonneau et al. (2012) applied a similar protocol to the one used in the present research and did not observe any carry over effects on milk production. They did however observe lower fat and higher protein concentrations among incompletely milked cows, but only on second WIM (no effect from WIM 3-9). Based on those results, we hypothesized that no effect on milk yield would occur in commercial dairies settings, and we did not expect substantial differences in milk composition. Indeed, none of the variables studied (milk weight, fat and protein concentrations, and ECM) were affected by the treatment protocol, with the exception of ECM on WIM 38. This late effect was probably caused by the small number of observations at the end of the lactation, with greater influence of outliers. Since both milk removal and milking (or suckling) stimulus are needed for maintenance of milk secretion (Schmidt, 1971), the lack of carry-over effect on milk yield was probably a result of maintenance of milking frequency (Lacasse and Ollier, 2014) along with the short treatment duration. Other studies were conducted using a half-udder design to understand the effect of an incomplete milking on milk production. Wilde et al. (1989) showed that an incomplete milking in dairy goats (defined as a gland with around 100 mL left behind at the end of milking) affects local enzyme activity with a reduction of total protein synthesis and partial secretory cellular involution if it lasts 24 wk, but not if it lasts only 2 wk. Although ran in a different species and with a different study design, the results observed by Wilde et al. (1989) also support the findings of the current study, where a relatively short period of incomplete milking was used.
En savoir plus

226 En savoir plus

Phenotypic and genetic variability of methane  emissions and milk fatty acid contents  of Walloon Holstein dairy cows

Phenotypic and genetic variability of methane emissions and milk fatty acid contents of Walloon Holstein dairy cows

where e = Error  Heritabilities of FA and MIR CH 4 emissions Abbreviations: SFA = Saturated FA ; MUFA = Monounsaturated FA ; PUFA = Polyunsaturated FA ; UFA = Unsaturated FA ; SCFA = Short chain FA ; MCFA = Medium chain FA ; LCFA = Long chain FA

1 En savoir plus

Using fatty acid contents in milk to improve fertility of dairy cows?

Using fatty acid contents in milk to improve fertility of dairy cows?

Results substantiate the association between fertility and body fat mobilization Part of the genetic variance in fertility explained by fatty acids This research receives a financial support from the European Commission, Directorate-General for Agriculture and Rural Development, under Grand Agreement 211708 (Robustmilk project) and form the Commission of the European Communities, FP7, KBBE-2007-1. This poster does not necessarily reflect the view of these institutions and in no way anticipates the Commission’s future policy in this area. This study was also supported by the National fund for Scientific Research (F.R.S.-FNRS) through grants 2.4604.11, 2.4507.02F(2), F4552.05 (2.4.623.08.F) and the Ministry of Agriculture of the Walloon Region of Belgium (SPW-DGARNE; projects D31-1207 & D31-1224).
En savoir plus

1 En savoir plus

Using (mid-)infrared spectroscopy methods to measure milk composition, energy balance and beyond…. in dairy cows

Using (mid-)infrared spectroscopy methods to measure milk composition, energy balance and beyond…. in dairy cows

Raw data = MIR spectra Calibration equations Quantification: fat protein urea lactose MIR analysis FOSS.. MIR Spectrometry[r]

61 En savoir plus

Socia-technical changes in the dairy production systems and milk marketing in Sikasso periurban zone (Mali)

Socia-technical changes in the dairy production systems and milk marketing in Sikasso periurban zone (Mali)

La thèse est née dans le cadre d’un projet FSP « Développement des Ressources Humaines du Système National de Recherche Agricole Malien » par la coopération française. Ce prog[r]

400 En savoir plus

A genome scan for milk production traits in dairy goats reveals two new mutations in Dgat1 reducing milk fat content

A genome scan for milk production traits in dairy goats reveals two new mutations in Dgat1 reducing milk fat content

The activity of each sample was tested in a final volume of 160 µL containing 250 mM sucrose, 1 mM EDTA, 20 mM MgCl2, 100 mM Tris HCl (pH 7.5), 20 µg free fatty acid BSA, 20 µg of diacylglycerol 10:10 and 10 µg of 14-acylCoA. The reaction was triggered by adding to this assay mixture 10, 7.5 or 5 µL of protein solution at 37 °C. The time of incubation was inversely proportional to the amount of protein added: 2.5, 3.3 or 5 min. The reaction was stopped on ice. Lipids were then extracted using the Bligh and Dyer method 106 in presence of an internal standard (glyceryl trinonadecanoate (Tg19) 8 mg) and solid phase extraction (SPE) was carried out. Briefly a SiOH glass cartridge (200 mg, Macherey Nagel) was equilibrated with 2 ml of dichloromethane, and the extract was then put down in 20 µl of 10% methanol in dichloromethane, and neutral lipids were eluted with 2 ml of the same mixture. The final extract was concentrated, dissolved in 20 µl of ethyl acetate and analyzed by gas chroma- tography with flame ionization detection using the FOCUS Thermo Electron system equiped with an Zebron-1 Phenomenex fused silica capillary columns (5 m × 0.32 mm i.d, 0.50 µm film thickness). Oven temperature was programmed from 200 °C to 350 °C at a rate of 5 °C per min and the carrier gas was hydrogen (0.5 bar). The injec- tor and the detector were programmed at 315 °C and 345 °C respectively 107 .
En savoir plus

14 En savoir plus

Confirmed effects of candidate variants for milk production, udder health, and udder morphology in dairy cattle

Confirmed effects of candidate variants for milk production, udder health, and udder morphology in dairy cattle

MAF = 0.28; and HOL P = 9.8·10 −11 , MAF = 0.33) but it was not ranked among the top 10 variants of the peak for this trait. We also detected and confirmed another QTL on BTA6 in HOL in the region of the ABCG2 gene pre- viously identified for milk composition [ 39 ]. Only two of the 138 variants with significant effects on FC and/or PC in Holstein bulls, located in the EXT-CI of the QTL (37.5–38.5 Mb), were in the ABCG2 gene (rs136230937 at 38,015,146 bp and rs110063427 at 38,020,110 bp). They are intronic and therefore distinct from the rs43702337 missense variant (at 38,027,010 bp) described by Cohen- Zinder et al. [ 39 ]. Moreover, both variants were much less significant (–log 10 (P) = 7.4 for FC and 16.8 for PC) than the variant with the most significant effect on both traits, located in the HERC6 gene (intron) (– log 10 (P) = 9.7 for FC and 24.3 for PC). Thus, in our study ABCG2 is not the best candidate gene. However, we cannot completely exclude it because of its low MAF (0.02) and therefore its limited imputation accuracy, which may tend to under- estimate its effect. For the QTL on BTA11 that affected FC in HOL cows, the 10 most significant variants were all located in the PAEP gene. Six of them were identi- fied in a 1.5-kb stretch of the upstream region of the gene (103,299,655–103,301,229  bp), and were ranked from 1st (103,300,548  bp; rs109982707) to 8th in the peak; the 4th-ranked variant was in the 5′-UTR region (103,301,694  bp; rs41255686); the 6th-ranked variant was located in the downstream region (103,308,330  bp; rs109087963); the 9th-ranked variant was in a splic- ing region (103,304,656  bp; rs109990218); and finally, the 10th-ranked variant in the peak was a missense variant (103,303,475  bp; rs110066229). Together with another missense variant located at 103,304,757  bp (rs109625649), variant rs110066229 was previously identified as the functional mutation for protein vari- ants A and B, which are associated with different levels of β-lactoglobulin in milk [ 40 ]. Several nucleotide-level GWAS have found effects of this region on FC [ 23 , 29 , 41 ] or milk whey proteins [ 19 , 42 ], and all have pointed to candidate variants in the PAEP gene. However, each of these studies highlighted a different best candidate vari- ant, and these variants were always distinct from the two missense variants that cause the A and B protein poly- morphisms. Moreover, Sanchez et  al. [ 19 ] found that a peak remained when one of the missense variants was fixed in the GWAS, which suggested that the missense variants described by Ganai et al. [ 40 ] do not explain all the effects of this region on milk composition.
En savoir plus

27 En savoir plus

Prediction of dry matter intake of lactating dairy cows with daily live weight and milk production measurements

Prediction of dry matter intake of lactating dairy cows with daily live weight and milk production measurements

Comparison of simulated DMI values from equation (5) and observed values gives an average RMSE of 3.31 kg DM, the standard deviation of DMI being 3.85 kg DM. This large error is reduced when average values are compared at a weekly level (2.3 kg DM). This is due to the fact that large daily variations in the DMI model are not synchronous with the day to day observations. Nevertheless, this quality of prediction varies greatly from one cow to another. Figure 2 shows a good fit between the kinetics and the model based on observation date, with an RMSE of 2.3 and 2.1 kg DM, respectively, for the two cows 1452 and 2352. The trace for cow 2352 (Figure 2) shows that the model is capable of estimating short-term decreases in DMI and simulating “non-standard” curves. On the other hand, the DMI of other cows is a poor match, with significant biases. Two main phenomena explain these biases: the stage of lactation and the differences in feed efficiency between cows.
En savoir plus

11 En savoir plus

Developing decision-support tools with economic and environmental interests for the dairy sector using milk mid-infrared spectrometry

Developing decision-support tools with economic and environmental interests for the dairy sector using milk mid-infrared spectrometry

In contrast to milk recording, bulk tank milk samples are collected and analyzed more often (i.e., at every milk collection on the farm) via milk payment systems. Despite the loss of individual animal monitoring, this opens a door for the development of herd-level decision-support tools fed with higher throughput information, providing that bulk tank data are available for research and development institutions. For example, observing values for specific traits predicted from bulk tank spectra or modeling periodic trends in comparison with other herds (for benchmarking) is a way to identify poor or superior performances and detect problems. Using bulk tank milk data allows to have access to information about all dairy herds in a research context and would provide management tools for all herds, in contrast to milk recording data that are limited to herds enrolled in official milk recording systems (e.g., approximately 30% in the Walloon region of Belgium; awé groupe, 2018). However, a disadvantage of bulk tank milk is that the quantity and quality of milk in the tank are influenced by high-yielding cows (i.e., the milk composition is the weighted average by milk production of individual cow milk compositions). For example, a cow producing 30 litres of milk on a specific day will contribute twice more to bulk tank milk than a cow producing 15 litres of milk. Consequently, we should be aware that MIR traits predictions from bulk tank milk would not represent the average herd, but would be drawn towards cows producing more milk, and conclusions based on bulk tank milk may be biased for some traits or more difficult to interpret correctly. Also, some MIR equations were developed for individual spectra and are less adapted to bulk samples. This is the case with the equation for enteric CH 4 production used in Chapter 4, which takes into account the
En savoir plus

145 En savoir plus

Show all 10000 documents...