Mental models

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Ways of farming and ways of thinking: do farmers' mental models of the landscape relate to their land management practices ?

Ways of farming and ways of thinking: do farmers' mental models of the landscape relate to their land management practices ?

Mental models and cropland management practices We observed several qualitative differences in the frequency of concepts used in different cropland management practice groups (Fig. 3), although differences were not significant (Tables 4 and 5). CROP1 farmers (i.e., with more intensive practices) highlighted the strong effects of world market prices and agricultural marketing cooperatives on farmers’ incomes using verbs such as “ruin”, “make us leave”, “impact the income”, and “remunerate”. Most of CROP1 farmers (78%) mentioned the economic role of woodlots (“make profit from”, “exploit”, and “cut for heating”) vs. 13% and 33%, respectively, for CROP2 and CROP3 farmers. Many verbs used by CROP1 farmers referred to economics (12 verbs) vs. only three in CROP2 and two in CROP3 farmers. CROP 2 and CROP3 farmers emphasized the influence of the EU’s CAP. Half of the verbs used by CROP2 farmers to describe the influence of the CAP were negative (“impose”, “control”) and half were positive or neutral (“guide”, “sustain”), whereas those used by CROP3 farmers were mostly positive or neutral (“encourage”, “support”, “make them work”, “oxygenate”, “subsidize”, “keep”, “impact”). Half of CROP2 farmers (i.e., with diversified production and integrated practices) highlighted the link between farmers and chemical inputs (vs. 11% in CROP1 and 22% in CROP3 groups). CROP2 farmers also used many verbs related to their knowhow and love of the profession such as “care for”, “work on”, “be passionate about”, and “integrated use of”. A majority (56%) of CROP3 farmers (i.e., with extensive practices) mentioned wild fauna vs. 22% in CROP1
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How do farmers' representations influence landscapes? A multi-scale approach combining mental models and forest monitoring in southwestern France

How do farmers' representations influence landscapes? A multi-scale approach combining mental models and forest monitoring in southwestern France

known about small-scale dynamics and factors affecting rural forests. In the Long-Term Social-Ecological Research (LTSER) platform Vallées et Coteaux de Gascogne, we combined GIS monitoring, ethnographic investigations and mental models to understand rural forests dynamics and related anthropogenic factors. Linking landscape patterns & social norms

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A Silver Bullet? A Comparison of Accountants and Developers Mental Models in the Raise of Blockchain

A Silver Bullet? A Comparison of Accountants and Developers Mental Models in the Raise of Blockchain

In mainstream media, blockchain has been advertised as the pin- nacle of transparency and trust, and as a solution to many problems in those fields [16, 55]. Yet there appears to be little evidence to sup- port these claims, most of them being simple iterations on the fact that blockchain is tamper-resistant. However, there has also been this vision of the blockchain as trust-less, given that all the information is present and there is no need to trust a central authority, such as banks. This article is a interdisciplinary approach, which delivers prelim- inary results. We use the accounting realm as a use case for investigat- ing these claims, as it has been widely acclaimed that blockchain will automate the accountant’s job [14]. The objective of this study, first carried for a workshop on transparency and trust, is to carry out an ex- ploratory research on the relationship between transparency, trust and blockchain in accounting. It particularly aims to start understanding: (1) how blockchain may change mental models of trust and trans-
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How do farmers' representations influence landscapes? A multi-scale approach combining mental models and forest monitoring in southwestern France

How do farmers' representations influence landscapes? A multi-scale approach combining mental models and forest monitoring in southwestern France

known about small-scale dynamics and factors affecting rural forests. In the Long-Term Social-Ecological Research (LTSER) platform Vallées et Coteaux de Gascogne, we combined GIS monitoring, ethnographic investigations and mental models to understand rural forests dynamics and related anthropogenic factors. Linking landscape patterns & social norms

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A preliminary exploration of two approaches for documenting 'mental models' held by stakeholders in the crocodile catchment, South africa

A preliminary exploration of two approaches for documenting 'mental models' held by stakeholders in the crocodile catchment, South africa

1. Background Over the past few years concerns have been expressed that the ecological condition of many South African rivers continues to deteriorate in spite of world-acclaimed legislation, such as the National Water Act 36 of 1998 (NWA). As an example of reaction to this concern, there is, at the time of writing of this report, a pilot program funded by the Water Research Commission, “The Shared Rivers Initiative” (WRC K6 1711 ), looking mainly at water use, management and governance practices, in an effort to improve this situation. Despite a sound conceptual environment (for example as emerged from the Kruger National Park Rivers Research Programme, (Breen 1977) and supportive legislation, transformation at the level of water resources management practice is proceeding slower than expected. Observers now often refer to an “implementation lag” with varying degrees of empathy or frustration. The current focus of implementation agencies is on identifying and influencing factors likely to lead to more effective and timely implementation of the NWA, which is based inter alia , on the principles of sustainability. A cardinal consequence of the lack of implementation is poor compliance with the principles enshrined in the NWA. It was in this immediate context that the notion of ‘mental models’ came under consideration; could the lack of compliance with the NWA be understood in relation to the different conceptualisations or mental models of water use and water resource dynamics held by different stakeholder groups? A mental model refers to the way people construct an understanding of their world, enabling them to think about concepts and processes, to map their relationship to these, and to anticipate or plan their responses.
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How do farmers' representations influence landscapes? A multi-scale approach combining mental models and forest monitoring in southwestern France

How do farmers' representations influence landscapes? A multi-scale approach combining mental models and forest monitoring in southwestern France

known about small-scale dynamics and factors affecting rural forests. In the Long-Term Social-Ecological Research (LTSER) platform Vallées et Coteaux de Gascogne, we combined GIS monitoring, ethnographic investigations and mental models to understand rural forests dynamics and related anthropogenic factors. Linking landscape patterns & social norms

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Testing the consistency between goals and policies for sustainable development: mental models of how the world works today are inconsistent with mental models of how the world will work in the future

Testing the consistency between goals and policies for sustainable development: mental models of how the world works today are inconsistent with mental models of how the world will work in the future

We define a mental model as in (Jones, Ross et al. 2011): ‘personal, internal representations of external reality that people use to interact with the world around them […They] are used to reason and make decisions and can be the basis of individual behaviors’. Mental models can be static or dynamic (Johnson-Laird 2001, Groesser and Schaffernicht 2012) . We define a mental model as static if it does not include or does not explicitly account for the dynamical interactions between its components. For example, a static mental model may describe our understanding of how the climate system works today without accounting for how the system may change in the future. Alternatively, we define the mental model as dynamic if it is capable of accounting for system changes and for how the system can move from its current state to some future state. Because implementing a model numerically ensures dynamical and logical consistency (Boschetti 2012), we call the output of the computational model dynamically consistent. Notice that this implies that we use the term mental model in a system dynamic sense.
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Water management in the Camargue biosphere reserve: insights from comparative mental models analysis

Water management in the Camargue biosphere reserve: insights from comparative mental models analysis

between the mental models of different actors. A learning organization can be characterized by its members being involved in a process of collaboratively conducted, collectively accountable change directed towards shared aims, values or principles (Watkins and Marsick 1992). A learning organization develops processes and strategies to enhance organizational learning (Argyris and Schön 1978, Argyris 1993). Shared knowledge in team or social organization may enhance the collective organization and performance (Mathieu et al. 2000, Mohammed et al. 2000, Webber et al. 2000), a hypothesis that may have important implications for actions and adaptive management of natural resources. Although application of the concept of mental models is growing, their measurement and analysis remain a challenge (Pahl-Wostl 2006). More investigation is needed that identifies better methodologies for assessing mental models. We present a new approach to elicit and compare mental models, and we illustrate how it can be used to evaluate social learning that occurred in a specific environmental management body. We build on a research project on water system modeling that gave us the opportunity to study this specific issue in the context of the water management in the Camargue Biosphere Reserve (Appendix 1). A Water Board (Commission exécutive de l'eau) was established to help local stakeholders to identify potential trade- offs and actions for water management of the central lagoon system (Table 1). If the Water Board is a learning organization according to the definition of Argyris and Schön (1996), we predict three things about the mental models of members and nonmembers of the Water Board: (1) members of the Water Board would have a shared mental model of the water management system; (2) the mental models of the water management system held by members of the Water Board would be different from those held by stakeholders not involved in the Water Board; and (3) mental models of the water management system would converge to a similar one through collective interactions.
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Using sketch recognition for capturing developer's mental models

Using sketch recognition for capturing developer's mental models

• Finally, externalizing their mental models of source code. Tools do not allow to support face-to-face communication [9] In the next section, we highlight some obstacles to the adoption of UML in traditional engineering practices. Since there is little documentation of the software architecture, in section III, we justify the use of sketches to capture develop- ers’ mental models of their source code. Related work focuses on sketching tools in section IV. In section V, we introduce our prototype that captures and understand sketches without any effort from the developers. In the prototype, we firstly restricted our focus to the UML class diagram. Finally, we discuss a survey we need to further validate our work and the
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From local to global: mental models of local people about livestock sector

From local to global: mental models of local people about livestock sector

to the repository administrator: tech-oatao@listes-diff.inp-toulouse.fr This is an author’s version published in: https://oatao.univ-toulouse.fr/16299 To cite this version: Tourrand, Jean-François and Barnaud, Cécile and Valarié, Pierre and Bonaudo, Thierry and Ickowicz, Alexandre and Moulin, Charles-Henri and Dobremez, Laurent and Dedieu, Benoît From local to global: mental models of local people

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From local to global: mental models of local people about livestock sector

From local to global: mental models of local people about livestock sector

Jean-François Tourrand, Cécile Barnaud, Pierre Valarie, Thierry Bonaudo, Alexandre Ickowicz, Charles-Henri Moulin, Laurent Dobremez, Benoit Dedieu. To cite this version:[r]

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Mutations de la neurotrypsine et retard mental

Mutations de la neurotrypsine et retard mental

Le nombre des gènes responsables de retards mentaux est estimé à environ 300 et seuls 90 d’entre eux ont été identifiés. En effet, l’extrême hétérogénéité clinique et génétique de ces maladies rend diffi- cile l’utilisation des techniques clas- siques d’analyse de liaison génétique, en particulier dans le cas des retards men- taux non syndromiques. En conséquence, seuls onze gènes responsables de retards mentaux non syndromiques liés à l’X ont été identifiés [4-6] , mais aucun gène associé à un retard mental isolé récessif autosomique ( ➜ ). La gra- vité et la fréquence de ces affec- tions font du démembrement des gènes responsables de ces mala- dies un des enjeux majeurs de la géné- tique médicale.
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Mental maps of students - Volume 4

Mental maps of students - Volume 4

Two blocks emerged: North America with the USA and Canada, followed closely by Western European where the survey empha- sises the UK and Belgium. Paradoxically, France, Germany, and Spain are less positively appreciated. In contrast, the countries of which students have a more negative perception are at war or underdeveloped countries such as the last Soviet Union countries and the Middle East (Iraq, Afghanistan and Iran), followed by Asian countries such as China and India, but also sub-Saharan neighbours represented by Nigeria, Gabon, Sudan, and Chad. The favourite cities are New York, Quebec, London, and Johan- nesburg. This result shows a transfer in the Cameroonian per- ception of the world from Western Europe to North America and South Africa, which are English speaking countries. These sur- vey results show that the questioned students have a superficial knowledge of the world. Their perception of the world’s coun- tries and cities seems to be closely linked to history and media information dissemination. Cameroonian students due to secu- rity and political knowledge have a general North (like to live) Middle-East South (dislike to live) patterned perception of the world’s countries and cities. Taking into consideration the actual limited experience of the world (evidenced in the lowest number of visited countries), the conclusion that stands out is obviously that Cameroonian students’ knowledge is an indirect one, mainly based on colonial history and information provided by the me- dia and school, on the local and national sociocultural universe, the limited family mobility and also on the unstable situation in each country or city usually due to social or political conflicts and war. (Bopda, Tchindjang, Etouna, Isseri, and Taptue, 2010, Mental Maps of Cameroon Students)
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Mental maps of students - Volume 2

Mental maps of students - Volume 2

But it is also clear that the students of our sample are not equivalent in terms of income and education, neither in terms of familial and personal experience of the world through langua[r]

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Mental maps of students - Volume 1

Mental maps of students - Volume 1

Authors This working paper is a collective work. However, the Intro- duction, main results, and Section 2 (Variations in the scale of the feeling of belonging) are mainly due to Clarisse DIDE- LON (CNRS-UMR IDEES), Sophie de RUFFRAY (CNRS-UMR IDEES), and Claude GRASLAND (CNRS-UMR Géographie-cités). Section 3 (Knowledge and attractiveness of cities and countries) is mainly due to Claude GRASLAND (CNRS-UMR Géographie- cités), Thérèse SAINT-JULIEN (CNRS-UMR Géographie-cités), Thimotée GIRAUD (GIS-CIST), and Laurent BEAUGUITTE (CNRS-UMR Géographie-cités). Sub-section 5.1 (Mental maps of Europe: A fuzzy but consensus vision of Europe) is due to Clarisse DIDELON (CNRS-UMR IDEES) and Sophie de RUF- FRAY (CNRS-UMR IDEES). Sub-section 5.2 (Representations of Europe in the world: Textual analysis) is due to Arnaud BRENNETOT CNRS-UMR IDEES), Karine EMSELLEM (CNRS- UMR Espace), Béatrice GARNIER (INED), and France GUERIN- PACE (INED).
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Mental maps of students - Volume 3

Mental maps of students - Volume 3

3.1 Theoretical definition and empirical measure of the de- gree of the feeling of belonging 3.1.1 Human territoriality and the concept of “man’s shell” The study of the feeling of belonging to a “piece of the Earth” (Bailly and Scariati, 1999[7]) is one axis of the geographic analysis and a relatively mod- est approach to the question of identity. This feeling of belonging helps people to position themselves in the world and in society. It is a posture from which to perceive the world and explain it, and it should therefore be part of the study of the representation of the world. The analysis of rep- resentation is, to a large extent, based on the theory of “man’s shells” (“les coquilles de l’homme” in French) (Moles and Rohmer, 1974[78]), a series of circles organised around the individual that define the level of knowledge of different places: closer spaces are the best known. Among geographers analysing representation, the precursor is Lynch (1960[74]) who mainly fo- cused on the intra-urban scale before further works exploring smaller scales. It is the case of Gould and White (1974[50]) who established mental maps at the national level. In the 1970s and 1980s, Saarinen focused on mental maps at the world level and made many surveys at this scale (1987[92]). Its analyses were concentrated principally on the centring of mental maps. The researches that followed that work tried to demonstrate that there is a great diversity of points of view on the world, but also to stress the differences in knowledge of the world-space and to try to explain them (Saarinen and MacCabe, 1995[93], Pinheiro, 1998[82]).
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L'Approche Centrée sur la Personne en situation de handicap mental

L'Approche Centrée sur la Personne en situation de handicap mental

The fieldwork of this thesis is carried out with mentally disabled children. The concept of person takes a crucial place in our working plan which focuses on the subjective experience of children and their mental health. In order to operationalize the PCA, we chose to work with two tools, i.e. the “Three Trees” test (TTT) and the “Notebook of the Tree”. Afterwards, we analyzed the positive impact of the psychological mechanisms implied in these tests. The child’s resources are indeed mobilized thanks to them, and this mobilization consequently reduces personality disorders (and can even suppress them) and increases the activation of the cognitive processes.
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Ce que disent les personnes confrontées à un trouble mental grave

Ce que disent les personnes confrontées à un trouble mental grave

Corin (1990, 1998, Corin et Lauzon, 1992) tente de se situer dans un espace intermédiaire, avec la notion de façon d’être au monde. Elle définit une approche de type anthropologique, mais en y intégrant une dimension phénoménologique, afin de ménager une place à ce qui est particulier et partie prenante de la vie des personnes, le fait de souffrir d’un trouble mental grave. Dans son étude, Corin distingue trois groupes selon l’histoire de leurs réadmissions à l’hôpital psychiatrique dans les quatre dernières années, et étudie la relation au monde et le mode d’existence des personnes qui se trouvent dans les deux groupes extrêmes : les personnes n’ayant pas été réhospitalisées pendant cette période (NR) et les personnes ayant été réhospitalisées plus de trois fois (FH). L’analyse mêle des éléments ‘objectifs’ (tels que le nombre et la fréquence des réseaux sociaux, par exemple) et le sens attribué à ces éléments par les personnes (ici, l’évaluation de ses réseaux sociaux par la personne). Ainsi, alors qu’elle constate que ces deux groupes ont aussi peu de relations interpersonnelles l’un que l’autre, et peuvent être définis comme globalement marginaux, elle s’aperçoit que pour les personnes fréquemment hospitalisées, cette situation s’accompagne d’un sentiment d’exclusion et de demande affective, alors que pour les personnes non réhospitalisées elle est conçue comme le résultat d’une attitude personnelle de détachement du monde, positive. Cette approche permet donc, par exemple, de dépasser l’expression de “désespoir tranquille” utilisée par Davidson, en proposant une vision plus complexe des modes de vie des personnes souffrant de troubles mentaux graves dans la communauté.
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Emotional aspects of mental time travel

Emotional aspects of mental time travel

Although the primary function of emotional aspects of mental time travel may be to help one make adaptive decisions, mental representations of emotional episodes probably serve other func- tions as well. Representations of emotional events induce signifi- cant modifications of emotional responses and feelings (Damasio et al. 2000), and may therefore be used to regulate affective states. Sometimes we remember or imagine positive experiences, not so much to help us make decisions or plan future actions, but simply to feel better in the present. There is evidence that people occasionally retrieve positive events in order to repair a negative mood (McFarland & Buehler 1998). Note that the use of mental
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Aider les élèves à automatiser les stratégies de calcul mental

Aider les élèves à automatiser les stratégies de calcul mental

51 Conclusion Les différentes enquêtes, menées par l’OCDE ont montré que les élèves français avait encore des difficultés en mathématiques. En effet, ils ont une connaissance insuffisance du système numérique qui les empêche de donner du sens à ce qu’ils font. C’est pourquoi, les nouveaux programmes 2015 donnent davantage de place au calcul mental qui a pour but de mieux conceptualiser les nombres. De multiples chercheurs ont travaillé sur ce sujet et préconise une bonne méthodologie avec une pratique journalière afin d’automatiser et de partager des stratégies entre élèves. J’ai ainsi recherché personnellement l’influence des supports sur les élèves au cours d’une séquence qui a eu lieu en janvier.
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