On the one hand, the author is aware that this definition is restrictive for the research itself as it does not include concrete aspects that could significantly influence the climate of urban systems, such as urban density, surfaces, green spaces and so on. On the other hand, not only the city's number of inhabitants is a recurring sampling criterion among similar studies (Taulelle, 2017), but also this aspect tends to define some other common characteristics, e.g. infrastructure or services. The issue of urban climate is rarely taken into account in urban planning documents (Oke, 2006), especially from the population groups most at risk such as the elderly, children, people with disabilities and so on. In particular, another significant gap in the literature review concerns the study of UHIs for medium-sizedcities, these between 50,000 to 500,000 inhabitants, in comparison to a wide variety of studies in the same subject for big-sizedcities (Amorim et al., 2009 as cited in X. Foissard et al., 2019). For example, the city of Carpentras, a small town of 30,000 inhabitants in the PACA region, has only recently, in 2019, carried out a study to prove that even small towns are subject to UHI phenomenon. This study highlights the importance of taking action for small towns as well as big ones (Personnic, 2019). Therefore, it is important to give greater consideration to small and medium-sized Mediterranean cities (Chaline, 2001).
The decline of retailing in urban centres is especially pronounced in small cities. In every country covered by our literature review, shop vacancy has increased more rapidly in the centres of small and medium-sized towns than in those of large cities. While these dynamics are not peculiar to small and medium-sizedcities, they have been all the more affected because their retail vitality was based on a smaller number of shops than found in the big cities. The opening of a shopping centre in small and medium-sized town and cities has had much stronger effects on the decline of the central stores. In addition, the impact of vacant spaces is particularly visible (Robertson, 1999). Their centres are also more vulnerable to competition from peripheral shopping centres (Filion, Hoernig, Bunting, & Sands, 2004; Filion, 2008). In Great Britain, a report by the Department of the Environment as early as 1998 indicated that the development of supermarkets had had an adverse impact on market towns. Two years earlier, the Planning Policy Guidance Note 6 (PPG6) highlighted the adverse effects of peripheral retail developments, which threatened the viability of the centres of small and medium- sizedcities and rural towns, and it imposed a test for the location of periurban retail settlements, “the so-called ‘sequential approach’ to store site selection” (Hallsworth & Coca-Stefaniak, 2018). These regulations, however, did not have the desired effects. In the mid-1990s, a study showed that 15 % of British market towns were undergoing decline. Later on, with the “Needs test”, the retail developers were required to demonstrate that there was a ‘need’ for stores (Guy, 2006). However, the effects of the ‘Town Centres First” policy promoted by the British Government Minister Richard Caborn have been difficult to assess 6 . Over the past two decades, small retail outlets have experienced further decline in market towns 7
to rural environments) and heterogeneous environments. This heterogeneity is not linked only to the uneven dis- tribution of infrastructures [ 2 , 3 ]. It is also caused by the urbanization process on its own. Indeed, a city is not built in the same way if it develops in a plain or in the middle of mountains, or if it is traversed by low-lying grounds or close to the seaside, or if its growth is con- trolled or not. Several studies have shown that the irregu- lar urbanization and patchy infrastructure of cities have many consequences on health [ 3 – 5 ], by producing differ- ent health risks and uneven risk of exposure to specific diseases [ 6 ]. Many of these studies were conducted in big cities, although urbanization occurs more and more in medium-sizedcities [ 7 ]. These places have the disad- vantages of cities (unplanned growth, pollution) and also of rural areas (under-equipment) and their consequences on health have been not fully investigated [ 8 ].
Second, while the knowledge of the city-majority languages by allophones is in both cases negatively related to the size of the own mothertongue group just as in Chiswick and Miller (2001) or van Tubergen and Wierenga (2011), the mechanism behind this is very different for French and English-majority cities. Specifically, the evidence for learning is limited in the case of the dominant language (English) but very strong in the case of the weak language (French). Indeed, at the mean value, living in a city with 10% co-mother tongue speakers lowers –over a period of ten years- the assimilation rate by only 0.3 p.p in English-majority cities, while the effect is much bigger (by 7 p.p.) in a French-majority city. This result may stem from the incentives for the knowledge of English being high anyway at the country level and instead for the incentives to know French to be more strongly related to the city-level language distribu-
thing. In this context, constant testing and versioning replaces decisive con- ceptualization of failure and loss.
The messy character of algorithmic governance somehow corresponds to smart urbanism’s organizational models. Whereas the tactical, specula- tive interventions of data-driven governance undermine disciplinary tech- niques of statecraft, state authority (at least to some degree) relinquishes centralized organization, overview, and control. Though such narratives still demand critical engagement, smart urbanism evokes scenarios accord- ing to which cognition is not centralized and rational (as is state authority); instead it takes its cues from swarms, insect colonies, and chaotic systems that inform models for self-organization (Halpern et al. 2013). In this pre- sent issue, Blok and Minor’s discussion of governance practices such as ‘living laboratories’ and participatory design provides an empirical account of the extent to which smart city governance seeks to harness a degree of socio-technical contingency, rather than contain it, in order to multiply the effects of data across the smart-city environment. Accordingly, Thrift (2014, 6) proposes to see sentient cities as “spaces of ramification as differ- ent kinds of edge structure” and “as refuges that encourage experiment, tinkering and other adaptive practices” that offer “new ways to produce chaos out of order […].”
Similarly there are mediating efforts between community and municipality by faculty and students at Hong Kong’s Polytechnic, Hong Kong University’s Sao Po Centre of Aging, the Hong Kong Jockey Club’s sponsorship of four university gerontology units to launch age-friendly campaigns, and the Hong Kong Council of Social Service’s encouragement of the city’s eighteen district councils to organize local activities to meet the eight goals of the WHO’s Ageing Friendly Cities guidelines.
The extent to which port cities attract APS firms differs. Some ports are serviced completely by APS firms located elsewhere, while other port cities will attract more APS firms. Figure 1 shows our framework to empirically classify port cities in this respect. It shows the position of a port city in the world city hierarchy (in terms of specialized advanced producer services) on the horizontal axis and the volumes of commodities passing through the port on the vertical axis. Load centres are well positioned in GPN-GCC-GVCs because of heavy physical infrastructure, variety of transport (gateway) functions, regular shipping calls, large throughput volumes, and substantial market share within a given port range (Hayuth 1981; Notteboom 1997). Agglomeration economies remained limited due to geographical remoteness or to the lock-in effect of pre-existing urban centres (Fujita and Mori 1996). On the other hand, service centres have important ranks in the hierarchy of WCNs thanks to successful agglomeration economies, although the initial advantage of water transport is no longer dominant. For such places, functions related to the physical transfer of goods are often limited due to lack of space, congestion, environmental concerns, and the development of more sophisticated activities or central place functions.
rapidly, with a growing number of people moving from rural to urban areas [ 5 ]. Rapid and anarchic urbanization combined with difficult socioeconomic conditions, such as inadequate housing, lack of public services, poor waste disposal, and poor water storage, can create ecological conditions that are condu- cive to mosquito breeding. Anopheles vectors of malaria, which until recently were confined to the bush and rural areas, are in- creasingly reported in African cities, owing to changes in the urban environment [ 6–8 ]. Urban malaria is becoming a serious concern, because most urban residents may lack immunity against malaria parasites and thus are at high risk of morbidity and mortality.
removed water volume minus its desired removal. Normally, solutes of the
molecular weight up to 15 kDa can be removed from the blood by HF, meaning that larger important blood components as cells and large proteins are retained. The small toxins in this case are able to pass freely through the membrane pores, while only some part of middle sized molecules is able to be filtered out . Thus, the application of convection provides a better solution for poor removal of the middle-sized solutes compared to the hemodialysis. However, it still does not allow the complete elimination of these toxins. On the other hand, hemofiltration offers less effective removal of small molecular weight toxins, because of the limitations in the maximal volume of water, which can be removed from the blood . Thus, it seems to be beneficial and reasonable to combine the positive features of hemodialysis that is sufficient removal of small toxins together with the strength of hemofiltration, namely facilitated elimination of the middle-sized uremic retention solutes.
1.1 Related Works
Sized types have been originally introduced by Hughes, Pareto, and Sabry  in the context of reactive programming. A series of papers by Barthe and colleagues [18, 19, 20] presents sized types in a way similar to the one we will adopt here, although still for a deterministic functional language. Contrary to the other works on sized types, their type system is proved to admit a decidable type inference, see the unpublished tutorial . Abel developed independently of Barthe and colleagues a similar type system featuring size informations . These three lines of work allow polymorphism, arbitrary inductive data constructors, and ordinal sizes, so that data such as infinite trees can be manipulated. These three features will be absent of our system, in order to focus the challenge on the treatment of probabilistic recursive programs. Another interesting approach is the one of Xi’s Dependent ML , in which a system of lightweight dependent types allows a more liberal treatment of the notion of size, over which arithmetic or conditional operations may in particular be applied. Termination is ensured by checking during typing that a given metrics decreases during recursive calls. This system is well-adapted for practical termination checking and can be extended with mutual recursion, inductive types and polymorphism, but does not feature ordinal sizes. See  for a detailed comparison of the previously cited systems. Some works along these lines are able to deal with coinductive data, as well as inductive ones [14, 18, 21]. They are related to Amadio and Coupet-Grimal’s work on guarded types ensuring productivity of infinite structures such as streams . None of these works deal with probabilistic computation, and in particular with almost sure termination.
sortNat 2 :: ∀α . ∀ijk. List i Nat j → C k → List i Nat j × C 2 +i 2 · j+2·i 2 +k .
The computed runtime bound 2 + i 2 · j + 2 · i 2 is precise, taking into account that gt is not a constant operation. It is worthy of note that the precise bound could only be inferred since HoSA is capable of inferring that insert ord x ys, given x : Nat i and ys : List k Nat j produces a list of type List k+1 Natmax (i, j) . This demonstrates that the limitation imposed by the linearity condition on canonical sized types can be overcome with the max operator. Both, HoCA and RAML, can give asymptotic precise bounds on this example. Concerning the former tool the bound O(i 3 + j 3 ), concerning the latter a runtime bound 3 − 4 · i · j + 4 · i 2 · j + 8i + 9i 2 , is derived.
2 INRIA Sophia Antipolis
Abstract. We introduce a system of monadic affine sized types, which substantially generalise usual sized types, and allows this way to capture probabilistic higher-order programs which terminate almost surely. Go- ing beyond plain, strong normalisation without losing soundness turns out to be a hard task, which cannot be accomplished without a richer, quantitative notion of types, but also without imposing some affinity constraints. The proposed type system is powerful enough to type clas- sic examples of probabilistically terminating programs such as random walks. The way typable programs are proved to be almost surely termi- nating is based on reducibility, but requires a substantial adaptation of the technique.
Jorge Luis Sacchini. 2014. Linear Sized Types in the Calculus of Constructions. In Functional and Logic Programming - 12th International Symposium, FLOPS 2014, Kanazawa, Japan, June 4-6, 2014. Proceedings (Lecture Notes in Computer Science), Michael Codish and Eijiro Sumii (Eds.), Vol. 8475. Springer, 169ś185. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-07151-0_11
Aaron Stump, Vilhelm Sjöberg, and Stephanie Weirich. 2010. Termination Casts: A Flexible Approach to Termination with General Recursion. In Workshop on Partiality And Recursion in Interactive Theorem Provers, PAR 2010, Satellite Workshop of ITP’10 at FLoC 2010 (Electronic Proceedings in Theoretical Computer Science), Ana Bove, Ekaterina Komendantskaya, and Milad Niqui (Eds.), Vol. 43. 76ś93. https://doi.org/10.4204/EPTCS.43.6
Efficient and dexterous manipulation of very small (micrometer and millimeter sized) objects require the use of high precision micromanipulation systems. The accuracy of the positioning is nevertheless limited by the noise due to vibrations of the end effectors making it difficult to achieve precise micrometer and nanometer displacements to grip small objects. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the sources of noise and to take it into account in dynamic models of micromanipulation systems. Environmental noise is studied considering the following sources of noise: ground motion and acoustic noises. Each source of noise is characterized in different environmental conditions and a separate description of their effects is investigated on micromanipulation systems using millimeter sized cantilevers as end effectors. Then, using the finite difference method (FDM), a dynamic model taking into account studied noises is used. Ground motion is described as a disturbance transmitted by the clamping to the tip of the cantilever and acoustic noises as external uniform and orthogonal waves. For model validation, an experimental setup including cantilevers of different lengths is designed and a high resolution laser interferometer is used for vibration measurements. Results show that the model allows a physical interpretation about the sources of noise and vibrations in millimeter sized micromanipulation systems leading to new perspectives for high positioning accuracy in robotics micromanipulation through active noise control.