This paper has investigated the relationship between remittances, institutions qual- ity and economic growth using panel data from 11 South-Mediterraneancountries over the period 19852014. To control for possible endogeneity problems, we em- ployed GMM regressions. The results suggest that remittances do not exert a direct effect on economic growth. However, countries with good institutions register a high growth rate comparing to countries with poor institutions. The evidence shows also that a high level of institutional quality could eliminate the negative effects on eco- nomic growth. In other words, remittances and institution quality are complements in enhancing growth. Moreover, the estimations reveal which proxies of institu- tions quality have an impact on the relationship between remittances and economic growth. Our major ﬁnding is that the presence of a good investment proﬁle, the absence of military in politics, religious tensions, internal and external risks and low corruption are a precondition for successful use of remittances.
Nevertheless studies have focused on many applications concerning revegetation operations in many different conditions. The use of well suited, adapted species as well as native species has proven better efficiency in revegetaion processes instead of commercially available grasses in the reclamation of metalliferous mines wastes (Tordoff & al., 2000), as well as in the rehabilitation of disturbed artic sites (Forbes & Jeferies, 1999). Moreover, site rehabilitation should take into consideration not only the selection of the species to be used but also all the geomorphological aspects of the site, especially in sand quarries (Martín Duque & al., 1998). Thus, ecological rehabilitation is rather a global approach of the environment especially in Mediterraneancountries where it implies a “co-evolution” of man in his surrounding landscape (Naveh, 1988; Zavala & Burkey, 1997).
not been found at the QSI level. Therefore, the crisis seems to have not influenced the similarity
between Italy and the EU Mediterraneancountries analyzed in North America.
However, at the sectoral level, the results are much more heterogenous. Our findings show an
increase in the level of similarity with Greece and Portugal for several products. 18 Regarding France, a dramatic drop in similarity has been recorded for trees and other plants (idem for the
Potatoes are a clear example: their preparation as French fries represents a core of the Western dietary pattern accompanying meat and other meals. As such, they also represent the main ingredient of what is offered to tourists on the Mediterranean coasts. Potato consumption in the United States of America has been described as a major contributor to weight gain in the adult population. The traditional use of potatoes in Mediterraneancountries as well as in Nordic countries consists of taking part in traditional recipes with other vegetables, fish and small amounts of meat. In fact, their intake has not been associated with increased cardiovascular disease or hypertension in these countries, but does represent an independent risk factor for such diseases in the United States of America. In addition, a systematic review did not link the consumption of potatoes with an increased risk of obesity or diabetes except for French fries. Potatoes represent a good example of the difficulties in grouping foods without considering the characteristics of the recipe in which the food is consumed. French fries represent the main health issue regarding potato consumption and may be linked to the type of fat used to fry them. The use of certain vegetable fats (rich in palm oil) or shortenings may increase risk, but frying them in olive oil will certainly not represent a significant risk of developing cardiovascular diseases. According to two studies published by Guallar-Castillón
The insurance contract made between migrants and households is often measured by analysing the effect of shocks on the families and the impact of shocks affecting migrants on remittances. An accidental event affecting the family in the home country (like for instance, a climatic disaster, the disease or the death of a family member) increases remittances. These links have been found in Botswana (Lucas and Stark, 1985), in Mali (Gubert, 2002), and in El Salvador in particular for agricultural families (Halliday, 2004, Chavez, 2004). Some studies have gone further into this mechanism. Amuedo-Dorantes, Pozo (2006) have distinguished several insurance methods and have highlighted that young weakly-skilled Mexican migrants from large families were most likely to resort to co-insurance. For Dominican migrants, de la Brière et alii (2002) have assessed the importance of each motivation according to the migrant’s gender, the country of destination and the compositon of the household. The remittances of immigrated women in the United States are more linked to insurance reasons than those of women who have emigrated to other countries. Insurance is also the main motivation for remittances by single male emigrants who have parents with health problems. Furthermore, authors claim the motives linked to insurance and inheritance to be complementary.
used for the data analysis and located in departments with the highest number of inhabitants from the countries under study, namely the following French departments : Ile de France, Rhône,
Bouches du Rhône, Nord and Haute-Garonne 5 .
The sample is thus made up of 216 people remitting to Morocco, 196 to Algeria, 196 to Tunisia, 196 to Turkey and 196 to Sub-Saharan Africa (55 from Senegal, 46 from Mali, and 34 from the Ivory Coast). One must bear in mind that this survey aims to gain deeper insight into the financial means implemented for the transfer, the use that will be made of remittances and the reasons that spur migrants originating from the Maghreb and Turkey to make these transfers, and not to study remittances made from France as a whole, as the sample is extensive enough to be representative per nationality, and not important enough to account for all of the remittances from France. The sample is made up of a majority of men (60%), in particular for Turks (73%) and Algerians (64%). But there is no real bias compared to the immigrated population who is equally mainly composed of men (54 to 58% for immigrants from Turkey and the Maghreb 6 )
The overall impact of climate change on rice productions is expected to be uncertain in the world top producing countries (Tao and Zhang, 2013; Zhang et al., 2014), whereas it has not yet been evaluated in Europe, where it plays a pivotal sociocultural and ecological role (Longoni, 2012). European rice is grown in continuous flooding with high fertilizations in a Mediterranean climate, therefore main constraints are cold temperatures (Jena and Hardy, 2012) leading to damages from sowing (germination efficiency) to flowering, when temperature ranges increase the risk of pollen sterility. This paper presents the application of the rice model WARM (Confalonieri et al., 2009) to simulate potential yields in current and future climate conditions in two main European rice-producing areas, the Italian Lomellina and the French Camargue. The main objectives are the quantification of the main trends of future rice productions and the identification of the sources of uncertainty in climate change projections.
Over the last few years, an abundance of economic literature, both theoretical and empirical, has attempted to bring new light on the factors determining preferences for redistribution (PFR) either as expressed directly by individuals participating in surveys, or indirectly through their political choices. Following the results obtained in several empirical studies, beliefs on the origins of social inequality, that is to say the role each individual attributes to effort, luck and talent, and to the circumstances surrounding social and economic success appeared fundamental in the creation of PFR. The considerable differences observed between the USA and Western Europe both in terms of preferences for income redistribution and individual beliefs on the origins of social inequality (and thus its legitimacy) are particularly emphasized. To account for this, certain economists conclude that PFR not only reflects self-interest as in Metzler and Richard (1982) seminal model, but is also representative of a society’s fairness. To explain PFR dispersion within a given population or the variability of PFR between countries, the authors naturally explain the origins of income variation by the dispersion of individual beliefs. From the point of view of establishing coherent models, understanding the dispersion of preferences for redistribution as the result of dispersion in the beliefs on the origins of income inequality infers explaining the co-existence of multiple beliefs. Piketty (1995) through restrictive informational hypotheses demonstrates that dynastical beliefs on the relative importance of effort and inheritance in economic success can converge into distinct states of equilibria. Alesina and Angeletos (2003) explain the differences in opinion between the USA and Europe by exploiting the idea of multiple equilibria states being reached through self-fulfilling beliefs on the correlation between productivity and effort. Their framework, however, is not one that provides an explanation for the dispersion of beliefs within a given society, contrary to the approach used by Piketty. Cervellati and al. (2006) equally founded their theoretic model illustrating the differences in preferences regarding redistributive policy on multiple states of equilibria. Benabou and Tirole (2006), on the other hand, suppose the existence of cognitive dissonance with the idea that individuals need to believe in a just world (Lerner 1980). They refer to individuals’ limited rationality, or more specifically to a certain type of temporal incoherence, that would explain the existence of different representations of reality concerning income variation.
Other elements gainsay the thesis of a sheer altruistic motive. Thus, the existence of several emigrants within one and the same family ought to enable them to share the amount of remittances. Yet the expected negative relation between transfers and the number of emigrees within the family remains unchecked, except for Guiana (Agarwal, Horowitz, 2002), and in Mali (Gubert, 2002). Other studies (Germenji et al, 2001, Hoddinott, 1994 and Chavez, 2004) even conclude on a positive relation, gainsaying the expected sign for the altruistic motive. Besides, altruistic migrants ought to send higher amounts of money to large or needy families; but this link has not very often been verified. Having a family in an ailing economic situation increases the probability of remittances or of sending higher amounts of money, as is shown by studies on the Carribean and on Sub-Saharan African countries (Itzigsohn, 1995, Agarwal, Horowitz, 2002, Gubert, 2002 and Osili, 2007), but this relationship turns out not to be significant for many other regions (Osaki, 2003, Holst, Schrooten, 2006, Craciun, 2006).
The multi-dimensionality of the agricultural and rural question in the Mediterranean requires a Euro-Mediterranean mobilization on this subject. Agriculture is at the heart of the Mediterranean identity and represents an essential determinant for the economies and companies of the area. Research being developed around the Mediterranean basin cannot disregard the complexity of the processes involved in global changes, especially in relation to climate and to anthropogenic activities. This research can no longer be confined to agronomic approaches, and must contemplate a more systemic framework. Given the diversity of the Mediterranean eco-anthroposystems and the diversity of weakening mechanisms imposed upon them, Mediterraneancountries are exceptionally well-suited to developing these research approaches. Management of Plant Protection in Mediterranean
Education is key in explaining growth, as emphasized recently by Krueger and Lindahl (2001). But for a given level of education, what can explain the missing growth in developing countries? Corruption, the poor enforce- ment of property rights, the government share of GDP, the regulations it imposes might influence the Total Factor Productivity (TFP thereafter) of a country’s economic system. A number of empirical papers emphasize the consequences bad institutions have on growth, but few are examining the link between education, corruption (more generally bad institutions), and growth. Our model assumes that at low level of GDP per head and high level of corruption education spending has no impact on growth. The slope gets positive only at above critical size of corruption. The implications are tested using the data set of Xavier Sala-i-Martin, Gernot Doppelhofer, and Ronald I. Miller (2004), which is extended with the aggregate governance indicators of Kaufman et ali.
3. EMPIRICAL STRATEGY AND PRESENTATION OF THE DATA
3.1. Estimation Method
The dependent variable in our analysis is economic policy and governance rather than economic performance. This has the important advantage of being under the direct control of the government, but it poses a distinct set of difficulties. Economic policies and governance are multidimensional and so must be aggregated. Some of these dimensions are not readily mapped onto a cardinal scale. Our core measure is the Country Policy and Institutional Assessment (CPIA) of the World Bank. A precise definition of the CPIA is presented in Appendix 1. It is an annual rating system for twenty different aspects of economic policy and institutions that covers around 130 countries since 1977. This has several important advantages and some severe disadvantages. It is available for a long period, 1977-2004, and is intended to be comparable across countries and, with minor qualifications, over time. It is intended to assess the overall economic efficacy of government choices regarding policies and institutions. The CPIA also has strong disadvantages. Although clear criteria are set out for the ratings, it is subjective. The ratings are given annually by economists who are staff of the World Bank specialized on the country. More senior economics staff then adjust these ratings so as to be comparable both within and across regions. A common objection to the CPIA is that it inadvertently incorporates growth outcomes: staff working on a rapidly growing economy will tend to assess policies and institutions more favourably than objectively similar policies and institutions in a slow-growing economy. A second common criticism is that the ratings reflect World Bank opinions about policy which are at times contentious. This is likely to be more serious in some contexts than others. In the range of very poor economic policies common during the 1980s in much of Africa the direction of change in
loyalty to government. Nevertheless, that democracy reduces the incidence of political violence remains, in the end, a proposition the validity of which depends upon empirical evidence. The proposition has recently been tested in Hegre (2003), and Collier and Rohner (2008). They find that systematically, across a wide range of measures of political violence, and across different structural models of the risk of civil war, democracy has an ambiguous effect. In particular, they find that below a threshold level of income democracy significantly increases the risk of violence whereas above the threshold it has the opposite effect. Thus, in low-income countries democracy seems not to be the key solution to political violence, and indeed seems likely to intensify the problem of maintaining peace. Collier and Rohner suggest that the explanation for these results may be that democracy has two opposing effects. Its legitimacy effect, whereby citizens accept the authority of an elected government, may be stronger in societies that are more educated or have other characteristics commonly associated with higher levels of income. Offsetting this, democracy makes government repression more difficult, and while this is in itself an attractive consequence of democracy, it might weaken a strategy of maintaining the peace that governments in low-income countries find particularly effective. This form of security, sometimes referred to as ‘the peace of the zoo’, might nevertheless have some attractions if the alternative is civil war. There is some evidence that it is effective at least against some forms of political violence, and that democracy curtails resort to repression. However, these are not exhaustive explanations. Neither we nor Collier and Rohner mean to imply by these results that democracy is inappropriate for low-income countries. Rather, our argument is that the comfortable belief that the genuinely high security risks facing small, low-income countries with particular social and geographic characteristics can be resolved purely by political means is probably not well-founded. The evidence points to the need for international interventions to address these security concerns.
We combine 32 European individual country’ border rejection data from the RASFF online database 6 with country-level HS 2-digit product export data on 45 African countries from the UN WITS data- base 7 for the period 2008–2018. The RASFF, initiated by the European Commission in 1979, is a tool that enables its 32 member countries (28 EU Member States, Norway, Liechtenstein, Iceland and Switzerland) to share information related to food safety risks and actions that have been taken to avert these risks. When a member country detects a food safety risk with a given import shipment at its border, the following possible actions are taken and shared in terms of notification with other mem- bers through the RASFF platform : detain, return, reject or destroy the product, etc. A notification shared through the RASFF provides details on the hazard type, name, category and origin of products, date (daily), action taken, etc. However, the description and classification of products in the RASFF database are not the same as described and classified in the HS product description and classification. One of our contributions in this paper is that we developed a replicable program in the Stata soft- ware 8 , which is available upon request, to match the RASFF data with the UN WITS HS 6-digit trade data. Indeed, to identify and classify a product in the RASFF border rejection database into an HS 6-digit product category, we need to treat verbal description records in a variable named subject (e.g., "pyridalyl (0.05 mg/kg - ppm) in chilled strawberries from Egypt") and aggregated information contai-
This New New Trade Theory highlighted three gains from Trade. Trade liberalization reallocates market shares from low productivity domestic suppliers to very productive foreign exporters. This forces the least efficient firms to exit the market and makes high productivity suppliers expand to enter international markets. Thus, average productivity increases at the industry level and the labor force that used to be employed by the least productive firms is henceforth reallocated to the most efficient ones. This efficiency gain implies a variety gain. In fact, market shares reallocation generates a simultaneous increase of the domestic cutoff and decrease of the export cutoff, which raises the probability of export in all countries, thus the Mass of exported varieties. As a result, each country enjoys a variety gain since the loss of domestic varieties is overcompensated by the arrival of much more imported varieties from each one of its trading partners.
The positive influence of the diet- modulated microbiome change on health status is likely to be driven by specific microbial metabolites. Given that faecal metabolomic data were unavail- able for the individuals, we predicted the functional metabolic profiles of the gut microbiome using the corresponding 16S species composition profiles (see Methods section). Correlating the across time point changes in the abundances of these predicted metabolic profiles with the microbiome index change identified dramatic differences across the microbiome response landscape (see online supplementary figure 17). A positive microbiome change was associated with an increase in the micro- bial consumption of fibre- associated non- starch polysaccharides (probably indicative of Mediterranean diet change). In contrast, a negative change was associated with an increase in microbial simple sugar consumption. A negative microbiome response was also accompanied by a predicted increase in the microbial consumption of tauro- and glyco- derivatives of bile acids (such as taurocholate or glycochenodeoxycholate) to secondary bile acids (lithocholate, deoxycholate) through cholate and cheno- deoxycholate (see online supplementary figure 18A). Bile acid dysregulation is associated with different disease conditions, 47
However, the debate about the major features of the circulation in the western basin might about to become a debate of the past while, for the eastern basin, it is just being initiated. Indeed, intensive experiments involving numerous and sophisticated instrumentation, as well as theoretical and numerical studies, have been conducted in the western basin since several decades because major labs were from the (northern) riparian countries: overall features there were thus better described and known. Moreover, some of the key‐hypotheses that had remained controversial for about two decades have recently been fully validated by dedicated in situ measurements . In the eastern basin, intensive operations have only been initiated less than two decades ago, mainly in the northern and central parts of the basin. In addition, most of these operations were parts of the POEM programme, whose leaders have proposed a circulation schema (e.g. [4, 5]) that ignores the previous ones (especially ) and completely obliterates the southern part of the basin. Indeed,  argues for an alongslope counterclockwise circulation due to the Coriolis effect around the whole basin, while the POEM schema claims for major currents meandering across most of its central part. Recently, both our data analysis  and numerical works done by other teams (e.g. ) converged to support the analysis we made about 10 years ago [1, 2]. Our analysis is consistent with the one by , mainly adding information about the mesoscale features, and is thus dramatically different from ‐if not opposed to‐ the POEM one!
Our studies have revealed the importance for archaeology of this line of research on ancient harbours. In the history of human occupation of the coasts of the Mediterranean, the foundation of harbours corresponds to an important point in time, when the coastal landscapes stopped evolving in a natural manner and were transformed and urbanised in ways that had no precedent. Recorded in the bio-sedimentary archives of the coastal environments are the degrees and the types of human impact on the environments, which correspond to the different ways space was organised during historical times. As in all geosystems, this concerns complex combinations, each category moving at its own rhythm from the long period (mobility of the landscapes) to the short period (instability, break, event…) ( B OUSQUET et al. 1983).