Also using Altmetric.com data, Juan Pablo Alperin (Simon Fraser University) tackles another important issue in science indicators: the geographical bias of altmetrics. Using the metadata of papers indexed in the Latin American journal portal SciELO—which indexes more than 1,200 journals and half a million articles—he measures the coverage (i.e., proportion of articles with non-zero values) of Mendeley, Facebook, Twitter, and other metrics provided by Altmetric.com across the different disciplines and compares the results with those obtained in other studies that used “international” databases. He shows that papers indexed on SciELO obtain lower coverage than those of papers indexed in other databases, with scores close to zero in most cases. This was also true for the major Brazilian collection—the largest in SciELO. Alperin suggests three potential explanations for this: 1) SciELO has a lower usage and, thus, a lower social media usage; 2) social media use is lower in Latin America than elsewhere in the previously studied contexts; or 3) Latin American has distinct practices of sharing research on social media. In sum, Alperin’s results convincingly demonstrate that, in addition to discipline and topicality of papers, geography affects the visibility of papers on social media platforms.
decades, 7 9 10 more particularly social mediaand content-
sharing platforms, we will search the literature between 2000 and 2018.
We will consider primary studies with any design: quasi-experimental designs (before and after, and inter- rupted time series) and experimental designs (randomised controlled trials), observational designs (cohort, case– control and cross-sectional), qualitative designs and mixed-methods designs. We will also examine grey litera- ture (theses and dissertations, government reports, policy statements, research reports and conference proceed- ings), opinion papers and knowledge synthesis papers. Literature search
“contemporarily, cultural studies has fractured into numerous strands of thought that do not share theoretical or methodological unity, although the emphasis on ordinary and popular culture remains central” (ibid., p. 269).
Other important attempts to categorize communication research are found in Hanson’s (2010) work, which identifies the common themes studied by communication researchers. For her, three broad themes drive communication research: The first is concerned with “the impact of communicationmedia”, which draws upon propaganda research of the 1920s and 1930s as well as public opinion research to examine individual and/or collective attitude formation. The second focuses on “communication flows”, with much of the discussions emphasizing cross- border and transnational communication, including how they inform socio-political orders and cross-border relations. The third emphasizes issues of “communicationand power”, which builds on critical approaches to study communication structures and how they reinforce/weaken dominant ideologies – social, political, or economic. Although Hanson’s work underlines international communication, she offers useful insights on how technological advances and political changes have influenced the content and scope of communication discipline across time and space. The interplay between communicationand power is also examined by other critical approaches such feminism (see Bellerive and Yelle, 2016), and more broadly, the study of creative and cultural industries within the Franco-Quebecois literature (see Bouquillon, 2014; George, 2014; Miège, 2012; Moeglin, 2012). Scholars such as Bouquillon (2014) argue that, as the notion of culture becomes increasingly fragmented and decentralized, “new” socio-economic agencies (e.g. “inter-channel relations”) have emerged thereby altering how culture is conceptualized in both creative industries and creative economies.
General Social MediaStudies
Social media is used by academics to disseminate their own research, discover others’ work, and connect with other scholars in the interest of collaboration and idea generation. Faulkes (2014) likened the feedback and peer- review facilitated by social media to that at a research conference, a sentiment echoed by other academics ((British Library et al, 2012). Behaviour can be specific to the social media platform itself, including how academics choose to present themselves—either adopting a professional, personal, or mixed identity—as some social media platforms are public facing, while other are intended for specifically academic audiences. Factors such as age, gender, academic status, field, and culture have been put forth to explain the variance in the attitudes towards social mediaand how it is used. There have been several large-scale studies with regards to the usage of social media for research purposes. A 2011 study found that 63% of researchers used collaborative authoring tools, 27% social networking tools (almost half being Facebook), 15% blogs, and 9% microblogs (almost all being Twitter) (Rowlands, Nicholas, Russell, Canty, & Watkinson, 2011). A similar level of Twitter use were found in Procter et al (2010), whose survey also revealed that while 73% of UK academics used Google Scholar, 69% Wikipedia, 29% YouTube, and 24% Facebook, the majority never actually contributed original content to blogs, articles and wikis, nor posted slides, text, or videos publicly. This spectator-like behaviour was confirmed by a 2013 survey at UK research universities, which found that about 25% of respondents did not use social media for work, and more than 75% did not create original content on the social media platforms (Tenopir, Volentine, & King, 2013).
to highlight the dominant topics it covers, identify gaps in research, and provide a better understanding of how studies on mediatization align within the broader literature on political communication.
Before leaving you to explore this issue, let me introduce and thank those who have made it possible to launch the CJMS in its new guise and who will help it to grow in the coming years: board members Sandy Smeltzer (Western), Jeremy Shtern (Ryerson), Ghislain Thibault (Université de Montréal), Elizabeth Dubois and Isaac Nahon-Serfaty (uOttawa); production assistants Gabriela Perdomo and Philippe Rodrigues-Rouleau (uOttawa); scholarly communication librarian Jeanette Hatherill (uOttawa); and, last but not least, Lara Mainville, Caroline Boudreau and Maryse Cloutier at the University of Ottawa Press.
1 Assistant Professor in Communication, Department of Social Sciences, University of Québec,
Since the 1980s, digital materialism has received increasing interest in the field of mediastudies. Materialism as a theoretical paradigm assumes that all things in the world are tied to physical processes and matter. Yet within digital mediastudies, the understanding of what should be the core object of a materialist analysis is debated. This paper proposes to untangle some of the principal theoretical propo- sitions that compose the field of digital materialism. It outlines six frameworks that share the assumption that digital stuff is composed of material entities: the Berlin School of media, the field of software studies, the literary critique of electronic texts, the forensic approach, the ‘new materialist’ media ecology, and the field of Marxian critical studies. These different options are positioned along three main lines of tensions: between a semantic and an engineer’s perspective on media, between technological and social determinism, and between critical or post-humanist political propositions.
CHAPTER 8 CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
Over the last few years, the phenomenon of social media have emerged and increasingly integrated in individuals’ life and organizations’ persistence. The popularity and widespread utilization of social media, call for academic research on the topic. This dissertation targeted on the social mediastudies in communication research field. Hence, this research work investigated a number of potential risks and opportunities that the organizations currently confronted with the emergence and rapid growth of social media. This dissertation discussed the availability of uncontrolled information among social media channels and argued that the fast dissemination of unlimited amount of information could result in social media crisis that expose organizations’ reputation to danger faster than ever. One more risk for organizations that is prior crisis communications strategies are not entirely applicable to crises that happen or amplify in soc ial media environment. Organizations are not completely aware of social media crisis requirements and therefore their crisis communication strategies might not be an appropriate response to social media crisis. This is another factor that amplifies the probability of reputation risk. The dissertation then continues with reviewing the possible organization opportunities in social media world. Social media is a stage to engage that give organizations the chance of engaging users in their conversations. If these conversational interactions among organizations and individuals are properly managed, it brings benefits like positive perceptions of reputation for organizations. This chapter summarises the dissertation contributions, recommendations for practical implications, and the research limitations that afford the directions for further studies.
Health news is an important way to communicate updates about medical research to the public. News items reporting the results of medical research attract a large audience . However, the quality of reporting in health news is uneven. The merits of a wide range of treatments and tests are overplayed, and harms are underplayed . Several studies have shown the presence of spin (i.e., distorted presentation of study results) in health news [3-10]. Distorted facts can be misleading and can affect the behaviour of physicians, healthcare providers and patients [1 11 12]. However, little research has assessed whether spin can affect readers’ interpretation . Some studies have explored whether laypeople are able to recognize the tentativeness of research findings reported in media [14 15]. Kimmerle et al. found that negative framing and accentuation of the limited reliability of provisional research findings in a newspaper report made people more aware of the tentativeness of these findings . In another work, the authors assessed the impact of some personality factors (i.e., scientific literacy, epistemology beliefs, and academic self-efficacy) and previous users’ comments on an online website on laypeople’s understanding of the tentativeness of medical research findings. Laypeople’s understanding of the tentativeness of research findings was influenced by their personality factors and also by other users’ comments contributed to the forum .
Un mode original d’appropriation des Cultural Studies… M.-J. Bertini
Les études de genre font donc davantage “irruption” en France qu’ailleurs, où les esprits sont mieux préparés grâce à une acclimatation sociopolitique d’une part, et aux apports considérables des études sur les femmes et/ou féministes d’autre part. En sorte que l’intérêt français pour les études de genre pourrait masquer à la fois la forte résistance aca- démique opposée aux études féministes et la stratégie discursive qui consisterait à les remplacer, elles et leurs questionnements particuliers, par les études de genre. Les secondes ne sauraient ainsi se substituer aux premières dont elles sont le débouché naturel. L’empressement à se saisir des questions du genre en France aujourd’hui, ne serait ainsi pas indiffé- rent à l’une de ces stratégies sans stratèges qui ordonnent nos pratiques, les savantes et les moins savantes, dans un contexte culturel spécifique où le nom d’études féministes met en avant, de manière plus explicite que celui de Women Studies, l’engagement originel des chercheurs, et semble déroger ainsi à l’obligation de neutralité idéologique des sciences humaines et sociales, neutralité précisément invalidée par les études de genre. C’est à ces dernières tout particulièrement qu’il revient en effet de mettre à jour les normes implicites qui président à l’élaboration des sa- voirs, aménageant les conditions d’une approche critique, favorisant par là même les déconstructions des structures de pouvoir qu’elles organisent.
Express Vu Partnership v. Rex was about the limits of authority the Canadian government has in controlling the communication behavior of its citizens.
Interdependency sovereignty characterizes the exercise of authority in controlling borders, in terms of flows of goods, people, or information. xlii As Krasner points out, a weakening of interdependency sovereignty can have transitive impacts on domestic sovereignty. In the Bell Express Vu case, territorial control was challenged not only by the basic physical nature of the technology, but also by engineering adaptations meant to solve the problems of unintended broadcast footprints. As is seen in Bell Express Vu, the creation of "engineered" broadcast areas that are smaller than their physical broadcast areas is now attempted through encryption of the broadcast signal. However, completeness of control requires secure distribution of decoding devices to authorized locations (i.e. customers) within the engineered territory and a system that is resistant to the "cracking" of both the encrypted signals and decoding devices.
I am writing to invite you to join or otherwise participate in the activities of a new subcommittee of the Canadian Historical Association, the MediaandCommunication History Committee (MCHC). It was officially established at this year’s CHA annual meeting, but the group has already been operating informally for several years, holding successful and well-attended conferences on media history in Canada in May 2006 and November 2008. We are particularly happy that our work to date has included strong representation of English-speaking and French-speaking scholars and intend that this orientation will continue.
The National Research Council of Canada (NRC), through its Institute for Research in
Construction (IRC) Fire Risk Management Program, was invited to conduct a series of full-scale fire experiments at Kemano. This research is part of an ongoing effort in the fire protection community to maximize the benefit of residential fire protection technologies to improve home fire safety. The 40 % decline in Canadian fire fatalities between 1985 and 1995 is mostly attributable to the use of residential smoke alarms and the enforcement of the relevant codes and standards.
The X-Ray diffraction (XRD) patterns of the pristine compound NdScSi and the hydride NdScSiH x are presented in Fig. 2 . It clearly
shows a change in the unit cell parameters. More precisely, a full pattern matching of the diffractograms indicates that the hydro- genation of NdScSi (or NdScGe) keeps the initial space group I4/ mmm, the a parameter decreasing from 428.94(6) to 422.1(1) pm ( 1.6%) and the c parameter increasing from 1570.5(3) to 1692.8 (2) pm (þ7.8%). This anisotropic volume change yields a volume cell expansion of 4.0% and a strong augmentation of the c/a ratio of 9.8%. A similar tendency is observed for the isotypic germanide since the unit cell parameters change from a¼431.2(1) and c¼1581.3(5) pm to a¼423.4(2) and c¼1680(9) pm. However, the hydrogenation of NdScGe is more difﬁcult to achieve as we notice a signiﬁcant broadening of some reﬂections such as the (103) or (105) line. This may be related to the larger size of the germanium atom with re- spect to the silicon one in addition to the repulsive interaction be- tween the H and X atoms (X¼Si, Ge). Such repulsive interactions have already been reported, for example, in La 3 Pd 5 SiD x deuterides
The Langevin equation (1) is linear, reflecting the basic assumption that particles do not interact. The noise η(x) is known through its stochastic properties and changing these properties may drastically affect the behavior of n(x, t). Equation (1) can be generalized in various ways, e.g. one can take into account advection [13–16], study the evolution of a vector field in a random background (e.g. a magnetic field in the dynamo effect) , or consider several coupled fields as in the case of chemotaxis [17, 18]. One can introduce a non-linearity in order to take into account saturation effects . Besides, it can also be interesting to consider situations with η = η(x, t), the dependence on time reflecting e.g. seasonal variations.
[ 6 ] In this paper we will focus on the continuous time
random walk (CTRW) approach. A popular approach for defining CTRW model parameters is breakthrough curves fitting [e.g., Berkowitz and Scher, 2010]. While useful in practice, the limitation of this approach is that it is difficult in general to relate the derived effective parameters to the velocity field properties. Some analytical approaches con- sidering simplified forms of heterogeneity have been devel- oped that upscale exactly to a CTRW [Dentz and Castro, 2009 ; Dentz et al., 2009 ; Dentz and Bolster, 2011]. In par- ticular, the importance of spatial velocity correlation and its impact on anomalous transport is explicitly illustrated in the simplified model of Dentz and Bolster . A differ- ent approach that is not restricted to simplified types of het- erogeneity was developed by Le Borgne et al. [2008a, 2008b]. By using the spatial Markov property of Lagran- gian velocities, one can define a correlated CTRW model, whose parameters are defined from the velocity field distri- bution and spatial correlation properties. Thus, the upscaled CTRW model is obtained without fitting its parameters to the dispersion data ; instead they are estimated from the Lagrangian velocity field analysis. Velocity distribution and spatial correlation are known two govern dispersion heterogeneous media [Bouchaud and Georges, 1990]. Sol- ute dispersion is enhanced when the width of the velocity distribution is increased. It is also enhanced when the spa- tial correlation of the velocity field is stronger. In other words, when each solute particle tends to keep similar velocities for a long time, the ensemble of particles is more dispersed. The correlated CTRW approach quantifies sepa- rately distribution and correlation effects. We will show in the following that this is critical to understand and quantify pore-scale dispersion as velocity distribution and spatial correlation can have antagonist effects, hence competing for governing the global dispersion.
Concerning challenge (1), participants brought to the fore the necessity to develop approaches, algorithms and tools to reduce the effort required from average users to produce multimedia content. Even if commercial tools exist, they are usually dedicated to particular mediaand applications and their integration is still problematic. The participants to the retreat identified several topics that should be addressed by the multimedia research community. Among them, we believe that software abstractions are very important. Software abstractions are specifications (models) for software or application development and they should guide the user during multimedia content production, allowing him to focus on the conceptual perspective rather than the technical one. Software abstractions are essential to facilitate content and software reusing, running on different software and hardware platforms or producing different versions of the content. Concerning challenge (3), participants pointed out that, even if technologies allow capture and storage of large amount of digital media, the most important issue is to make it useful. Topics related to this challenge concern indexing and tagging multimedia data as well as searching and querying large multimedia datasets. Multimedia researchers should then work on approaches and fundamental algorithms to address these issues.
7.2.3 Enhancing Sentiment Analysis
Research in sentiment analysis is still facing many challenges and attracting tremen- dous applications (Mohammad, 2016). First, there is growing interest in detecting figurative language, especially irony and sarcasm (Rosenthal et al., 2015). Indeed, sarcasm and irony are very difficult to identify. The results of the sentiment classifi- cation models submitted to SemEval 2014 dropped by about 25 to 70 percent when applied to a separate test set involving sarcastic tweets (Rosenthal et al., 2014). Then, it has been reported that building specific models for each language induces better results than translating the textual documents to English and using the state of the art English models (Mohammad et al., 2015a). Indeed, cultural differences can lead to significantly different sentiment expressions. For this purpose, it is in- teresting to adapt the used features, methods and resources to each language. For instance, specific sentiment lexicons can be compiled for other languages following the approach proposed in chapter 5. Finally, recent research indicates that sentiment lexicons focusing on a specific domain leads to better sentiment classification results (Park et al., 2015). Therefore, it would be interesting to adapt the state of the art sentiment lexicons to the studied domain. Regarding the applications, they are phenomenally increasing in very different domains. Illustrating examples include: identifying the current public opinion towards the election candidates (Mohammad et al., 2015b), detecting personality traits (Grijalva et al., 2015), predicting health attributes (Eichstaedt et al., 2015), etc.
Sentiment analysis of social media content has become more and more popular, as it can be used for mining opinions on ser- vices, products, companies, etc. and these models can be im- plemented as supervised, unsupervised or semi-supervised  methods. However, with the increase of user-generated content in SNSs it is not effective to apply lexicon-based unsupervised methods, and therefore supervised methods can be automated to detect polarity. Apart from that, analyses on sentiment classification are aspect-based and domain-specific. Therefore, model needs to train with domain specific data to achieve better accuracy when building a sentiment prediction model. Recently, it has been widely acknowledged that deep learning- based representation models have achieved great success in text sentiment classification tasks compared to traditional machine learning models . Furthermore, in recent works, word embedding-based method are applied for sentiment clas- sification. A few have used Word2Vec embeddings , . Deep learning has emerged as a powerful machine learning technique and is also popularly used in sentiment analysis in recent years , . Wang et al. proposed a CNN-RNN architecture  to analyze the sentiment of short text while some other studies tried apply methods based on CNN  and RNN . Their experimental results shown that the proposed method outperforms lexicon-based, regression-based, and ob- tained an obvious improvement upon the state-of-the-art. In addition, many research works considered only the binary sentiment classification and few studies have used multi-class sentiment classification producing promising results .