± candidate massspectrum is used to determine the signal and background
yields and the parameters of the polynomial shape that describes the background. The two B s 0 decay modes are fitted simultaneously. The results of the fit where the mass and width are fixed according to the central values obtained by the D0 collaboration, m = 5567.8 ± 2.9 (stat) +0.9 −1.9 (syst) MeV and Γ = 21.9 ± 6.4 (stat) +5.0 −2.5 (syst) MeV , are shown in Fig. 2 for both B s 0 decay modes combined. The X(5568) yield is not significant for any minimum p T (B s 0 ) requirement. In each case the change in negative log-likelihood
range from 0.3 to 0.8. This opens a new window of exploration in the massspectrum, around 10 13 –10 14 M
⊙ , a crucial range for understanding
the transition between galaxies and galaxy clusters, and a range that have not been extensively probed with lensing techniques. These systems constitute a subsample of the Strong Lensing Legacy Survey (SL2S), which aims to discover strong lensing systems in the Canada France Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey (CFHTLS). The sample is based on a search over 100 square degrees, implying a number density of ∼0.13 groups per square degree. Our analysis is based on multi-colour CFHTLS images complemented with Hubble Space Telescope imaging and ground based spectroscopy. Large scale properties are derived from both the light distribution of elliptical galaxies group members and weak lensing of the faint
fraction is predicted to be as low as O(10 −9 ) , making these decays interesting for searches for new physics beyond the Standard Model. However, taking into account long-distance contributions through tree diagrams involving resonances such as D → XV (→ µ + µ − ),
where V represents a φ, ρ 0 or ω vector meson, the total branching fraction of these rare charm decays can reach O(10 −6 ) [2–4]. Their sensitivity to new physics therefore is greatest in regions of the dimuon massspectrum away from these resonances, where the main contributions to the branching fraction may come from short-distance amplitudes. Angular asymmetries are sensitive to new physics both in the vicinity of these resonances and away from them [4–8] and could be as large as O(1%).
Simulated datasets are used to evaluate reconstruction and selection efficiencies of the Υ (1S) and X decays studied in this paper. In the simulation, pp collisions are generated using Pythia [27, 28] with a specific LHCb configuration . Decays of hadronic particles are described by EvtGen , in which final-state radiation is generated using Photos . The interaction of the generated particles with the detector, and its response, are implemented using the Geant4 toolkit  as described in Ref. . The X state is produced using the same production model as the Υ (4S) meson, with the mass changed to one of three values in the range 18 450 − 18 830 MeV/c 2 . The natural width of the X
Figure 5: Mass spectra of selected (top) Λ 0 b π + π − , (middle) Λ 0 b π + π + and (bottom) Λ 0 b π − π − combi- nations for for the Λ 0 b → Λ +
c π − sample. A simultaneous fit, described in the text, is superimposed.
the combinatorial background component (in all six distributions). The combinatorial component is parameterised with a product of the three-body phase-space function and a positive polynomial function. The resonant components are given by relativistic S-wave Breit–Wigner lineshapes convolved with the resolution function obtained from simulation. The shape of the combinatorial background is assumed to be the same in the opposite-sign Λ 0
ion lenses, and associated electrical wiring for the various components. The ionizer and lenses were controlled with a filament power supply and an optics power supply from Ardara Technologies (Ardara, PA), while the Channeltron was powered by a Keithley 248 high-voltage power supply. The assembled flange mount was then placed onto a vacuum system with a turbo pump that can reach a base pressure of 1 × 10 −8 torr. While the system pumped down, the flange was connected to the drive circuit and all other necessary electrical connec- tions were made. A valve system introduced air, argon, or perfluorotributylamine (a standard calibration compound also known as FC-43) into the chamber to be analyzed. Before any mass spectra were taken, the selected analyte was stabilized to a pressure of ∼ 3 × 10 −5 torr. This pressure was chosen due to the recommended operating pressure of the commercial ionizer and detector. During testing, the signal from the detector was amplified through a Stanford Research Systems SR570 low-noise current preamplifier and collected through an NI USB-6259 data acquisition (DAQ) card to produce the massspectrum.
t and the geodesic flow ϕ 2 t = ϕ
t have the
same marked length spectrum, and if the surface M has the same total volume for the two metrics, then the two metrics are isotopic, which means that one is the image of the other by a diffeomorphism f of M , homotopic to the identity, and the magnetic field κ 1 is zero.
It is becoming increasingly popular to use panel data for investigating the time series be- haviour of economic variables. This is especially because of the expectation to gain power in unit root and cointegration tests using different realizations of a time series. However, panel data has its own characteristics which can create some analysis difficulties. An example is cross sectional dependence. In this paper, following Pesaran (2006), we used a model with dynamic multifactor error structure we showed that his findings can be used in frequency do- main analysis. Namely, we showed that the DFT of the cross sectional means of dependent variable and regressors can be used as proxies of unobserved common factors. We state that, asymptotic results of Pesaran holds for the estimators of frequency dependent coefficients. Using monthly data from 24 OECD countries for the period 02:2005 and 03:2014 we applied the method to price equations. After a descriptive analysis, for comparison purposes we ran time domain OLS regressions and individual band spectrum regression. We conclude that after controlling for unobserved factors both time domain and frequency domain parameter estimates are lower than the usual findings in the literature.
Keywords: Mimetic desire, Autism, Social influence, Social cognition, Social motivation, Mirror neuron system, Brain valuation system, Restricted interests
Reciprocal influence is an essential aspect of social be- havior: individuals are influenced by others in their beliefs and preferences . An essential element of this influence is mimetic desire (MD), which is the tendency to pursue goals pursued by others . As an example, children often run after the same toy, even if other identical toys are available. MD is crucial for non-verbally sharing information about values (i.e., whether objects present in the environment are good or bad) without wasting time on trial-and-error learn- ing and might therefore shape preferences during development. Two lines of reasoning led us to hypothesize that MD may be dysfunctional in autism spectrum disorder (ASD).
is best possible.
In [HK], Hartono and Kraaikamp showed how Tong’s result follows from a geometrical approach based on the natural extension of the NICF. We further this approach to find Tong’s spectrum for an infinite family of con- tinued fractions generalizing the NICF; these Rosen fractions are briefly described in the next section.
Here, with a “full spectrum” approach, intensity calibration is a particular challenge because two dimensions - excitation and collection - each with their own variations must be accounted for together, at the same time. he detection side will have an instrumental spectral response, which ideally would not - but possibly could - vary spatially across the focal plane of the camera. In addition, the supercontinuum light source varies in intensity with wavelength. herefore it is simpler here, and probably more common in REM in general, to use a known Raman spectrum as a benchmark and compare intensities of the test sample to the known Raman spectrum. his is diferent from the standard procedures of ref. 21 where the samples have certiied luorescence spectra when
For this work, I performed two tasks that aim at the same goal: providing constraints on cosmological parameters in the ΛCDM model. First, we measured the one-dimensional Lyman-α power spectrum. I developed a method based on a likelihood function that allows a pixel by pixel correction of noise and resolution. It also provides an eﬃcient way to treat the sky lines that are found to be inside the Lyman-α forest. This method, and a more classical one based on a Fourier transform, were applied to 13 821 quasar spectra selected from about 60 000 DR9 BOSS spectra. This leads to the most precise measurement of the one-dimensional power spectrum of our time. Such precision (a few percent) was made possible by a careful study of the systematic uncertainties linked either to instrumental eﬀects or to the methods themselves so as to bring them to the level of the statistical uncertainties. Because of this, repeating the measurement on the next releases will require a lot of work to keep the two sources of uncertainties at the same level.
with the 6pe vibrational progression from v=9 to v=13. The zero-kinetic-energy electrons corresponding to NH 3 +
( 2 A l , v=5 to 10) are not resolved as clearly as at lower energies. These are probably buried in the signal of the
Above v= 10 in table 1, a number of structures are identified in the threshold-photoelectron spectrum, whereas the autoionization observed in the photoionization work could only be analyzed up to 11.2 eV photon energy . However, to interprète and assign the features above 11.3 eV, data obtained from photoionization will be used, i.e. the term values T characterizing the 5sa 1 (T=0.859 eV), 6sa 1 (T=0.548 eV), 6pe (T=0.511 eV)
The known population (e.g. Wade & MiMeS Collaboration 2015 )
∗E-mail: email@example.com †Deceased 22 February, 2018.
ranges in spectral type from around O6 to O9.5. Although spectral types are variable and luminosity classes challenging to establish for many magnetic O stars, most appear to be main sequence ob- jects. The detected magnetic fields are generally oblique dipoles, with polar strengths ranging from ∼ 0.1 kG to over 20 kG. Their magnetic fields channel their powerful winds, resulting in dense cir- cumstellar magnetospheres confined to co-rotate with the star ( Pe- tit et al. 2013 ). As a consequence, magnetic O stars exhibit strong variability across the electromagnetic spectrum, with line and con- tinuum emission modulated periodically according to the stellar ro- tation period.
In the second chapter, we explored the commutativity property for the exponential spectrum of a Banach algebra and established some positive results.
In the last, third chapter we studied some examples of Banach algebras, describing their group of invertible elements, the component of the group which contains the unit element, and we discussed the commutativity property for the exponential spectrum. In the first example we demonstrated a commutative Banach algebra with not connected group of invertible elements, and since the algebra is commutative, hence the commutativity property for the exponential spectrum holds. In the second example, although the algebra is non-commutative its group of invertible elements is connected, so the commutativity property for the exponential spectrum holds because the usual and exponential spectra coincide. In the third example the algebra is non-commutative and its group of invertible elements is not connected, but we proved that the commutativity property holds for the exponential spectrum. In the last example also we exhibited a non-commutative Banach algebra with disconnected group of invertible elements. This algebra is a candidate as a counterexample for the commutativity property of the exponential spectra. However, this is still an open question.
- the wind scatterometer SCAT, a fan-beam radar at larger incidence angles (30° to 50°) .
This paper focuses on the processing of the SWIM data for the retrieval of the 2D wave spectrum and, especially the estimation of the speckle spectrum.
T. R. Kallman 1 ,M. A. Bautista 2 , Stephane Goriely 3 ,Claudio Mendoza 4 , Jon M. Miller 5 ,Patrick Palmeri 6 , Pascal Quinet 6 ,John Raymond 7
The spectrum from the black hole X-ray transient GRO J1655-40. obtained using the Chandra High Energy Transmission Grating (HETG) in 2005 is notable as a laboratory for the study of warm absorbers, and for the presence of many lines from odd-Z elements between Na and Co (and Ti and Cr) not previously observed in X-rays. We present synthetic spectral models which can be used to constrain these element abundances and other parameters describing the outflow from the warm absorber in this object. We present results of fitting to the spectrum using various tools and techniques, including automated line fitting, phenomenological models, and photoionization modeling. We show that the behavior of the curves of growth of lines from H-like and Li-like ions indicate that the lines are either saturated or affected by filling-in from scattered or a partially covered continuum source. We confirm the conclusion of previous work by Miller et al. (2006) and Miller et al. (2008) which shows that the ionization conditions are not consistent with wind driving due to thermal expansion. The spectrum provides the opportunity to measure abundances for several elements not typically observable in the X-ray band. These show a pattern of enhancement for iron peak elements, and solar or sub-solar values for elements lighter than calcium. Models show that this is consistent with enrichment by a core-collapse supernova. We discuss the implications of these values for the evolutionary history of this system.