Machines à Flux Axial

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Calcul des Pertes par Courants de Foucault dans les APs pour des Machines Synchrones à Flux-Axial

Calcul des Pertes par Courants de Foucault dans les APs pour des Machines Synchrones à Flux-Axial

MOTS-CLES – Comparaison SPM/IPM, différences finies, éléments finis 3D, flux-axial à APs, pertes par courants de Foucault. 1. Introduction Les machines à aimants permanents (APs) sont devenues, ces dernières décennies, le choix le plus intéressant pour les applications de traction automobile. Ceci est dû aux bonnes performances en couple/puissance et densité de couple/puissance de ces machines [1]. Néanmoins, les APs, et surtout ceux en terres rares NdFeB ou SmCo sont sensibles à la température, ce qui peut causer leur désaimantation partielle ou totale. L’augmentation de la température des APs est due aux pertes locales par CF causées par les variations spatio-temporelles de l’induction magnétique au niveau des APs. Ainsi, l’estimation des pertes dans les APs constitue un important axe de recherche dans le domaine de la modélisation des machines électriques, et cela pour deux principales raisons : (1) maximiser les performances de la machine telles que le rendement et le couple/puissance, et (2) prédire le comportement thermique des machines pour les points de fonctionnement critiques, en particulier l’échauffement des APs.
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Unified sizing model approach for radial and axial flux permanent magnet machines

Unified sizing model approach for radial and axial flux permanent magnet machines

magnetic field of axial flux permanent magnet machine", XXIII International Conference on Electrical Machines (ICEM), Alexandropouli, Greece. [10] Yi, X., Yoon, A., Haran, K. S. (2017), Multi-physics optimization for high-frequency air-core permanent-magnet motor of aircraft application, IEEE Int. Elec. Mach. and Drives Conference (IEMDC), Miami, Florida, USA.

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Unified sizing model approach for radial and axial flux permanent magnet machines

Unified sizing model approach for radial and axial flux permanent magnet machines

Index Terms-- axial flux machines, radial flux machines, sizing model, sinusoidal machines. I. I NTRODUCTION espite being more difficult to manufacture than its radial counterpart, Radial Flux Permanent Magnet (RFPM) motors, and with additional mechanical constraints, Axial Flux Permanent Magnet (AFPM) motors have very interesting characteristics [1]. However, it is still difficult to determine which electric motor topology is the most relevant for given specifications. That is why general purpose sizing equations have been developed for RFPM and AFPM motors [2][3]. The sizing equations are based on simple analytical expressions of electromagnetic quantities like the airgap magnetic flux density, flux per pole or torque [4][5]. In this paper, more accurate analytical models of the open circuit and the armature fields are developped to evaluate the electromagnetic quantities inside sizing approaches.
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Génératrice à aimants permanents à flux axial à grand diamètre avec entrefer immergé

Génératrice à aimants permanents à flux axial à grand diamètre avec entrefer immergé

R ESUME Cette étude propose une méthode de modélisation et de conception adaptée aux machines à flux axial et à Double Stator (poly-entrefer) destinée à être intégrée comme génératrice pour une hydrolienne RIM-DRIVEN de grande puissance. La particularité du concept RIM-DRIVEN ou à entrainement circonférentiel réside dans le fait que la machine électrique se situe sur la périphérie de l’hélice. De plus, dans cette étude, l’entrefer de la machine est considéré immergé dans l’eau de mer. Les particularités du système imposent de mettre au point des modèles de dimensionnement adaptés. Ainsi, un modèle électromagnétique analytique 2D inversé permettant le calcul des dimensions géométriques principales est présenté. De même, un modèle thermique spécifique aux machines à entrefer immergé est décrit. Ces modèles permettent d’estimer la masse et le coût des parties actives. Cette machine à flux axial est comparée en termes de coûts matières, masses et comportement thermique avec une machine à flux radial à aimants permanents dimensionnée pour un même cahier des charges. Il en ressort clairement que la machine à flux axial double stator est thermiquement moins contrainte que les machines à simple stator.
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Pré Dimensionnement d’une machine à flux axial à double stator pour un cahier des charges d’une hydrolienne à entraînement circonférentiel

Pré Dimensionnement d’une machine à flux axial à double stator pour un cahier des charges d’une hydrolienne à entraînement circonférentiel

Figure 1 : Principe d’une turbine Rim-Driven (la génératrice est ici une machine à aimants à flux radial) 2. Description et modélisation de la machine à flux axial La machine MFADS est pourvue de disques fixes supportant des bobinages et de disques mobiles supportant des aimants permanents. Le flux provenant des aimants est axial, tandis que les conducteurs actifs sont orientés dans la direction radiale. Dans la littérature, différentes configurations de machines à flux axial sont présentées [6] : simple face, double rotor, double stator et multi stator. Les bobinages peuvent être bobinés en tores ou en pétales. Rappelons quelques avantages particuliers à ces machines comme la compacité [7-8], un rendement élevé et la possibilité de fonctionnement à basse vitesse [9]. Cependant, le principal inconvénient de ces structures est la contrainte mécanique liée aux fortes forces axiales d’origine magnétiques exercées entre les rotors et les stators. De ce fait, Il nous a semblé pertinent de porter notre choix sur une machine à double stator ou ces forces axiales s’équilibrent.
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Preliminary Design of A Torus Type Axial Flux Generator for Direct-Driven Tidal Current Turbine

Preliminary Design of A Torus Type Axial Flux Generator for Direct-Driven Tidal Current Turbine

Keywords—renewable energy; tidal current energy; permanent magnetic synchronous machines; axial flux machine, TORUS. I. INTRODUCTION Confronting the issue of energy shortage and environment pollution, it is necessary to develop renewable energy instead of conventional fossil fuels (petroleum and coal) to minimize the impact of human activities on climate changing and solve the fossil energy deficiency problem. Among all the renewables, wind energy and hydropower are well developed. Recently marine energy has been a hotspot in researches. Marine energies can be related to swell, tide, tidal stream or thermal conversion (OTEC). In this paper the study is focused in the way to extract efficiently tidal stream energy.
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A Comparative Study of Modular Axial Flux Podded Generators for Marine Current Turbines

A Comparative Study of Modular Axial Flux Podded Generators for Marine Current Turbines

From 1996 to 1997 he was a post doctoral fellow at Laval University, Québec, Canada. From 1997 to 2002 he was an Assistant Professor at the Institut Universitaire de Technologie of Brest, University of Brest, Brest, France. Since 2002, he has been an Associate Professor in the French Naval Academy in Brest, France. His current research interests include design aspects on electrical machines and drives, electrical naval propulsion systems and marine renewable energy.

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3D Magnetic Field Model of a Permanent Magnet Ironless Axial Flux Motor with Additively Manufactured Non-Active Parts

3D Magnetic Field Model of a Permanent Magnet Ironless Axial Flux Motor with Additively Manufactured Non-Active Parts

Permanent-Magnet (AFPM) machines is presented. Indeed as accurate analytical methods do not yet exist for ironless AFPM, 3D Finite Element Analysis (FEA) is required at each time of an operating point. The purpose of this article is to show that for any operating point of the motor, the torque can be calculated from the distribution of the axial magnetic flux density obtained from only one 3D FEA. The proposed simulation model is validated by using a prototype of an AFPM ironless whose non- active parts are additively manufactured. This first step through the 3D printing technology is simplified by the use of cylindrical magnets and plastic mechanical supports.
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Vectorial Approach Based Control of a Seven-Phase Axial Flux Machine Designed for Fault Operation

Vectorial Approach Based Control of a Seven-Phase Axial Flux Machine Designed for Fault Operation

F. Locment, E. Semail and X. Kestelyn are with L2EP ENSAM, 8 Bd Louis XIV, 59046 Lille Cedex, France, URL: http://l2ep.univ-lille1.fr/ . In the case of multiphase induction machines, new current references are determined in order to set a smoother torque under fault condition [9]-[10]. In both papers, only the first harmonic of current is considered when establishing an expression for the torque. It is thus assumed that multiphase induction machines present fewer constraints than the synchronous machines with non-sinusoidal EMF. Moreover, this assumption makes possible the torque to be expressed in a relatively simple manner. Experimental results, obtained in [10] regarding current control, show that practical implementation is possible. Nevertheless, since the expression of the torque relies on the assumption that only the first harmonic is taken into account, a real measurement of the torque should be preferable to prove that the torque ripples are in fact low. Furthermore, as no information is given on the type of used current controllers and on the PWM frequency, it is difficult to determine the modifications that must be made to the control algorithm implemented for the normal operation.
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Predetermination of Currents and Field in Short-Circuit Voltage Operation for an Axial-Flux Permanent Magnet Machine

Predetermination of Currents and Field in Short-Circuit Voltage Operation for an Axial-Flux Permanent Magnet Machine

II. P RESENTATION OF THE M ACHINE The AFPM generator is composed of a stator and two externals six-pole rotors with rare-earth permanent magnets (Fig. 1). Since the magnetic flux paths are in all three directions of the magnetic circuit, a Soft Magnetic Material (SMC) with isotropic magnetic properties has been used for the stator core. The seven phases are obtained with toroidal coils distributed into 42 slots. The two rotors are identical but with an angular shift of 360/84 degrees between them in order to reduce the cogging torque. The spatial magnet repartition implies non-sinusoidal electromotive forces as it is usual for multiphase machines. All these specificities imply that
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Rough Design of a Double-Stator Axial Flux Permanent Magnet Generator for a Rim-Driven Marine Current Turbine

Rough Design of a Double-Stator Axial Flux Permanent Magnet Generator for a Rim-Driven Marine Current Turbine

Regarding MCTs design, a rim-driven topology seems more favorable than a POD one in so far as the electrical machine volume does not disturb the water flow. Furthermore, rim-driven turbines naturally imply direct-drive generators. In [7], rim-driven and POD direct drive-radial permanent magnet machines are designed for the same MCT specifications. According to this study, the rim-driven topology yields a reduction of about 15% of the cost of active parts. It must be underlined that the design of such a machine is quite unusual as the active parts are located at the blades periphery (Fig. 1). A rim-driven MCT prototype using a RFPM machine has been designed and tested in our lab [8]. This experimental setup is shown in Fig. 2.
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Conception et modélisation d'une machine synchrone à 7 phases à aimants permanents et flux axial : commande vectorielle en modes normal et dégradé

Conception et modélisation d'une machine synchrone à 7 phases à aimants permanents et flux axial : commande vectorielle en modes normal et dégradé

Conclusion générale Dans ce document, notre objectif a été de concevoir une machine à n phases (n>3) qui développe un couple à faible taux d’ondulation en mode normal et en mode dégradé (une ou deux phases non alimentées). Cette machine, alimentée par un onduleur de tension à n bras, est supposée être pilotée à l’aide d’une commande vectorielle qui se base sur celle implantée pour les machines synchrones triphasées à force électromotrices sinusoïdales. Un nombre de sept phases est apparu intéressant. Pour atteindre cet objectif, nous nous sommes appuyés sur les formalismes Multi-machines et Multi- convertisseurs rappelés dans le Chapitre I. Le formalisme Multi-machines nous a permis (sous certaines hypothèses) de transformer notre machine à 7 phases couplées magnétiquement en une somme de trois machines diphasées et une machine homopolaire toutes découplées magnétiquement les unes par rapport aux autres. A partir du formalisme Multi-convertisseurs, nous avons décomposé notre onduleur à 7 bras couplés électriquement en une somme de trois onduleurs fictifs avec des potentialités différentes. Connaissant les potentialités de chaque ensemble fictif (onduleur/machine), nous avons pu commencer le dimensionnement en remarquant que les machines polyphasées sont moins contraignantes du point de vue de la conception que ne le sont les machines triphasées : les harmoniques de force électromotrice et de force magnétomotrice ne sont plus forcément préjudiciables au contraire. De ce fait, un bobinage à pas diamétral n’ayant pas de pouvoir de filtrage a été adopté. Afin d’utiliser le premier harmonique de deux machines fictives pour la création d’un couple constant, nous avons dans le Chapitre II dimensionné en couple un prototype en considérant les harmoniques de rang 1 et 3... Pour tenir compte ensuite des contraintes de réalisations d’un prototype de petite puissance présentant un taux important (60%) d’harmonique de rang 3, nous avons choisi une structure de machine à flux axial à deux rotors externes. Cette dernière structure nous a permis, en conservant deux fois le même rotor, de considérer à peu de frais un deuxième prototype avec un rapport plus classique (20%) entre les premier et troisième harmoniques.
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Model of an ironless axial flux permanent magnet motor based on the field produced by a single magnet

Model of an ironless axial flux permanent magnet motor based on the field produced by a single magnet

R EFERENCES [1] Z. Zhang, W. Geng, Y. Liu and C. Wang., “Feasibility of a new ironless- stator axial flux permanent magnet machine for aircraft electric propulsion application,” China Electrochemical Society (CES) Transactions on Electrical Machines and Systems., vol. 3, no. 1, 2019. [2] A. Kampker, P. Treichel, K. Kreisköther, R. Pandey, M. Kleine Büning

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Hybrid Modeling Method of Magnetic Field of Axial Flux Permanent Magnet Machine

Hybrid Modeling Method of Magnetic Field of Axial Flux Permanent Magnet Machine

[3] N. Bianchi, "Analytical field computation of a tubular permanent- magnet linear motor", IEEE Trans. Magn, vol. 36, no. 5, pp. 3798- 3801, Sep. 2000. [4] A. Rahideh, T. Korakianitis, "Analytical armature reaction field distribution of slotless brushless machines with inset permanent magnets", IEEE Trans. Magn., vol. 48, no. 7, pp. 2178-2191, Jul. 2012. [5] J. Azzouzi, G. Barakat, B. Dakyo, "Quasi-3-D analytical modeling of the magnetic field of an axial flux permanent-magnet synchronous machine", IEEE Trans. Energy Convers., vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 746-752, Dec. 2005.
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3D magnetic field model of a permanent magnet ironless axial flux motor with additively manufactured non-active parts

3D magnetic field model of a permanent magnet ironless axial flux motor with additively manufactured non-active parts

Permanent-Magnet (AFPM) machines is presented. Indeed as accurate analytical methods do not yet exist for ironless AFPM, 3D Finite Element Analysis (FEA) is required at each time of an operating point. The purpose of this article is to show that for any operating point of the motor, the torque can be calculated from the distribution of the axial magnetic flux density obtained from only one 3D FEA. The proposed simulation model is validated by using a prototype of an AFPM ironless whose non- active parts are additively manufactured. This first step through the 3D printing technology is simplified by the use of cylindrical magnets and plastic mechanical supports.
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Design and Performance Analysis of Double Stator Axial Flux PM Generator for Rim Driven Marine Current Turbines

Design and Performance Analysis of Double Stator Axial Flux PM Generator for Rim Driven Marine Current Turbines

In this paper, a brief discussion about generator/turbine association is given in section I. In section II, the design specifications of an industrial MCT and the geometry of the proposed double stator axial flux permanent magnets machine are described. This set of specifications will be used to perform the design of a double stator AFPM generator for a rim driven MCT. In section III, the double stator AFPM generator electromagnetic design model is described. It consists of a partially inversed electromagnetic model developed for high diameter and high poles number axial flux machines. In section IV, a lumped parameter thermal model of the generator is established considering particularities related to gap immersion . In section V, the models are associated and the constraints are defined in order to formulate a constrained optimization design problem. This problem is solved considering typical MCT specifications. In section VI, the optimization approach will be used to determine a generator geometry that minimizes the active parts material costs under constraints. Both electromagnetic and thermal finite elements simulations are then performed for validation purposes. In addition, a thermal model sensitivity study has been carried-out to validate the immersed generator thermal modeling. In the last part of this paper (section VII), a classical radial flux surface mounted PM generator is designed using similar models and methodology for the same MCT specifications. This design is then used to compare the RFPM and double stator AFPM generators for rim-driven MCTs.
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Model of an ironless axial flux permanent magnet motor based on the field produced by a single magnet

Model of an ironless axial flux permanent magnet motor based on the field produced by a single magnet

R EFERENCES [1] Z. Zhang, W. Geng, Y. Liu and C. Wang., “Feasibility of a new ironless- stator axial flux permanent magnet machine for aircraft electric propulsion application,” China Electrochemical Society (CES) Transactions on Electrical Machines and Systems., vol. 3, no. 1, 2019. [2] A. Kampker, P. Treichel, K. Kreisköther, R. Pandey, M. Kleine Büning

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Hybrid Modeling Method of Magnetic Field of Axial Flux Permanent Magnet Machine

Hybrid Modeling Method of Magnetic Field of Axial Flux Permanent Magnet Machine

Analytical modeling of PM machines by the separation of variable technique provides fast and good results compared to finite elements method (FEM). The method of separation of variables is suitable for 2D problems [2]-[4] but becomes more complicated when applied to a 3D problem such as an AFPM machine due to a second separation constant to handle. A quasi-3D model based on a 2-D resolution at the mean radius is proposed in [5]. [6] makes the 3-D solution possible by using a Fourier integral in the radial coordinate while [7] uses a two variable Fourier series in angular and axial coordinate by means of the image method. Apart from the separation of variable technique, an analytical solution based on the integral transform method is proposed in [8] while [9] uses free-space Green’s function method. Nevertheless, these solutions involve Bessel functions which increase the complexity of the problem and calculation time. The purpose of this paper is to present an alternative technique to model the open-circuit magnetic flux density in an AFPM machine. It consists in a hybrid approach, partially analytical, partially obtained by finite difference (FD) method. The problem is first described analytically with the help of Fourier series and separation of variables to finally apply the FD method to the radial coordinate which is the most complicated to handle.
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3D Hybrid Model of the Axial Flux Motor Accounting Magnet Shape

3D Hybrid Model of the Axial Flux Motor Accounting Magnet Shape

Index Terms— Axial flux, finite difference method, Fourier series, magnetic scalar potential, magnet shape, permanent magnet, separation of variables. I. I NTRODUCTION HE structures of Axial Flux Permanent Magnet (AFPM) machine structures are still under development [1]. Thus, modeling some of their particularities is becoming an issue. In axial flux surface mounted permanent magnet machines, permanent magnets are often considered as sector shaped magnets (trapezoidal form like in Fig. 1). However others magnet shapes can be found in some AFPM structures [1], [2]. Nevertheless, considering 3D analytical modeling, despite the variety of the methods used, only sector shaped magnets have been considered [3], [4], [5].
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Semi-analytical study of 3 kinds of axial flux PM actuator

Semi-analytical study of 3 kinds of axial flux PM actuator

For the same stator geometry, current density and specific electric loading, the performances of such a machine are mainly related to the induction level created by the magnets in the air-gap. The classic way to study this type of machine is the 3D Finite Element method (3D FEM) which allows the field calculation in the structure. However, this solution is very cumbersome in terms of complexity and calculation time and very sensitive to the mesh quality. This method is therefore very difficult to use in a systematic design process. In this paper, a semi analytical method based on the magnetic charges theory [4] is used to calculate the induction in the device air gap. This method allows a very fast calculation of the main performances of 3 kinds of axial flux discoidal machines.
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