systems, such as planting date (MM CT ), choice of cultivars and fertilization (low-input cropping systems). Maize pests and diseases were adequately managed in all plots throughout the experiment. 5. Conclusions
This maize-based cropping system experiment demonstrated that two of three innovative cropping systems which implemented various techniques (such as mechanical weeding, mixed weeding, cover-crop introduction, reduced inputs, and crop rotation) had the same weed management success (in terms of PI and biomass) as the reference system and that weed communities and yields did not drastically differ from the latter, although more variable in MM LI . The overall impact of weeds on maize performance was limited because weeds were well managed, except in the MM CT which selected grasses and perennials (higher PI and weed biomasses at maturity). The absence of significant yield difference between the field and the weed free zones indicate that lower maize yield in conservation tillage could not be attributed to higher weed pressure, even though the latter was higher than in the other systems. Overall, weed biomasses and PI show that IWM cropping systems are efficient at properly managing weeds while maintaining grain yield and should provide insight on how maize farmers can innovate their cropping systems to maximize environmental benefits without fearing low agronomic performance. However, the adoption of these CS to farmers in South-Western France questions the ability of these system to be managed at wider temporal and spatial scales.
5 th International Symposium for Farming Systems Design 7-10 September 2015, Montpellier, France
Farming systems design to facilitate transition toward lowinput agriculture
Marie Thiollet-Scholtus ±1, Xavier Coquil 2
- optional questions about geographical and time scales (how biodiversity changes over time and space).
Because focus groups were run in different national contexts and participating researchers had slightly different scientific and methodological background, we put strong emphasis on establishing a common ground about the methods and techniques to apply (this is also required to make the data comparable). Thus, we run a pilot focus group in August 2010 to test the guideline and to see the method working. The pilot focus group was organised in Hungary with low-input (but not organic) farmers who run their farms near to the research area but who were not taking part in the BioBio project earlier. As the discussion was scheduled during the high season on the fields, participation remained low (from the 12 invited farmers 9 agreed to come but finally only 3 of them showed up). The main lessons learnt reinforced that (1) the visual exercise is good for starting the discussion as it brings the topic closer to participants, (2) the whole guideline requires almost 2 hours to complete, and (3) the language used should be non-scientific as much as possible. The pilot focus group was transcribed and was used further to test the method of analysis and to develop the coding agenda used later for analysing the texts. First-hand experiences from the pilot focus group were shared during the one day long workshop we organised for participating researchers to discuss and refine the methodology (see the programme in Annex II). The workshop allowed to “taste” how group dynamics works in a concept mapping exercise, and provided some insights into qualitative content analysis by using sequences from the pilot focus group. Based on the discussions we had on the workshop, the focus group guideline and the coding agenda were finalized. Because Ugandan colleagues could not take part on the preparatory workshop an extra meeting was held in April 2011 in Padova, Italy, where Italian and Hungarian colleagues helped the Ugandan team to learn more about the methodology and discussed thoroughly the guideline.
The section 2 proposes an analytical model extending the previous model proposed by Danthine, Holthausen and Feder et al. A post-harvest marketing strategy is proposed in the model: it corresponds to a storage contract, currently offered by grain retailers and often chosen by farmers. SFP are also introduced to test the effect of CAP direct payment on production choices but also on the demand for marketing contracts. The following section reports a mathematical programming farm- level model applied to a representative regional cash crop farmer. This mathematical programming model allows to test the empirical relevance of studying jointly production and marketing decisions. It will then allow to ex ante study the role that could play marketing contracts on production adjustments, especially on the adoption of low-input practices, under the scenarios of a price risk increase and under decreasing CAP support as it can be expected from the next CAP reform which will occur in 2013. Results are presented in section 4. The final section discusses the results and concludes on the implication of the findings.
Since 2012, with the support of the PURE Project, three innovative experimental platforms were built in France to test low-input grapevine cropping systems (located in Angers, Bordeaux, and Montpellier).
The objectives were to reach a high reduction of pesticide use (over 50%) and to promote the alternative IPM and biocontrol methods without any decrease in yield and quality. Innovative cropping systems are needed in viticulture to achieve these goals. After a first step of prototyping of these new cropping systems, experimen- tations were carried out to assess the performances of the prototypes.
Despite these recommendations, LI varieties are also raised under conventional systems (and vice‐versa: for example, we know that Cellule and Rubisko, two high yielding varieties in conventional farming, are also often used in reduced input systems). In fact, the relative success of INRA “low‐input” varieties is partly due to their good performance under high input farming systems, but also to an increasing willingness of farmers to reduce their use of pesticides, either for economic reasons (highly sensitive to wheat prices), safety reasons (farmer’s health) or environmental issues, or nitrogen application (economic reasons, water safety regulations, etc.). The total area grown using LI varieties (private and AO varieties +
CarrierSeq was developed to analyze low-input carrier sequencing data and identify target reads. We have since deployed CarrierSeq to test the limits of detection of ONT’s MinION sequencer from 0.2 ng down to 2 pg of low-input carrier sequencing. CarrierSeq may be a par- ticularly valuable tool for in-situ metagenomic studies where limited sample availability (e.g., low biomass en- vironmental samples) and laboratory resources (i.e., field deployments) may benefit from sequencing with a gen- omic carrier.
Yield and protein content of barley in IC relatively higher than in SC (e.g. Hauggaard-Nielsen et al., 2001 and 2003).
• No reference on winter crops IC was available, despite winter crops seems more adapted to conditions of southern Europe.
• Aim of our study: Aim of our study: Evaluate the assumption that IC can improve protein content of durum wheat in low-input farming. i) Understanding competition between durum wheat and winter pea for N.
The disappearance of these systems is a result either of a shift towards more intensive and specialized farming and/or abandonment of whole farms or only the lower productive parts. There is a clear coincidence between the places where farmland biodiversity has remained relatively stable and where the lowinput farming systems have continued to exist, while the opposite is true for the decline in farmland biodiversity and the shift towards more intensive and efficient farming systems [2, 10].
A 4-year agronomic assessment provided relevant and novel insights in the merits and challenges of conservation agricul- ture (CA) practices for smallholder rice–maize production systems with low external inputs, on degraded and Striga- infested soils. Medium-term benefits included moderate rice yield and soil nitrogen increments, and steep reductions in soil erosion. Rice yields were highest with CA using a maize– mucuna–cowpea intercrop. In years with relatively high Striga asiatica infection levels, rice yield correlated negative- ly with parasitic weed density. Poor soil N content, acidity and soil erosion were best addressed by intercropping with stylosanthes. Low and variable maize yields were clear short- comings of the CA practices tested here. There was a clear trade-off between maize yield and the biomass production of the perennial cover crop stylosanthes. A plausible cause for general low maize yields under all practices was poor soil fertility and low external input of nutrients, and this may have aggravated competition effects from cover crops in the CA practices. This is the first study showing that CA practices can contribute to improved upland rice yields under Strigainfested conditions, and that apart from additional pos- itive soil nitrogen, pH and conservation outcomes, concerns
Coverage variation relative to 5′ and 3′ ends
Other measures of transcript coverage are the variation in coverage along each transcript from 5′ to 3′ (Fig. 3a), and the number of genes with covered 5′ or 3′ ends (Fig. 3b,c). Among the low quality RNA libraries, RNase H and Ribo-Zero had the best coverage from 5′ to 3′, as well as at the ends (Fig. 3a–c). All NuGEN libraries were biased towards increased coverage at the 3′ end (Fig. 3a), possibly due to the use of oligo (dT) primers in addition to random primers for first strand cDNA synthesis. Among the low quantity libraries, NuGEN 1i had more even coverage from 5′ to 3′ than SMART (Fig. 3a), but SMART had slightly higher coverage at the ends (Fig. 3b,c). NuGEN 1f performed similarly to NuGEN 1i with respect to 5′ to 3′ bias (Fig. 3a), but with fewer ends covered (Fig. 3b,c), though this could be partially due to fewer paired aligned reads for NuGEN 1f.
RNA-Seq is an effective method to study the transcriptome, but can be difficult to apply to scarce or degraded RNA from fixed clinical samples, rare cell populations, or cadavers. Recent studies have proposed several methods for RNA-Seq of low quality and/or low quantity samples, but their relative merits have not been systematically analyzed. Here, we compare five such methods using metrics relevant to transcriptome annotation, transcript discovery, and gene expression. Using a single human RNA sample, we constructed and sequenced ten libraries with these methods and two control libraries. We find that the RNase H method performed best for low quality RNA, and confirmed this with actual degraded samples. RNase H can even effectively replace oligo (dT) based methods for standard RNA-Seq. SMART and NuGEN had distinct strengths for low quantity RNA. Our analysis allows biologists to select the most suitable methods and provides a benchmark for future method development.
A logical extension of this work is to consider multi- input and output contact systems, but more interesting is the problem of finding stabilizing structure-preserving feedback controls. Preliminary work  has consid- ered a subclass of control contact systems, called con- servative contact systems, which leave invariant some Legendre submanifold in closed-loop. In this case the closed-loop system may be interpreted as a thermody- namic system and the control law may be expressed as a state-feedback of the base manifold of extensive vari- ables of the system. Finally it should be observed that contact systems have been contextualized in this paper as irreversible thermodynamic systems expressed in the Thermodynamic Phase Space. However contact sys-
Input Price Discrimination, Access Pricing, and Bypass *
Ngo Van Long H , Antoine Soubeyran I Résumé / Abstract
Nous examinons le problème des relations verticales. Quand un fournisseur discrimine, est-ce qu'il impose aux firmes à coût marginal plus bas un prix de l'input plus haut que celui qu'il impose aux firmes à coût marginal plus haut? Nous montrons que cela dépend de la capacité des firmes aval à partiellement produire l'input. Nous fournissons aussi une formule de charge d'accès dans le cas où les firmes aval sont des compétiteurs à la Cournot non identiques. Finalement, nous développons un modèle de discrimination par la qualité d'un input, et nous montrons que la firme amont peut trouver profitable de traiter différemment des firmes identiques.
To introduce recursion in our operators, we need to consider parameterised (or recursive) input determined operators. These operators, which we continue to denote by ∆, have a semantic function J∆K : (2 N × T Σ ω × N) → 2 I Q , whose first
argument is a subset of positions X. Thus ∆ with the parameter X determines an input determined operator of the type introduced earlier, whose semantic function is given by the map (σ, i) 7→ J∆K(X, σ, i). The set of positions X will typically be specified by a temporal logic formula or a “floating” automaton, in the sense that given a timed word σ, the formula (resp. automaton) will identify a set of positions in σ where the formula is satisfied (resp. automaton accepts). These ideas will soon be made more precise.
The Archives of Ontario has begun reviewing completed APOLROD inventories in order to identify and designate those records of provincial significance for long-term préservation by
the archives of Ontario. Provincial héritage organizations hâve been asked to provide input on this process to the Archives of Ontario, and to assist in the local placement of records deemed
. The need for reliable model transformations is even more critical when they are to be reused. Indeed, a single faulty transformation can make a whole model-based development process vulnerable.
To test a model transformation, a tester will usually provides a set of test models that conform to the input meta-model of the transformation, run the transformation with these models and check the correctness of the result. While it is fairly easy to provide some input models, qualifying the relevance of these models for testing is an important challenge in the context of model transformations . As for any testing task, it is important to have precise adequacy criteria that can qualify a set of test data. For example, a classical criterion to evaluate the quality of the test data regarding a program is code coverage: a set of test data is adequate if, when running the program with these data, all statements in the program are executed at least once. This is a “white-box” criterion since it requires the knowledge of internal logic or code structure of the program. Other criteria are functional or “black-box” . They rely only on a specification of the system (input domain or behavior) under test and do not take the internal structure of the program into account.
machine (2 runs). In this case, aggregation methods seem particularly well appropriate. Figure 2
shows the boxplots computed with the different machines and the 3 aggregation algorithms: Cobra with all machines (CobraF), Cobra with an adaptive number of machines (CobraA) and MixCobra. As expected, the Cobra algorithm with all machines yields in average the worst performance among the three aggregation techniques. Choosing adaptively the number of machines (CobraA) allows to discard a possibly bad machine and, so, improves the performance of Cobra. We observe that MixCobra provides, in average, the best performance, associated with a low standard deviation compared to the CobraF and CobraA aggregation methods.