The three experimental phases support each other in important ways. Ships frames are always part of a structural system (a grillage). However, design and regulation normally consider single frames. The UR limit state equations were derived by considering a single frame in isolation.
The first phase of the experiments will focus on the single frame in isolation and will attempt to assess the validity of the UR equations. The UR contains a set of requirements that are based on 2 distinct limit states. The UR contains a formula for the required minimum shear area and the required modulus. The required modulus is greatest for the case of the shear area being at the minimum. If the shear area is greater than the minimum, then the required modulus is less. In this way the interaction between bending and shear is accounted for. These are explained in [4,5,6]. Also given are related capacity equations that give the patch pressure that will cause the limit state to occur in both 3 hinge bending (for a central load), and end shear collapse (for an end load). Equation (1) gives the central loadcapacity value. The terms are defined in the nomenclature. A full explanation is given in [4,5]. Only central load cases are analyzed in this report. Equation (1) is used to give the UR value (“UR formula”) in the analysis. It is also the normalizing pressure for many of the plots.
Next, consider a scenario in which every node of the network sends out one unit of
traÆc to every other node (also known as complete exchange or all-to-all communi-
cation )  by using a xed shortest path routing algorithm. Each source-destination
pair uniquely denes a dierent class of traÆc. The load of a particular link is dened
Nevertheless, the Cr distribution is uniform all over the scar, which coupled with the fact that the friction coefficient value at the end of the test was of 0.1, indicates the preservation of the coating integrity, i.e. its existence, although as a very thin film, but without the presence of any surface failures.
Furthermore, the chemical analysis by EDS carried out to evaluate the morphology of the wear scar of the alumina counterpart used in this test indicated, as expected, the presence of some traces of carbon, chromium and oxygen at point 1 shown in this figure. These results demonstrate that the coating adhered to the aluminum ball as a consequence of the difference in the hardness values between the tribopairs. The presence of Cr is considered to be due to the existence of a small quantity of Cr in the coating, as a result of the manufacturing process, as it was mentioned previously.
Figure 11: Flowchart indicating the different conceptual steps in the application of the ReAssess-method.
5.2 Assessment Interaction Diagram
The necessity to consider the safety level of the structure as part of the post-fire assessment has been indicated in Section 2. As currently no semi-probabilistic design rules are available for concrete elements after fire exposure, the engineer can in theory only use a fully-probabilistic analysis. This is however considered too demanding for practical application. The remainder of this section introduces basic concepts of structural reliability and provides general solutions to the reliability problem in the form of an interaction diagram, referred to earlier as the Assessment Interaction Diagram (AID). In deriving the AID it has been assumed that for a post- fire assessment the permanent load G k consisting of the self-weight of the slab and finishing will be known or can easily be determined. Therefore, assessing the maximum load after fire exposure is specified as calculating the maximum allowable characteristic value of the imposed load effect Q k,max and the AID has been derived for this purpose.
Using the above process, ultimate deformations were estimated for several reinforced concrete column specimens, previously tested by different authors as listed in Table 1. Comparisons between the experimental andanalysis are plotted in Fig. 4, indicating consistently accurate correlations. Since the shear capacity, obtained from the analysis, is based on the section moment capacity without consideration of geometrical nonlinearity, the P-∆ effect due to drift is determined and employed for the flexural columns, which reduces the calculated shear capacity. Failure modes are determined and given in Table 1 for all the reinforced concrete column specimens.
The difference between A2 lab and A1 lab , or improvement due to adding the shear layer, is compared
in Figure 5 to the other direct and vertical flanking cases (A -C). Throughout the paper a positive number means an improvement of the sound insulation properties due to adding a shear layer. The x’s denote frequencies at which the signal to noise ratio was below 7 dB for Case C below 80 Hz. All curves have a very similar trend, with improvement around 1 -2 dB on average. Below 125 Hz most cases show an even greater improvement, except Case B which shows a slight worsening. Although that shear layers were added on two walls for Case B, the improvement is the same as for the other cases where a shear layer was only added to one wall. Stopping analysis here would suggest that adding a shear layer improves the sound insulation performance.
We consider equal bit rate scheduling, which means all UEs are served with the same data rate. We define the served data rate as the unified bit rate per second for each UE. The served date rate depends on the number of UEs and channel condition. The data rate on each link can reflect channel condition, which is calculated by Shannon formula modified for LTE and is limited by Mod- ulation Coding Scheme (MCS) . Note that in relay modes the data that mobile relay transmits to embedded UEs is, at most, the one that relay receives on the backhaul link. The related variables are listed in the Table 3 in the sequence of alphabet. First we calculate the served data rate in tradi- tional mode. The idea is to calculate how many bits can be transmitted per second for each UE. The inverse of the data rate can be seen as the time to transmit 1 bit. In traditional mode, eNodeB can serve the UEs all the time. So the served data rate R served is:
Discussion & Conclusion
Bench press results confirm the use of the load-velocity relationship in the 1 RM prediction. Unfortunately, prediction appears to be dependant from selected parameter (peak velocity versus average velocity) device, exercise and equipment. Using average velocity for the load-velocity relationship appears to be more relevant than peak velocity. Myotest device presents the disadvantage to afford only peak measurements. Bench press is more easy to execute than half squat. A consequence is a better reliability in the velocity measurement and in the 1RM prediction. Commercialised machine allowing analytic movement are not adapted to dynamic inertial assessment. Leg curl is the most significant example : for a couple of subjects, it was impossible to estimate the 1RM with the load-velocity relationship. In most cases, this 1RM prediction approach stay as accurate as traditional repetition-to-failure method. However, the load-velocity procedure has the advantage to assess at the same time the muscular velocity, that is a very important component in many sports.
We found contrasting results for 1RM prediction (Tab. 1). Average velocity appears to be a little more relevant than peak velocity to estimate 1RM. The M2 approach was most highly correlated to actual 1RM and had lower SEE in comparison to M1. Device and parameter seemed to influence the 1RM prediction. The Myotest, that only allows peak velocity measurement, presented a lower correlation and a superior SEE for bench press exercise in comparison with LPT+acc device. Prediction ability was greater for the bench press in comparison to the half squat exercise. Correlations between the 1RM and P1RM were lower but remained acceptable in the half-squat (r=0.75, SEE=10.4%), horizontal press (r=0.71, SEE=12.4%) and lat pulldown (r=0.62, SEE=9.5%) exercises. For the leg curl exercise, the 1RM prediction was very unreliable with r≤0.22 and SEE≥42%.
improvements could be achieved using automated shading system ( Table 9 ). In particular, it is evident that using S4 with a minimum threshold of 15 W/m 2 to trigger closing the shades, prevent potential
problems due to discomfort glare especially in hot climates such as Cairo, Tehran, or New Delhi. However, there are few cities like Berlin, London and Singapore in which no single shading control strategy is expected to perform the best. In this study, automatic shading controls have the minimum implications on exceeded task illuminance except in Cairo, while S4 outperforms other scenarios with minimum threshold in all cities to control excessive view luminance at user’s view field. Along with previous findings in Table 9 , automating venetian blinds using an open-loop control mechanism based on direct solar radiation has the greatest potential to control thermal loadand comfort objectives in most cities due to its earlier activation trigger to close the shades. However, this is not the case when saving lighting load is the first priority and more importantly, when sufficient task illuminance and view to out- doors are needed by users.
1 Department of New Sciences and Technologies, University of Tehran, Tehran 141556619, Iran 2 Department of Computer Science, Université du Québec à Montréal, Montréal, QC H2X 3Y7, Canada
Corresponding author: Hossein Bobarshad (email@example.com)
ABSTRACT The IPv6 routing protocol for low power and lossy networks (RPL) was accepted as the standard routing protocol for Internet of Things (IoT) by Internet engineering task force on March 2012. Since then, it has been used in different IoT applications. Though RPL considerably deals with IoT network requirements, there are still some open problems to solve, since it was not initially designed for IoT applications. In this paper, we address the problem of packet loss and power depletion in an RPL-based network under heavy and highly dynamic load. We address this problem in three steps: First, we present a context-aware objective function (CAOF), which computes the rank, considering the context of the node. CAOF also avoids thundering herd phenomenon by gradual shifting from a high rank value toward the real rank value. Second, we present a new routing metric, known as context-aware routing metric (CARF) which considers the status of remaining power and queue utilization of parent chain toward the root in a recursive manner while lessening the effect of upstream parents as it gets farther down the path. Through comprehensive evaluations, we show that this metric leads to a better decision about the proper parent in a network with high traffic dynamicity, rather than deciding merely based on the parent rank. Third, we present a new parent selection mechanism, which selects the best parent based on CARF and some other metrics while avoiding routing loops by a simple yet effective countermeasure. Evaluation results reveal improvements in network lifetime while decreasing packet loss in comparison with standard specification of RPL.
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The present work is a contribution to understanding the windmilling operation of low- speed fans. Such an operating situation is described in the literature, but the context (mainly windmilling of aero-engines) often involves system dependence in the analysis. Most of the time, only regimes very close to the free-windmilling are considered. A wider range is analyzed in the present study, since the context is the examination of the energy recovery potential of fans. It aims at detailing the isolated contribution of the rotor, which is the only element exchanging energy with the flow. Other elements of the system (including the stator) can be considered as loss generators and be treated as such in an integrated approach. The evolution of the flow is described by the use of theoretical and experimental data. A theoretical model is derived to predict the operating trajectories of the rotor in two characteristic diagrams. A scenario is proposed, detailing the local evo- lution of the flow when a gradual progression toward free andload-controlled windmil- ling operation is imposed. An experimental campaign exerted on two low-speed fans aims at the analysis of both the local and global aspects of the performance, for valida- tion. From a global point of view, the continuity of the operating trajectory is predicted and observed across the boundary between the quadrants of the diagrams. The flow coef- ficient value for the free-windmilling operation is fairly well predicted. From a local point of view, the local co-existence of compressor and turbine operating modes along the blade span is observed as previously reported. It is further demonstrated here that this configuration is not exclusive to free-windmilling operation and occurs inside a range that can be theoretically predicted. It is shown that for a given geometry, this local topology strongly depends on the value of the flow coefficient and is very sensitive to the inlet spanwise velocity distribution. [DOI: 10.1115/1.4030308]
Disseminate the findings of any EIA and CBA in a form which can be readily understood by all stakeholders. G5. Ensure that there are adequate control and mitigation measures to minimise, or compensate for impacts if
development projects are allowed to proceed.
Water resource development projects modify the natural water flows in a river basin for storing water through drought periods, preventing floods, transferring water to irrigated agricultural areas, industrial and domestic water supply, improving navigation and generating electricity. Such projects have frequently been developed through the construction of engineered structures such as dams, diversion canals, channelisation of rivers, flood levees, etc. Many such projects have had a significant negative impacts on wetlands and associated biodiversity. Ramsar Handbook 7 (2007c:24) names some of the most significant impacts of such projects: “reduction in river flows, blocking of pathways for migratory fish and other aquatic species, increased water pollution levels, disruption of timing of natural floods which maintain wetlands; reduction of sediment and other nutrient input into floodplain wetlands, drainage or permanent inundation of riverine wetlands, and salinisation of surface and groundwater”. Ramsar Handbook 7 (2007c) provides the guidance on what should be done to minimize their impacts (Box 9).
Le guide technique consacré aux fondations profondes de l'armée américaine (US Army Corps of Engineers, 1991) indique que l'usage du vibrofonçage requiert une attention particulière à cause de la réduction de la capacité portante par rapport aux pieux battus observée dans un certain nombre de cas. Le manuel cite en outre l'absence d'une méthode fiable, équivalente à celles utilisées pour les pieux battus (instrumentation type Pile Driving Analysis), pour évaluer la résistance et les contraintes induites dans le pieu par le vibrofonçage. Ce manuel insiste cependant sur l'intérêt économique réel du vibrofonçage comme mode de mise en place de fondation unique, notamment dans les projets comportant un grand nombre de pieux. Il indique que des essais de chargement statique et dynamique peuvent alors être réalisés pour justifier la fondation.
The idea is to make a preliminary load ﬁeld estimation with a generic struc- tural parameter, based on rough estimations of physical properties. Then, the structural parameter can be estimated from a subset of identiﬁcation points, corresponding to low-loads areas. This low-load area is not straightforward to determine, but it can be arbitrarily deﬁned as a ﬁxed fraction of the total identiﬁcation area (typically 1/3 or 1/2) where the preliminary rms load ﬁeld estimation is minimum. Of course, this approach is suitable only if some parts of the structure are not excited, or not constraint by boundary conditions. If the load is known to be distributed on the whole structure, as it is the case for acoustic loads or turbulent boundary layers, the preliminary experiment with an artiﬁcial load cannot be avoided. Note that this preliminary exper- iment can be carried out without removing the operational load if needed: the artiﬁcial load has to be uncorrelated from the operational one (which is generally the case using a random noise generator). The response to the artiﬁ- cial excitation only can then be obtained thanks to the Conditioned Spectral Analysis [27,28], using a standard H1 estimate referenced to the signal driving the artiﬁcial source (the response to operational loads being suppressed by the averaging process).
Many countries, included in the baseline sample, have small shares of the total natural re- sources to GDP. Further, the different quality of institutions might affect the correlation between the variables of interest. Hence, one seems to be worth studying the effect of the absorption capacity constraints on the resource curse for a sample of non-resource-poor countries, the resource-dependence index larger than 2%, and for a sample of poor-institution countries, the institution index less than one. Columns (3) and (4), reporting respectively the estimation results for non-resource-poor countries and poor-institution countries, suggest that there is a significant and positive impact on economic growth from the Absorption index, the same as the baseline results. The coefficient on the Absorption index is larger in non-resource-poor and poor institution countries’ samples than the full sample. More precisely, the marginal productivity of one more unit of the absorption capacity is stronger in these two groups of countries. Further, the negative coefficient on the resource-dependence and the positive coefficient on the interac- tion term between variables of interest are less intensive in the restricted samples than in the full sample. These suggest that the natural resource curse remains for a longer interval of the absorption capacity’s proxy when I estimate the regression model for the restricted samples (less than 0.85) than what is estimated for the full sample (less than 0.7). The latter result may state that capacity constraints which are more intense in a sample of non-resource-poor countries or low-quality-institution countries lengthen the persistence of the resource curse.