life cycle impact assessment

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Comparison of Life cycle Impact Assessment methods in a case of crop in Northern France

Comparison of Life cycle Impact Assessment methods in a case of crop in Northern France

For impact assessment of flow resulting from the life cycle inventory (LCI) phase on the culture of chicory in northern France, we have used four evaluation methods: the three LCIA methods used for most authors of LCA Food 2012, which are the CML2001, IMPACT2002+ and ReCiPe and the method recommended by the European Commission ILCD2011, which show similar results in impact categories considered reliable, but also they show differences in the assessment of various impact categories less consensual.

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The life cycle assessment of the Milazzo peninsula (north-eastern Sicily, Italy) : geochimical impact assessment of water and soils

The life cycle assessment of the Milazzo peninsula (north-eastern Sicily, Italy) : geochimical impact assessment of water and soils

The Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is a normalized tool (ISO 14 040:2006 and 14 044:2006) used to assess the environmental impacts and potential impacts associated with a product, process, or service. It considers all steps of its life cycle from the extraction of the raw materials to the disposal of the garbage and helps evaluating the environmental impacts by quantifying the emissions of pollutants and use of resources for each stage of the product’s life cycle. The LCA technique follows the ISO 14 040 and 14 044 guidelines and is divided into four steps: 1) the first step (goal and scope) defines the purpose and method of life cycle environmental impacts assessment, the type of information that is needed, how the results should be interpreted and displayed in order to be meaningful and usable. The second step is the inventory analysis (LCI) which is a process of quantifying energy and raw material requirements, emissions to air, soil and water and other releases for the entire life cycle of a product, process, or activity. The third step is the impact assessment (LCIA) phase which establishes a linkage between the product or process and its potential environmental impacts. During that step, environmental impact categories (e.g., global warming, acidification, terrestrial toxicity) are identified, classified and characterized using science-based conversion factors (CF) (e.g., modeling the potential impact of carbon dioxide and methane on global warming). The last step is the life cycle interpretation devoted to the analysis of the results and limitations from the previous phases (LCI and LCIA), and providing interpretation in a transparent manner and final recommendations.
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Life cycle assessment of emerging Ni–Co hydroxide charge storage electrodes: impact of graphene oxide and synthesis route

Life cycle assessment of emerging Ni–Co hydroxide charge storage electrodes: impact of graphene oxide and synthesis route

Maria de Fatima Montemor, d Liliane Guerlou-Demourgues ce and Steven B. Young a Decoupling energy supply from fossil fuels through electri fication and sustainable energy management requires e fficient and environmentally low-impact energy storage technologies. Potential candidates are charge storage electrodes that combine nickel and cobalt hydroxides with reduced graphene oxide (rGO) designed to achieve high-energy, high-power density and long cycling lifetimes. An early eco- e fficiency analysis of these electrodes seeks to examine the impacts of materials and processes used in the synthesis, speci fically while focusing on the use of rGO. The emerging electrodes synthesized by means of electrodeposition, are further compared with electrodes obtained by an alternative synthesis route involving co-precipitation. Life cycle assessment (LCA) method was applied to compare a baseline nickel –cobalt hydroxide electrode (NCED), the focal electrode integrating rGO (NCED-rGO), and the benchmark co-precipitated electrode (NCCP), for delivering the charge of 1000 mA h. Contribution analysis reveals that the main environmental hotspots in the synthesis of the NCED-rGO are the use of electricity for potentiostat, ethanol for cleaning, and rGO. Results of comparison show signi ficantly better performance of NCED-rGO in comparison to NCED across all impact categories, suggesting that improved functionalities by addition of rGO outweigh added impacts of the use of material itself. NCED- rGO is more impactful than NCCP except for the indicators of cumulative energy demand, climate change, and fossil depletion. To produce a functional equivalent for the three electrodes, total cumulative energy use was estimated to be 78 W h for NCED, 25 W h for NCED-rGO, and 35 W h for NCCP. Sensitivity analysis explores the signi ficance of rGO efficiency uptake on the relative comparison with NCCP, and potential impact of rGO on the category of freshwater ecotoxicity given absence of removal from the process e ffluent. Scenario analysis further shows relative performance of the electrodes at the range of alternative functional parameters of current density and lifetime. Lastly, the environmental performance of NCED-rGO electrodes is discussed in regard to technology readiness level and opportunities for design improvements.
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Comparison of Life cycle Impact Assessment methods in a case of crop in Northern France

Comparison of Life cycle Impact Assessment methods in a case of crop in Northern France

absence of prevalence of a LCIA method . Selected LCIA methodologies: CML-IA, IMPACT2002+, ReCiPe and ILCD2011. [1] Corson, M.S., van der Werf, H.M.G. (Eds.), 2012. Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Life Cycle Assessment in the Agri-Food Sector (LCA Food 2012), 1-4 October 2012, Saint Malo, France. INRA, Rennes, France .

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Indoor Air Pollutant Exposure for Life Cycle Assessment: Regional Health Impact Factors for Households

Indoor Air Pollutant Exposure for Life Cycle Assessment: Regional Health Impact Factors for Households

based on a “receptor perspective” aiming to measure the level of cumulative exposure from single or multiple sources of chemical emission, no matter where these occur. Human exposure to indoor concentrations of chemicals is receiving increasing interest in LCA. 2 − 11 Due to the often high concentrations of harmful substances in indoor environments and the long periods people spend indoors, the indoor intake per unit of (indoor) emission of these substances can be equal or higher than outdoor intake, by up to several orders of magnitude. 4 , 5 Inclusion of indoor exposure in LCA has been acknowledged as an area of need by the UNEP/SETAC Life Cycle Initiative ( http://www.lifecycleinitiative.org ), which is taking up recommendations and conclusions toward the enhancement of the current LCA framework. Within this initiative, an international expert group on the integration of indoor and outdoor exposure in LCA has formulated a framework for integration of indoor exposure in LCA. 6 They found that a single-compartment box model is most compatible with LCA and therefore recommended it for use as a default in LCA. Indoor intake fractions were found to be several orders of magnitude higher in many cases than outdoor intake fractions, which highlights the relevance of considering indoor exposure. While an initial set of model parameter values was provided and the integration of the model into the USEtox model was suggested in the previous study, a full set of representative parameter values for various indoor settings is still missing to make this approach operational. 6 The model parameters given in the framework have been presented as ranges of values. 6 The actual values of the parameters depend on the geographical region of the assessed site, the type and characteristics of the dwelling, and the characteristics and behavior of the occupants. In LCA, when no data are available about the actual dwelling or the occupants, average parameter values are generally used.
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Use of Life Cycle Assessment to determine the environmental impact of thermochemical conversion routes of lignocellulosic biomass: The gasification step

Use of Life Cycle Assessment to determine the environmental impact of thermochemical conversion routes of lignocellulosic biomass: The gasification step

Conclusions and perspectives: Lignocellulosic biomass gasification: Promising processes for substituting fossil fuels (building blocks for the chemical industry and fuels). Their environmental impact remains uncertain  LCA methodology needed Numerous possibilities  sensitivity and uncertainity analysis.

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Life-cycle assessment of microalgal based biofuels

Life-cycle assessment of microalgal based biofuels

Frank, E.D., Han, J., Palou-Rivera, I., Elgowainy, A., Wang, M.Q., 2012. Methane and nitrous oxide emissions affect the life-cycle analysis of algal biofuels. Environmental Research Letters 7, 014030. Goedkoop, M., Heijungs, R., Huijbregts, M., Schryver, A.D., Struijs, J., Zelm, R.V., 2009. ReCiPe 2008— a life cycle impact assessment method which comprises harmonised category indicators at the midpoint and the endpoint level.

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Use of Life Cycle Assessment to determine the environmental impact of gasification of lignocellulosic biomass: preliminary results

Use of Life Cycle Assessment to determine the environmental impact of gasification of lignocellulosic biomass: preliminary results

Ashes end of life  Presently (Belgian legislation context): the ashes must be landfilled; in the future: field fertilization? Co-product: system expansion by substitution (avoiding allocation procedure): the avoidance impact, from the co-product is subtracted to the system impact. Part of a wider study: quantify the environmental impact of several uses of syngaz and comparing them with each other and more conventional fuels.  Develop a better assessment of the environmental performances of currently uncommon but promising technologies  Tool to help in the decision process.
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Analyzing uncertainty in a comparative life cycle assessment of hand drying systems

Analyzing uncertainty in a comparative life cycle assessment of hand drying systems

variation across equally plausible scenarios, we discourage the use of quantifying relative impact (e.g., “Product X has a Z% lower environmental impact than product Y.”) unless it is accompanied by a specific confidence level (such as those listed in Table 4 and Table 5). While these broad recommendations in the standards are useful, there is almost no specific guidance on conducting uncertainty analyses for comparative LCAs. This case study has illuminated several issues that should be included in such guidance. First, although it is useful to aggregate the uncertainty of multiple parameters in the parameter uncertainty analysis, it will almost always be meaningful to conduct further uncertainty analyses with specific parameters held constant as a means of gaining insight on the impact of key parameters on outcomes. This is analogous to conducting parameter uncertainty analyses using multiple scenarios (as was done here and in other work), but there should be analytical justification for the selection of parameters that should be analyzed further. An example of this can be seen in (Mattila et al. 2011). Second, the literature discusses a separation between parameter and scenario uncertainty, but in reality there is overlap between the two in the implementation of uncertainty analyses because many choices (related to scenario uncertainty) manifest themselves as changes in parameters. Thus, parameter and scenario uncertainty should be analyzed together in an aggregate manner where possible and then analytical methods should be used to determine which parameters and/or choices should be analyzed further. Of course, there are some choices that cannot be aggregated, such as the use of different life cycle impact assessment methods, and these will still need to be analyzed separately.
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2019 — ParallelLCA : a foreground aware parallel calculator for life cycle assessment

2019 — ParallelLCA : a foreground aware parallel calculator for life cycle assessment

elementary flow inventory into an impact score in a given impact category. Impact Methods represent, in LCA databases, a higher container for Impact Categories. Each impact method is responsible for several impact categories (ISO, 2006). LCA consists of four phases. First, in the scope and definition phase, a Functional Unit, which is the definition of the function (or functions in the case of multi-functional LCA) provided by a product life cycle, is established. Second, in the inventory phase or LCI (Life Cycle Inventory), the totals of the different emissions and extractions with the environment (i.e., Elementary Flows) are quantified: each elementary flow exchange is assigned a total quantity. Third, in the impact assessment phase or LCIA (Life Cycle Impact Assessment), the inventories (e.g., 1 kg of wood), are characterized into respective impact categories and impact methods using the corresponding Impact Factors. Finally, in the interpretation phase, the framework assesses the contribution of each of the activities in the life cycle of a product to the total impacts and the total inventory results. Also, the interpretation phase may assess the uncertainty of the output results through what is called Uncertainty Propagation analysis. Following the uncertainty propagation analysis is a sensitivity analysis that can be performed to assess the effect of uncertainty in input parameters on the uncertainty in output results (ISO, 2006).
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Life cycle assessment of end-of-life scenarios: tablet case study

Life cycle assessment of end-of-life scenarios: tablet case study

According to Rodrigues-Garcia and Weil (2016), the life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) methodologies more widely used in LCA of WEEE are CML 2001 and Eco-Indicator (95 or 99). Considering that these methods are superseded and that the European Commission released a methodology for LCIA in the European context, the LCIA results were calculated at midpoint level by using the ILCD 2011 adapted with the IPCC version 1.02. The impact categories selected were: global warming potential, human toxicity potential (non-cancer and cancer effects), freshwater ecotoxicity potential and mineral, fossil and renewable resource depletion potential. The set of impact categories selected allows fulfillment of the requirement of ISO standards which prescribes a selection of impact categories that reflects a comprehensive set of environmental issues related to the product system.
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Economic models used in consequential life cycle assessment: a literature review

Economic models used in consequential life cycle assessment: a literature review

EC-JRC, 2010. International Reference Life Cycle Data System (ILCD) Handbook: Analysing of Existing Environmental Impact Assessment Methodologies for use in Life Cycle Assessment Luxembourg . Eriksson, L.O. , Gustavsson, L. , Hänninen, R. , Kallio, M. , Lyhykäinen, H. , Pingoud, K. , Pohjola, J. , Sathre, R. , Solberg, B. , Svanaes, J. , Valsta, L. , 2012. Climate change mitigation through increased wood use in the European construction sector-to- wards an integrated modelling framework. Eur. J. For. Res. 131 (1), 131–144 . Frischknecht, R. , Stucki, M. , 2010. Scope-dependent modelling of electricity supply
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Life Cycle Assessment of Aluminium Recycling Process: Case of Shredder Cables

Life Cycle Assessment of Aluminium Recycling Process: Case of Shredder Cables

* Corresponding author. Tel.: +33 (0)474 928 768. E-mail address: Guilhem.grimaud@ensam.eu Abstract Life cycle impact of European generic primary and secondary aluminium are well defined. However specific recycling processes are not available in literature. In this study, the environmental assessment of cable recycling processing is examined. The data come from a recycling plant (MTB Recycling) in France. MTB process relies only on mechanical separation and optical sorting processes on shredder cables. On the one hand, the study demonstrates huge environmental benefits for aluminium recycled in comparison with primary aluminium. On the other hand, the results show the harmful environmental influence of the heat refining by comparison with cold recycling process.
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Life cycle assessment (LCA) applied to the process industry: a review

Life cycle assessment (LCA) applied to the process industry: a review

• Interpretation: This last part allows conclusions to be drawn concerning environmental damages generated by the system, using results provided by the impact assessment step. LCA methodology and limitations have been widely described and improved over the last three decades, and are covered in many articles (Ayres 1995; Guinée et al. 2011; Thorn et al. 2011). Rebitzer and Pennington (2004) provided a well- detailed two-part methodology review, covering the framework, goal and scope definition, inventory analysis and application in the first part and current impact assessment practice in the second (Pennington et al. 2004; Rebitzer et al. 2004). Recently, Finnveden et al. (2009) published a review dealing with recent developments in LCA methodology. This article focused on areas with significant methodological development such as definition of attributional and consequential analysis, system boundaries and the improvement of allocation rules, the development of new inventory databases, current developments in LCIA and lastly improvements made regarding consideration of uncertainties. Concerning consequential LCA, which represents the convergence between LCA and economic modelling methods, research and applications are in their infancy although a very detailed review has been made by Earles et al. (2009), where the authors have covered the historical development of this particular methodology, plus previous literature on the topic, bringing an interesting perspective to this new methodological approach.
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Coupling life cycle assessment with process simulation for ecodesign of chemical processes

Coupling life cycle assessment with process simulation for ecodesign of chemical processes

CONCLUSIONS A major incentive of this work was to apply LCA in com bination with process design. The core of the methodology is based on the link between energy and process simulation tools. The emissions in the system can thus be divided into utility and process waste to increase the knowledge of the origin of the waste and to identify the areas with largest potential for improvement. Even if life cycle assessment is a mature concept and if life cycle inventory databases are now largely implemented, it must be emphasized that data avail ability is one of the most critical issues in LCA. The well known benchmark HDA process first developed by [1] dem onstrates the usefulness of such an approach that must be applied at the very early design stage. Simulation tools for process and energy production can be useful to feed inven tory databases that are embedded in LCA tools. For bridging this gap, this work has proposed the combined use of a pro cess simulation tool dedicated to production utilities, Ariane, ProSim SA, experimental process data, and life cycle assess ment implemented with a commercial software tool SimaPro for the design of specific energy sub modules, so that the life cycle energy related emissions for a given process can be computed. The case study developed has addressed the environmental impact assessment of a bi fuel furnace on the one hand and steam production by a gas turbine on the other hand. The interest of using such an approach is that different operating conditions and technologies can be mod elled and evaluated systematically by the energy simulator. Of course, some experimental data may be necessary to identify the emission profile associated with an energy pro duction unit under specific operating conditions.
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Life cycle assessment (LCA) applied to the process industry: a review

Life cycle assessment (LCA) applied to the process industry: a review

At least, life cycle assessment, is the most well-known and powerful tool within DfE which will be described later. However, it appears that LCA is more reliable when coupled with other environmental approaches. In 2001, Olsen et al. produced a comparative study of LCA and ERA applied to chemicals that described the two methodologies and identified harmonies, discrepancies and relations between them. In the context of chemicals, the authors highlight differences between ERA, as an “absolute tool” able to predict the occurrence of adverse effects, and LCA, as a “comparative tool” used for environmental improvement of products. They also concluded that because they fulfil different purposes, both are necessary and cannot substitute for each other; they are complementary. Hermann et al. (2007) described an environmental assessment combining LCA, multicriteria analysis, and environmental performance indicators. The authors developed a new tool to perform an overall environmental assessment, involving solely the strengths of the three methods, releasing the user from their weaknesses: COMPLIMENT (COMbining environmental Performance indicators, LIfe cycle approach and Multi-criteria to assess the overall ENvironmental impacT). As well as applying this methodology to the specific case of eucalyptus pulp production in Thailand, the article gives an overview of studies that have combined several assessment tools. Recently, the coupling of exergy and environmental analysis in order to determine the environmental efficiency of the biological energy conversion process revealed the dependence between the thermodynamic parameters of the process, the operating conditions used and its environmental impacts (Buchgeister 2010).
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Coupling life cycle assessment with process simulation for ecodesign of chemical processes

Coupling life cycle assessment with process simulation for ecodesign of chemical processes

CONCLUSIONS A major incentive of this work was to apply LCA in com bination with process design. The core of the methodology is based on the link between energy and process simulation tools. The emissions in the system can thus be divided into utility and process waste to increase the knowledge of the origin of the waste and to identify the areas with largest potential for improvement. Even if life cycle assessment is a mature concept and if life cycle inventory databases are now largely implemented, it must be emphasized that data avail ability is one of the most critical issues in LCA. The well known benchmark HDA process first developed by [1] dem onstrates the usefulness of such an approach that must be applied at the very early design stage. Simulation tools for process and energy production can be useful to feed inven tory databases that are embedded in LCA tools. For bridging this gap, this work has proposed the combined use of a pro cess simulation tool dedicated to production utilities, Ariane, ProSim SA, experimental process data, and life cycle assess ment implemented with a commercial software tool SimaPro for the design of specific energy sub modules, so that the life cycle energy related emissions for a given process can be computed. The case study developed has addressed the environmental impact assessment of a bi fuel furnace on the one hand and steam production by a gas turbine on the other hand. The interest of using such an approach is that different operating conditions and technologies can be mod elled and evaluated systematically by the energy simulator. Of course, some experimental data may be necessary to identify the emission profile associated with an energy pro duction unit under specific operating conditions.
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A Study of Life Cycle Assessment in two Old Neighbourhoods in Belgium

A Study of Life Cycle Assessment in two Old Neighbourhoods in Belgium

Journal Pre-proof 2 Abstract The aim of this research is to determine the most important source of environmental change at the two old neighbourhood. The study of multiple scenarios allows us to determine their Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) impacts and identify the key variables. The impact of storm water management, density, mobility, management of unoccupied space, and the use of renewable energies on the environmental balance sheet of two old neighbourhoods located in Urban and Suburban zones was quantified. The environmental data comes from several interviews with occupants, ECOINVENT database, developed by different research institutes based in Switzerland, and the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy which provides weather data for more than 2,100 locations throughout the world. Three different software programs were used for studying the different environmental impacts. The results showed that the length of daily trips made by the residents, the presence of public transportation and bike path has no significant influence on the environment in the two old neighbourhoods. The variation of photochemical ozone is important in both
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Life Cycle Assessment Case Study: Tertiary Treatment Process Options for Wastewater Reuse

Life Cycle Assessment Case Study: Tertiary Treatment Process Options for Wastewater Reuse

mainly constituted by preservation of metal resources (15% of the total impact of the UF option for this indicator). CONCLUSION Life cycle assessment was used as a tool to compare 5 trains of tertiary treatment processes for high-quality wastewater reuse operating in the South of France. For most of the studied criteria, the use phase is globally the most impacting, although for some criteria, such as metal resources exhaus- tion, the construction phase of the pilots is the major contributor, depending on the nature of the materials used. The use of robust technology such as SF followed by UVB (SF-UVD and SF-UVB) has an environmental impact equiva- lent to UF alone for most of the midpoint indicators chosen. Ultrafiltration is usually complemented with a sterilization module, to prevent pollution in case of fiber break. If this option is considered, the environmental load is clearly favorable to SF-UVB to produce water for unrestricted irrigation according to the French requirements. Concerning the MF pilot, its transport from Korea increases the impact of the MF-UVD option for most of the indicators. The quality of the output water does not allow a standalone operation, without a UV treatment downstream, making such assembly more impacting than SF-UVB.
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Identification  of  influential  parameters  in  building  energy  simulation  and life cycle assessment

Identification of influential parameters in building energy simulation and life cycle assessment

2. M ODEL DESCRIPTION In Pléiades+COMFIE, the building is divided into thermal zones with homogeneous temperature (Peuportier and Blanc-Sommereux, 1990). The buildings elements are meshed and energy equations are solved to obtain the temperature, heating and cooling loads. Twelve environmental indicators are calculated using novaEQUER (Polster, 1995; Popovici, 2005). Energy load and geometry data are transferred from Pléiades+COMFIE. For the use phase, which is predominant due to the long building lifetime, information about water consumption, occupants’ transportation, and waste production complement the energy loads. The LCA database ecoinvent provides inventories and impact assessment indicators related to these processes, and the fabrication and end of life building materials. The model has a large number of equations that constitute a time-dependent non-linear system. Despite its physical nature, it is not possible to easily relate the outputs to the inputs. The computing time is decreased by reducing the order of the model. It ranges from a few seconds for a small house with few thermal zones, to a few minutes for an entire and complex district.
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