The same party wins regional elections in 2010 and keeps the power in Montpellier Agglomération. Directly or indirectly, the same party controls regional public policies at all levels. This coordination is accelerated by the merger in a unique regional authority (nuts 2) of the 5 General Councils (Departements, nuts 3), after their bankruptcy following the reform of local governments and their taxation system (decrease of their tax resources). Montpellier Agglomération becomes an Urban Community, with enlarged competences, and covers an extended metropolitan area from Sète in the south west to Nîmes and Ales in the north east. Unified political management allows achieving a balance between economic, social and environmental issues at the scale of the city-region, which now fits with the functional urban area. At the end of 2025, the capacity of local actors to come into negotiation with their neighbours holding different, thus complementary, resources, becomes essential. An integrated regional governance system is achieved.
3 Functions: The third component is a database, in which urban functions (infrastructure, dwellings, offices, parks, shopping centres, etc.) have been broken down into their logical components and related to surface area. For each square metre of a landuse the area of road, pavement, green space, parking space, sewers and so on is known. This enables the user to draw plans based solely on the surface area of the land uses; it is not necessary to make an actual architectural design.
In the urban functional area of Montpellier, changes in land, marked by a strong urban sprawl and important changes in agricultural activities in view of these land challenges go with high population growth. The peri-urban area has thus increased and many villages around Montpellier are now consisting of major housing estates which indicate the inescapable presence of developers. The local public governance meets then the individual logics and private economic strategies related to the structure of land ownership. The regional agricultural economic context, marked by vineyards whose development is partly held by the European agricultural policy, makes a cycle of changes in landuse of the urban periphery. These changes can identify a number of actors whose strategies and positions create a complex system that makes a difficult apprehension of future changes. Apart from farmers, developers and municipalities or the Communauté d’Agglomération de Montpellier, social groups are involved: environmental associations sensitive to changing landscape, environmental quality and choice of heavy urban equipments, Horse keepers increasingly, who are in an domain of leisure in strong growth, and more generally tourism stakeholders and local groups of inhabitants who “defend” sometimes their backyard...
In conservation biology, this concern lies in the frame- work of systematic conservation planningand formalizes as the reserve selection and design problem, which also lies in the more recent framework of computational sustainability [Gomes, 2009]. The reserve selection and design problem aims at partitioning the geographical space into at least two regions: one dedicated to habitats and biodiversity conser- vation, the other for socioeconomic development. However, effective strategies usually involve more regions with several nested levels of protection. Each region is defined by a com- bination of coverage and spatial constraints, and some other constraints such as the buffer zone, that can involve several regions. Finally, optimization objectives can be defined, such as minimizing the cost of a region or maximizing the cover- age of certain features. Figure 1 depicts an example with a grid partitioned into three regions.
The principal conclusions from the examples presented demonstrate that it is in fact quite possible to construct (in effect, co-construct) agricultural development plans by using the principles of strategic developmentplanning by and for the community (citizens and the various collective actors). To achieve the vision of food sovereignty presented earlier, LFS have to go beyond the issue of the distance travelled by food products before they reach the final consumers (food miles) and integrate social, economic and environmental benefits. Also, farmers’ markets, CSA and other initiatives are becoming increasingly present in industrial countries in recent years, but they still only represent a very small part of the food market . For example, in Quebec, Équiterre’s CSA went from one to 102 farms between 1995 and 2006. It contributes to 73% of the average turnover of the farms involved, and yields an average annual profit of $3,582 annually when conventional agriculture produces an average annual loss of $6,255 . In addition, there are interesting possibilities in relation to zoning laws and farmland protection legislation. In fact, even within existing legislation, new initiatives are emerging and new possibilities can be developed in other provinces and countries. These include cooperative land trusts and the collective buying of landand green belts) .
54 understand the underlying mechanisms of change, researchers need to focus on the causal chains of explanatory variables (Van Der Heijden, 2010).
Generally speaking, institutionalism has been criticized for lacking explanatory power, for its structural determinism, for its narrow and simplistic perspective on politics, and for harboring a certain level of theoretical and conceptual confusion (Lecours, 2005). Aside from academic debates emanating from sociology, economics and political science about the weaknesses of each variants of institutionalism and the various ways by which institutional analyses should be carried out, the shortcomings of institutional economics in addressing the processes of regional development were pointed out by economic geographers (Cumbers et al., 2003). According to Andrew Cumbers and his co-researchers, analyses of regional economies using the institutional economics framework fail to link social relations to the realities of uneven developmentand the effects of broader processes of advanced global capitalism. Although it is not my goal here to assess this specific critique, the acknowledgement of the role played by global economic forces in intra-regional dynamics ties back to the literature on governance and the policy failure/obsolescence of traditional formal and hierarchical means of coping with spacial interdependence and complexity, which point to the role that new types of institutions can play in navigating complex urban political environments (Rhodes, 1997; Moran, 2010; Pierre & Peters, 2012).
Coastal urbanization is one of the main environmental challenges today. In many countries of the world, coastal territories are attractive areas, whether to live, to spend holidays or to run a business. Since the 1950’s, this phenomenon has been massive and generalized. Today, it raises serious ecological, economical and social issues. The Mediterranean, cradle of civilizations and major spot of tourism in the world, is particularly affected (Benoit, Comeau, 2005). France is among the countries where coastal urbanization is the oldest and the highest. It is also remarkable for having tried to stem coastal urbanization by environmental policies and by promoting spatial planningand integrated coastal zone management (Deboudt, 2012; Deboudt et al., 2008). Among the emblematic features of the French regulatory framework, the Coastal law (1986) and the Coastal Conservation Authority (1975) are well known beyond national borders. In addition to other provisions, they contribute to a rich legal doctrine to contain urbanization of the territory in general and of the coasts in particular. However, the economic and social growth of French coastal areas continues and the development of the coasts is not frozen. Is there in France a virtuous procedure to reconcile coastal conservation anddevelopment of coastal territories? Does the French territorial planning system allow the limitation of urbanization while enabling economic and social development of the territories? Through the study of the recent evolution of two coastal areas on the Mediterranean, the purpose of this article is to reject any simplistic analysis which would suggest that French coasts enjoy adapted policies under the umbrella of the central government which would ensure a balanced development. The detailed analysis of the relationship between landuseand spatial planning reveals that, locally, from one place to another, situations can be very different.
• “Action”: lists actions that the land-use planner could implement to avoid or correct a case of contamination. These actions are identified through legislative sources, ministerial directives andplanning documents at the provincial scale.
• “Activity”: identifies the activities present in the territory on the basis of the land-use code (Code d’utilisation des biens-fonds, CUBF) from Québec’s property assessment manual (Manuel d’évaluation foncière du Québec [MAMROT 2010a]) edited by the provincial government. This kind of property codification is the key to making this tool work. The CUBF takes the physical and economic inventory of the provincial territory by identifying its different uses (MAMROT 2010b). The CUBF has different degrees of accuracy from one to four digits. Each usage has a unique four-digit code. For example, the code CUBF 1542 corresponds to the use “orphanage” categorized in 154 “House of retreat and orphanage”, in Category 15 “dwelling in common”, all classified in the use Type 1 “residential”. In order for the tool to be adapted to day-to-day practices, meetings with land- use planners concluded that the four-digit CUBF code was the most accurate level of precision regarding human activities.
was rather low. First, the weak plant composition diﬀerence we ob- served may be due to the relatively high forest cover in 1860 (27%), the good maintenance of ancient forests in the present forest cover (41%) and the suitable connectivity of recent forest patches to ancient forest patches (the distance between the recent forest plots and the closest ancient forest edge was only 92 m in our sample). In the mountainous context of the French Alps, Janssen et al. (2018) did not detect a sig- niﬁcant diﬀerence in understory plant composition between recent and ancient forests and attributed this lack of PLU e ﬀect to a forest land- scape history that is similar to ours (high amount of ancient forest, low level of forest fragmentation, and widespread forest recovery). This landscape context could imply that many forest species present in an- cient forest patches may have already colonised newly established re- cent patches and colonisation credit has been partly paid oﬀ ( Jackson and Sax, 2010 ). Second, the temporal use of forests for agriculture (temporal use as crop or stock grazing) which was common in former agro-sylvo-pastoral systems ( Fourchy, 1963; Gilbert, 1989; Chalvet, 2006 ) may have smoothed the legacies of PLUs. For example, ancient forests in our study area according to the EM map might have been temporarily cultivated or grazed, while ancient forests in temperate regions may have been submitted to fewer disturbances apart from intensive exploitation ( Hardy, 2017 ).
Chemka Springs is a large volume ground water spring (10 m 3 /s) south of Mount Kilimanjaro near the town of Bomang’ombe (Figure 1 , Supplementary Video S1). While the origins of the springs are unknown, the flow remains constant throughout the year. The springs are important water sources for the NYM hydroelectric dam [ 43 ]. The anthropogenic biomes surrounding the springs consist of rangeland, cropland, villages and dense settlements [ 37 ]. The high population density in the region has resulted in fires of anthropogenic origins, illegal timber extraction, and overutilization of natural resources [ 42 ]. The clear, warm, neutral water (28 ◦ C, pH 7.3) of the spring [ 45 ] is home to a yet to be described cichlid belonging to the genus Ctenochromis (Figure 2 F–J, Table 1 , Supplementary Video S1). Lake Chala is a 98 m deep international volcanic crater lake shared by Tanzania and Kenya on the Eastern side of Mt. Kilimanjaro with a 4.2 km 2 surface area (16.23 km 2 catchment) and an estimated volume of 300–350 Mm 3 [ 46 , 47 ] (Figures 1 and 2 K, Supplementary Video S1). The anthropogenic biomes surrounding the lake include residential woodland, remote rangeland, residential rangeland, remote croplands, residential rain fed crops, irrigated villages, rain fed villages, pastoral villages, and mixed settlements [ 37 ]. Arable land has been increasing in the region since 1973 [ 48 ]. The lake is fed by groundwater from Mt. Kilimanjaro and receives on average 565 mm of precipitation, exceeded by surface evaporation estimated at 1735 mm per year [ 46 ]. The water depth is maintained by seepage from precipitation in the forested slopes of Mt. Kilimanjaro and minimal outflow [ 49 ]; only 2.5% of the lake volume [ 50 ]. Permanent anoxic conditions exist below 60 m [ 49 ], therefore, only the upper two thirds of the lake are inhabitable by fishes. Due to the high water quality, 7 Mm 3 per year are projected to be abstracted for Kenya’s growing population [ 47 , 51 ]. Lake Chala is inhabited by Oreochromis
water discharge, i.e. ECHAM4-B2 and HadCM3-A2b, as they represent the whole range of possible future conditions (see Fig. 6). The results are depicted on Fig. 8 and show that, in both cases, Scenario A would induce an important increase of water discharge from May to November, while Scenario B would induce a slight decrease over the same pe- riod. Regarding annual runoff, the effect would be +13.6% (p<0.001) and −7.2% (p<0.001), for Scenarios A and B, respectively (considering the two GCM-GES-M as equiprob- able). As shown in the first part of this study, these results are due to the strong correlation between agricultural land area and water discharge. As Scenario A includes an increase in agricultural land to the detriment of shrub landand forest, this implies an increase in runoff over the watershed in spring and fall. It is the opposite effect for Scenario B. Similar be- haviour was found regarding low flow sequences with the SD method, with an increase for Scenario A and a decrease for Scenario B. We can see on Fig. 9 that the single effect of CC on low flow sequences without any landuse change (see Sc95 vs. Ref on Fig. 9) is low as compared to the effect of landuse scenario A (see ScA vs. Sc95) and even scenario B for HadCM3-B2a (see ScB vs. Sc95). Note that these results are obtained from only one GCM and that other GCMs may lead to a different pattern, although it was not possible to do test these hypothesis given available data (for a complete dis- cussion regarding this methodological constraint see Quilb´e et al., 2008).
In opinion mining and NLP, the analysis of subjectivity and opinions expressed by people in texts (newspapers, technical documents, blogs, reviews, letters, etc.) is called opinion analysis . Recognition polarity attempts to classify texts according to positivity or negativity with respects to the expressed opinions therein. Two main approaches can be identified: one based on the frequency of positive and negative words in each text , and the other one based on machine learning techniques from annotated texts . Hybrid approaches would appear to offer the best results [9, 10]. In all these approaches, several features are used, including words, n-grams of words , the shifted words , and so on. These features can be exploited using machine learning methods based on an annotated corpus. Such corpora are made available in text analysis challenges such as TREC (Text Retrieval Conference), or DEFT (D ´ Efi Fouille de Textes) for assesment by the French community. However, only a few are annotated according to opinion and polarity. In addition, several classification methods can be grouped into voting systems proposed by  or applying reinforcement and bag of words methods . Other approaches rely on incremental methods for opinion analysis . Along with the classification of opinion texts, the team’s research works focused on the automatic construction of opinion vocabularies . The incremental approaches proposed are usually based on web-mining methods in order to learn an opinion vocabulary specifically linked to a topic or a sub- topic.
P. Ciais † , R. Crassous † , C. M¨ uller ¶ , A. Bondeau ¶k March 15, 2013
Interactions between food demand, biomass energy and forest preservation are driving both food prices andland-use changes. This study presents a new model called Nexus Land-Use which describes these interactions through a representation of agricultural intensification. The model combine biophysics and economics to cal- culate crop yields, food prices, and resulting pasture and cropland areas within 12 inter-connected regions. The representation of cropland production systems relies on a biomass production function derived from the crop yield response function to inputs and a spatially explicit distribution of potential crop yields prescribed from the Lund- Postdam-Jena global vegetation model for managed Land (LPJmL). The economic principles governing decisions about land-useand intensification are adapted from the Ricardian rent theory, assuming cost minimisation. The land-use modelling approach described in this paper makes it possible to explore interactions among different types of demand for biomass, including indirect effects on land-use change resulting from international trade. Yield variations induced by the possible expansion of croplands on less suitable lands are modelled by using regional land area distributions of po- tential yields, and a boundary between intensive and extensive production. Idealized scenarios exploring the impact of forest preservation policies or rising energy price on agricultural intensification are presented.
variations in the isotopic ratio of the respiration flux are strongly damped because of the relatively long residence time of carbon in the terrestrial pools. However, biomass burning has a potentially high influence on the interannual variability of the isotopic disequilibrium flux because it is believed that in certain years (with strong El Nin˜o events) the burning flux is much higher than in other years [Langenfelds et al., 2002; Page et al., 2002] and may consume carbon of very distinct age (e.g., savannahs or forests). In fact, during the 1997/98 El Nin˜o, satellite data of burned area show a systematic shift from tropical grassland fires to forest fires resulting in a depleted 13 C net terrestrial flux [Randerson et al., 2005]. As this additionally released carbon is mainly due to anthropogenic fire events it is not simulated by LPJ’s fire module which only models natural fire events. The simulated interannual variability in the Figure 12. Global time series of (a) the modeled isotopic
anthropogenic landuseandland cover change forcing based on RCP8.5 scenario. L2A85 simulations are the same runs as RCP8.5 but without the anthropogenic landuseandland cover change forcing (after year 2005), with atmospheric CO 2 concentration prescribed from the RCP8.5 scenario. In other means, the difference between RCP8.5 and L2A85 simulations (i.e., RCP8.5-L2A85) corresponds to the pure biophysical effects of future anthropogenic landuseandland cover changes. Note that the RCP8.5 scenario includes spatially expli- cit future LULCC characterized by an expansion of croplands and pastures driven by the food demands of an increasing population and corresponds to a radiative forcing of more than 8.5 W m 2 in 2100 [Hurtt et al., 2011] (CO 2 concentration ~ 936 ppm in 2100). Future changes in tree cover between RCP8.5 and L2A85 simu- lations are about 4 × 10 6 km 2 by 2100 (i.e., approximately one tenth of the total idealized deforestation sce- narios [Ward et al., 2014]). Harmonization and implementation of future LULCC scenario into these ﬁve CMIP5 models are fully detailed in Hurtt et al.  and Brovkin et al.  papers (see their sections 2a and 2b). For the analysis of the changes in surface energy components andland-atmosphere variables (CMIP5 stan- dard abbreviation in parenthesis), we used the sensible and latent heat ﬂuxes (hfss and hﬂs), incoming short- wave and longwave radiation at the surface (rsds and rlds), total cloud fraction (clt), moisture in the upper portion of the soil column (mrsos), geopotential height, and vertical pressure velocity at 500 hPa (zg and wap) from RCP8.5 and L2A85 simulations averaged over the 2071 –2100 period (Figure 3). Only wap variable for HADGEM2-ES model was not available.
HAL Id: cirad-00843325
http://hal.cirad.fr/cirad-00843325 Submitted on 11 Jul 2013
HAL is a multi-disciplinary open access archive for the deposit and dissemination of sci- entific research documents, whether they are pub- lished or not. The documents may come from teaching and research institutions in France or abroad, or from public or private research centers.
the tropics for vegetation and in most regions of the world for soil C. These negative climate-induced stock alterations likely relate to reduced precipitation amounts (e.g. Ren et al., 2013; van den Besselaar et al., 2013) with an increased fre- quency and intensity of droughts (e.g. Bastos et al., 2020), in- creased temperatures further increasing the vapour pressure deficit (potentially enhancing transpirational water losses) and increasing soil respiration and mineralization processes (reducing soil C stocks; Lal, 2008; Crowther et al., 2016; Davidson and Janssens, 2006), and increased disturbances such as forest fires (Bowman et al., 2009; Archibald et al., 2018). The apparent dipoles in climate-induced vegetation and total C stock alterations in the USA and over Europe are most likely triggered by environmental changes dur- ing the 20th century with reduced stocks in the western USA and southern Europe where precipitation decreased (and droughts happen more frequent) and higher stocks in the eastern USA where precipitation widely increased (and droughts get less likely; e.g. Peterson et al., 2013; van den Besselaar et al., 2013) and northern Europe due to global- warming-induced longer growing seasons (e.g. Keenan et al., 2014; O’Sullivan et al., 2020) .