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A model of urban evolution based on innovation diffusion

A model of urban evolution based on innovation diffusion

Second, applying the model to real systems of cities, both in terms of initial parametrization and of empirical laws for innovation processes, would allow bringing this approach closer to possible policy applications. Raimbault (2018a) and later Raimbault et al. (2020) benchmarked several mod- els of urban growth based on interactions between cities, and integrated the model of Favaro and Pumain (2011) on which this work was based. It however only included ac- curate initial populations and distance matrix, but no em- pirical data on innovation waves which were also syntheti- cally constructed. One important aspect of this application to real systems of cities is thus a test of the performance of this model in predicting possible population trajectories for systems of cities. Several obstacles however remain for a more complete application of the innovation diffusion ur- ban evolution model. Harmonized datasets with consistent definition of urban entities, in particular which can be com- pared between different urban systems and long time scales, are crucial to study the dynamics of urban systems as done for example by Pumain et al. (2015). Innovation measures are not included in such datasets, and existing innovation proxys are limited in time and space, as for example the US Patent Office database for which inventors have been local- ized (Morrison et al., 2017). Then, how to link innovation proxy measures with model processes, in other words how to parametrize or calibrate the model on real data, remains an open question. Finally, how various urban systems with very different histories and at different stages of develop- ment would fit model assumptions, in particular the fact that innovation waves partly drive growth rates of cities, remains to be empirically investigated (Pumain et al., 2009).
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Intra-Firm Diffusion of Innovation: Evidence from Tunisian SME's in Matters of Information and Communication Technologies

Intra-Firm Diffusion of Innovation: Evidence from Tunisian SME's in Matters of Information and Communication Technologies

Rank Effect Firstly, we demonstrate that firms’ adoption and use of ICT is a positive function of their size. As expected, there is a positive correlation between a firm’s size and its ICT capital stock (adoption), showing the existence of scale economies for digital investment. Similar to industrial technologies, large firms have more incentives to adopt ICT, as they have the chance to spread adjustment costs over a more substantial output volume. Larger firms are more likely to adopt digital technologies because they show lower levels of financial constraints. This effect is relatively stable regardless of the type of the technology considered. At the same time, the firm’s size has a positive and significant effect on the intensity of use of ICT (intra-firm diffusion). Our results confirm the expected effects stated in hypothesis 2. The raking effect of diffusion seems validated here since we have shown that a firms’ size matters in intra-firm diffusion. This is mainly because larger companies need relatively more internal or external (wave 2 and 3) coordination tools. Concerning the firm's seniority effect, we show that ICT adoption and uses differ according to the models. Globally, the age of the company does not have a significant effect on the adoption of the second and third waves ICTs. And only more than ten-year-old firms have a significant effect. The effect of this variable in the intensity of use is more important for aged firms than for others. Within our sample and especially for companies that are older than ten years we find a significant effect. These findings show that the disequilibrium theory is validated. In fact, the correlation between the intensity of use (intra-firm innovation diffusion) and the rank variables (seniority and size) indicate that a firm’s behavior can’t be independent of its size and seniority even if expected returns of the marginal use of the technology considerations are forgotten. Our results show also that the dynamics followed by the adoption of the technology differ from the ones followed by the depth of adoption. These findings are shared by most of the new literature in the matter of ICT usage. The challenge to verify the epidemic variables seems to be more attractive in this context.
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The diffusion of regional innovation capabilities: Evidence from Italian patent data

The diffusion of regional innovation capabilities: Evidence from Italian patent data

North-Eastern and Central regions is very instructive. Actually, within this subgroup the first rank goes to the Abruzzi region, immediately followed by Emilia-Romagna and Marches, while the Umbria region instead features a low coefficient. At a comparative level it is worth noting that the speed at which innovation capabilities spread within the Abruzzi region is 76.6% greater than that of Piedmont and 40% than that of Lombardy. For what concerns the Emilia-Romagna region the magnitude of the difference is of +55.1% and +23% as compared to Lombardy and Piedmont respectively. The Marches region has a β value 25.2% higher than that of Piedmont, but almost equal to that of Lombardy. It must be also noted that the rate of appearance in Liguria is in between that of Piedmont and that Lombardy The results of the econometric estimations therefore provide strong support not only to the idea that the emergence of innovation capabilities followed a logistic path, but also to the hypothesis concerning cross-regional differences. Some regions in the North-East-Centre, specifically Emilia-Romagna, Marches and Abruzzi are characterized by diffusion rates systematically higher than those of Piedmont, and equal or higher to those of Lombardy. The Emilia-Romagna region, in particular, can be considered as the first region in the North-East-Centre side of Italy in which the diffusion of innovation capabilities took place, while Abruzzi and Marches seem to follow it with a slight delay 14 .
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La domestication d'une innovation technique : la diffusion de l'irrigation au goutte-à-goutte dans deux douars au Maroc

La domestication d'une innovation technique : la diffusion de l'irrigation au goutte-à-goutte dans deux douars au Maroc

Drip irrigation is often viewed as a sophisticated technology, designed for large farms practicing scientific agriculture. Yet around the world, small-scale farmers are able to adopt this technology through local initiatives. This article analyses the process of ‘‘domestica- tion’’ of drip irrigation in two villages in Morocco, through the study of its diffusion to a wide range of farms. We determine the factors triggering, accelerating, and regulating this diffusion. The domestication of drip irrigation has transformed a costly, imported, unknown technique adopted by a small minority of investors into an adaptable, accessible and widely adopted innovation through a process of experimentation by farmers, the emergence of local engineering expertise, the development of distribution networks, and attractive agricultural markets.
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Inégalités sociales dans la diffusion d'une innovation en transport actif : le cas des vélos en libre-service à Montréal

Inégalités sociales dans la diffusion d'une innovation en transport actif : le cas des vélos en libre-service à Montréal

Diffusion of innovation theory may provide some additional explanations. Indeed, those who readily use an innovation usually have higher education, higher social mobility, a wide personal network, or are already users of similar innovations (Rogers, 2003). Results reported here show that lack of awareness decreased in a manner similar to the innovation adoption curve and the first BIXI © users (Fuller et al., 2011) were those initially targeted by the advertising campaign (Transport Canada, 2009). Of course, we do not expect that PBSP awareness will necessarily result in uptake. Other factors that might influence awareness are opinion leaders, linking agents (Monahan et al., 1988; Valente, 2010; Valente et al., 1999), health habits and needs (Carlfjord et al., 2010), high communication networking, and social interactions (Badilescu-Buga, 2013). Communication occurring through social interactions appears as key to widespread information (Pescosolido et al., 2000; Scott et al., 2011; Simmel, 1964). However, acquiring awareness results from a complex process in which ‘‘individuals do not simply collect information but also transform their representations when formulating hypotheses or making conjectures about their environment’’ (Tremblay et al., 2003).
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Une innovation incrémentielle : la conception et la diffusion d'un pivot d'irrigation artisanal dans le Souf (Sahara algérien)

Une innovation incrémentielle : la conception et la diffusion d'un pivot d'irrigation artisanal dans le Souf (Sahara algérien)

3 Cirad UMR G-eau TA C-90/15, 73, rue Jean-Francois Breton, 34398 Montpellier cedex 5, France 4 Institut agronomique et vétérinaire (IAV Hassan II), 10100 Rabat, Maroc Résumé – On observe depuis une vingtaine d ’années l’émergence de bassins de production maraîchère dans le Sahara algérien par la mobilisation des eaux souterraines profondes, en marge des oasis traditionnelles. Dans la vallée du Souf, les agriculteurs se sont orientés vers la culture de la pomme de terre, irriguée par des petits pivots artisanaux. L ’objectif de l’article est d’analyser le processus d’innovation ayant permis l’émergence et la diffusion du pivot artisanal. Nous avons caractérisé le dispositif technique des différents pivots conçus successivement et mené des entretiens semi-directifs auprès de 24 agriculteurs, dix artisans, quatre commerçants locaux et quatre conseillers de sociétés d’agrofourniture. La conception et la mise en place du pivot artisanal résultent d ’une innovation incrémentielle à partir des grands pivots conventionnels introduits par l’État, qui étaient coûteux et non adaptés aux objectifs et aux capacités techniques des agriculteurs. De là vient la production et la diffusion par des artisans locaux d’un système d’irrigation accessible et adapté aux réalités socio-économiques de la région. L’association entre pivot artisanal et pomme de terre a renforcé la dynamique agricole dans le Souf avec la production annuelle de plus de 1 million de tonnes de pomme de terre grâce à 35 000 pivots artisanaux, soit 35 % de la production nationale. Cependant, ce système de production dépend de l’utilisation des eaux souterraines peu renouvelables et est positionné sur des marchés agricoles volatiles, ce qui nous amène à interroger sa durabilité.
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Le processus de diffusion d'une innovation agroenvironnementale en milieu agricole : étude du cas des bandes riveraines arbustives

Le processus de diffusion d'une innovation agroenvironnementale en milieu agricole : étude du cas des bandes riveraines arbustives

Deux entrevues furent menées avec des spécialistes des réalités agricoles, la première avec un spécialiste en sociologie rurale, mais ne faisant pas partie du projet de [r]

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L’innovation managériale de l'invention à la diffusion. Analyse du processus d’établissement d’une innovation managériale à partir du cas de la méthode 5 steps

L’innovation managériale de l'invention à la diffusion. Analyse du processus d’établissement d’une innovation managériale à partir du cas de la méthode 5 steps

continue ». Pour cette présentation, le concepteur-consultant accepte de renoncer à la « mise en abîme ». Celui-ci ajoute également de nouveaux éléments à la présentation standard. Les cinq niveaux de la roadmap sont présentés sous la forme du graphique proposé par l’étudiant d’AgroParisTech. Ce graphique s’accompagne d’une nouvelle définition de ces cinq niveaux. Le premier niveau est présenté comme « une phase analytique, de définition des périmètres et des outils » ; le second niveau est une « phase d’effort managérial, de mise en place des outils, de lancement de la dynamique » ; le troisième niveau est une « phase de stabilisation, où les éléments nécessaires à la création de valeur sont en place » ; le quatrième niveau est une « phase de création de valeur, d’appropriation par l’organisation » ; et enfin, le cinquième niveau est une « phase de capitalisation, où la capacité est acquise ». De plus, le concepteur- consultant propose une définition précise de la notion de « capacité » au cours de sa présentation, ce qu’il ne faisait pas de façon formelle et systématique auparavant. La capacité est définie comme « aptitude de l’organisation nécessaire pour atteindre les objectifs stratégiques. C’est une somme de connaissances, compétences et ressources qui définit le « savoir-agir » de l’organisation ». Nous constatons ici que, même si la méthode est présentée dans son intégralité - de la définition des sujets au pilotage -, l’accent est mis sur la traduction de la stratégie en capacités organisationnelles. Selon les consultants qui ont animé les premières réunions de travail, les différents acteurs se sont bien appropriés ce concept de « capacité organisationnelle ». Ils apprécient cette manière de réfléchir par rapport à leurs objectifs stratégiques. Cela confirme donc la pertinence, dans ce cas, de ce discours plutôt que celui orienté « diffusion de directives ». En effet, le pôle Stratégie et Transformation cherche à rendre plus concrète sa stratégie et à définir les étapes qui vont assurer l’atteinte des objectifs fixés. Ils ne sont donc pas directement dans un enjeu de mise sous contrôle des entités dans une entreprise étendue et dans une logique de déploiement de directives ou de bonnes pratiques à l’ensemble des organisations.
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Territorialité, mobilisation des communautés et persévérance scolaire : la diffusion d'une innovation sociale au Québec

Territorialité, mobilisation des communautés et persévérance scolaire : la diffusion d'une innovation sociale au Québec

Une analyse rétrospective des rapports annuels du CRÉPAS et du pre- mier bilan réalisé par Maltais et Gueynaud (2003) permet de dégager cinq éléments clés qui peuvent être considérés com[r]

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Innovation diffusion under budget constraints : Microeconometric evidence on heart attack in France

Innovation diffusion under budget constraints : Microeconometric evidence on heart attack in France

of the di¤usion of technological progress within hospitals ; (iii) the e¤ect of changes in patients’.. characteristics (age, comorbidities).[r]

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Applying innovation diffusion theory to the management of change

Applying innovation diffusion theory to the management of change

should be explicitly recognized and built into both product development and diffusion. The role of diffusion intermediaries or "information priests" is especially important. 2) D[r]

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Exploring municipal innovation : technological and original innovation in municipalities.

Exploring municipal innovation : technological and original innovation in municipalities.

The question has been asked, when the concept of innovation has been applied to the service industry, whether service innovation is identical to, similar to, or different from manufacturing innovation (which, until the 1990s, was what studies of innovation in SMEs looked at –Drejer, 2004; Gallouj & Savona, 2010). To the extent that innovation in municipalities has been studied (Nahlinder, 2013), similar questions have also arisen without any definitive response. In this paper we show that municipal innovation can be approached using concepts similar to those for understanding private-sector innovation. The key difference is not the type of innovation (which can be in technological, organizational, and policy fields), nor the overall process of innovation (it relies on internal capacity – both in terms of size and type -, is associated with location, and – as others have shown – is connected with external information sources and networking, McCann & Ward, 2011): the difference is in the way innovation is evaluated and in who evaluates it. In our exploratory empirical analysis, we identify some pointers as to which types of municipality engage in innovative behavior: these pointers are consistent with a Schumpeterian understanding of open innovation processes. However, we are unable to usefully distinguish innovators who receive awards from those that do not. Indeed, the fact that a jury is required to evaluate municipal innovations speaks to the difference between private-sector and municipal innovation. Municipal innovation is not usually an outward looking quest by local administrations for markets, for world firsts, or to be attractive to outsiders (this type of innovation can be assessed with market-like indicators, Tiebout, 1956), but is often an inward looking quest for problem solving and service provision that will be judged by local businesses, residents and civil society. Walker (2006), in his analysis of innovation diffusion across English local governments comes to a similar conclusion (though he places more emphasis on competition, probably because he is analyzing large upper-tier authorities):
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Democratizing Innovation

Democratizing Innovation

Reducing prices toward marginal costs can also reduce incentives to over- provision variety (Tirole 1988). Henkel and I also explored a few special situations where social welfare might be reduced by the availability of freely revealed user innovations. One of these was the effect of reduced pricing power on manufacturers that cre- ate “platform” products. Often, a manufacturer of such a product will want to sell the platform—a razor, an ink-jet printer, a video-game player—at a low margin or a loss, and then price necessary add-ons (razor blades, ink cartridges, video games) at a much higher margin. If the possibility of freely revealed add-ons developed by users makes development of a platform unprofitable for a manufacturer, social welfare can thereby be reduced. However, it is only the razor-vs.-blade pricing scheme that may become unprofitable. Indeed, if the manufacturer makes positive margins on the platform, then the availability of user-developed add-ons can have a posi- tive effect: it can increase the value of the platform to users, and so allow manufacturers to charge higher margins on it and/or sell more units. Jeppesen (2004) finds that this is in fact the outcome when users introduce free game modifications (called mods) operating on proprietary game soft- ware platform products (called engines) sold by game manufacturers. Even though the game manufacturers also sell mods commercially that compete with free user mods, many provide active support for the development and diffusion of user mods built on their proprietary game engines, because they find that the net result is increased sales and profits.
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Proximités géographiques et organisées et innovation

Proximités géographiques et organisées et innovation

38 firme. La réelle nouveauté de ce modèle réside dans la conception d’un modèle dynamique du process d’innovation. Ainsi, il incite les firmes à optimiser leur processus de détection des opportunités d’innovation et d’exploitation de ce potentiel, ce qui aurait pour conséquence de changer de modèle de production de l’innovation, en s’inscrivant soit dans le modèle de coopération soit dans celui du free revealing. C’est ce second type de développement qui est le plus valorisé par Chesbrough car la coopération ne constitue pas un processus nouveau de développement de l’innovation. Le free revealing consiste à ce que les innovateurs diffusent librement des informations et des connaissances sur leurs innovations, essentiellement dans le but de résoudre des problèmes techniques communs, les firmes devant ensuite fortement différencier leurs produits pour valoriser. Ce modèle de production de l’innovation est une adaptation des modèles d’invention collective décrit par Allen (1983) sur le cas des innovations de procédés pour les hauts fourneaux ou des innovations dans le secteur du logiciel libre. Le caractère nouveau de ce process d’innovation réside dans la diffusion de connaissances par opposition à l’utilisation du secret ou du brevet (voir également le point concernant l’appropriation). La diffusion volontaire des connaissances constitue une représentation nouvelle de leur rôle dans le processus d’innovation. Les spillovers ont d’abord étés définis comme une fuite involontaire de connaissances (Arrow, 1962) et un défaut d’appropriation privée de la rente d’innovation. Dans le modèle de la diffusion volontaire, il s’agit de reconnaître que les connaissances constituent aussi un input au processus d’innovation et de favoriser le bénéfice social lié à la diffusion, comme le soulignent Autant-Bernard et alii (2013).
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Ville et innovation scientifique

Ville et innovation scientifique

des « mico-entreprises » qui sont créées pour mettre en œuvre des applications industrielles des innovations scientifiques. Sur la base de ce constat, une stratégie est proposée : à l’échelle européenne, Grenoble reste une ville d’importance moyenne, tant est si bien qu’elle ne peut pas, à la différence des métropoles régionales comme Lyon, jouer la carte d’une économie diversifiée. Son positionnement international passe par une spécialisation : l’affirmation des compétences reconnues en informatique et en électronique doit aller de pair avec une diffusion croissante des nouvelles technologies dans l’industrie (tant en ce qui concerne les nouveaux produits que les nouveaux processus de fabrication) de manière à constituer un véritable « pôle de conception industrielle ». Autour de ce pôle qui constitue en quelque sorte le cœur de chauffe de l’économie, gravitent des activités de sous-traitance, ainsi que le commerce et les services à la personne dont la croissance est liée à l’élévation du niveau général des revenus.
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Determinants of User Innovation and Innovation Sharing in a Local Market

Determinants of User Innovation and Innovation Sharing in a Local Market

Costs associated with transferring innovation- related information on OPAC modifications are relatively minor---at most involving providing a copy of user-developed software code plus some informal consulting by library staff. As a result, we hypothesize that small transfer costs, such as when an innovating user already has established links in place to other users and manufacturers (for example, via member- ship in manufacturer-sponsored user groups), will increase the likelihood that a user making a modi- fication will share it with others. Rogers (1983) has identified the importance of preexisting communica- tion networks in the diffusion of innovation, while Midgley et al. (1992) demonstrated the effect of dif- ferent network structures in determining the shape of the diffusion curve of an innovation. In addition, we would expect users to be more likely to undertake the effort to inform other users and/or manufacturers of an innovation they had developed if they thought that those others would find it of value. We use member- ship of a manufacturer-sponsored OPAC user group as a surrogate for network connectedness of the user. We have direct measures of the manufacturer’s valua-
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The dynamics of innovation influents: contracts and sustainable energy innovation uptake

The dynamics of innovation influents: contracts and sustainable energy innovation uptake

"N! These types of standards offer the client the possibility of demonstrating a requirement for an ambitious energy performance level that may trigger the uptake of innovations. This is possible even though the competencies of the client alone would otherwise not be enough to define a doable, realistic level of ambition. Instead, it is the standard that embodies this assessment, on the balance between novelty and feasibility. In the case of the Danish higher level education complex, the client may have been competent in sustainable energy innovations. This competency, however, did not need to materialize in the relations between the client and the design team. The level of innovation was more or less implied by the introduction of the ambitious Low Energy Class 1 standard. The absence of manifestations of the client’s (possible) innovation competency did not lead to non- innovation due to the enforcement of the very standard. Thus, the contract specifying the standard offered a solution to the dilemma pointed out by Ivory (2005): the qualified client and building owner may act as a driver for innovation, yet many clients may not have the capacities and/or competencies to do so.
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Public Service Innovation Networks (PSINs): Collaborating for Innovation and Value Creation

Public Service Innovation Networks (PSINs): Collaborating for Innovation and Value Creation

In the first configuration, the initiating public agent encourages and promotes the emergence of the network, without becoming concretely involved himself. Without directly participating in the network, he ensures what is known as governance of governance or metagovernance (Bekkers et al., 2014; Sørensen, 2006; Sørensen and Torfing, 2010), which strives to establish the favourable general conditions for the formation and functioning of the network. The public actor creates all the conditions conducive to the interaction between the different actors engaged in the network, by elaborating a “political, institutional and discursive framework for collaborative innovation” (Torfing, 2010, p. 12), in other words, a collaborative innovation-friendly ecosystem. He plays the role of “civic enabler” of the collaboration (Sirianni, 2009). This first configuration may encompass two different types of PSINs: distributed PSINs, which function according to a bottom-up, local logic, and verticalised PSINs in which a given private actor takes the lead over the others and plays the role of conductor. In the second configuration, the initiating public agent surrounds himself with private actors and/or other public actors 15 and gets involved in the network himself. The network functions vertically, with the initiating public agent continuing to play the role of conductor in the functioning of the network (i.e. the development of innovation). It should be noted that public organizations can involve other stakeholders (especially citizens) at different moments in the innovation process and for different tasks (see § 3.1.4.2). They can, for example, involve them in the co-design of the innovation or handle the design themselves, and mobilize the other actors (the citizens) only during the implementation phase in order to test the new service and suggest improvements. A functioning mode, in which the initiating public agent, himself operationally involved in the network, would let it function horizontally straightaway is theoretically conceivable. We did not include this configuration in Figure 6 because we did not identify any empirical cases. The fact that the public agent is an
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Accelerating digital health innovation : analyzing opportunities in the healthcare innovation ecosystem

Accelerating digital health innovation : analyzing opportunities in the healthcare innovation ecosystem

Especially given the level formal R&D activity our framework suggests that substantially more innovation would be generated and scaled by focusing on encouraging autonomous[r]

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Open computer aided innovation to promote innovation in process engineering

Open computer aided innovation to promote innovation in process engineering

Fig. 5 . It is expected that changes in innovation paradigms will occur through the use of computer-aided innovation methods and tools; consequently, it is necessary to use new information technologies and computational methods for supporting the most recent changes in innovation management strategies. With the introduction of major changes compared to the previ- ous CAI, we can expect new benefits and research challenges. The first major evolution is to help firms expand their bound- aries by creating an innovation community which results in a sharp increase in creative potential and thus in an increase in the number of new ideas generated. Here, the challenges are to create the community and to manage and preserve the knowledge created to impel future innovation. The capitalized knowledge consists of that used for the selected idea as well as the knowledge deployed during the idea generation steps but not used in the remainder of the current development. Relying on the community size and skill, the number of ideas would grow tremendously, which leads to the second main challenge: how to assess this increasing quantity of ideas? The methods implemented in traditional CAI, such as expert pan- els or decision support method requiring score, reach their limits when applied to a potentially large amount of ideas. To potentially have better evaluation results, Hüsig and Kohn (2011) have proposed to manage idea evaluation in a similar way as idea generation, i.e., by the wisdom of the community based on voting methods. However, as the authors have noted giving away the control of idea assessment can lead to a com- plex situation, particularly when the top-ranked ideas are in contradiction with the strategies of firms.
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