transferknowledge. Consistent with the notion of organizational proximity and networking, informal interactions through meetings and gatherings is a means to connect with peers or other individuals with similar interests. In such circumstances, interactions are embedded in a context of informality andexchange structures and their boundaries are not officially defined. According to Inkpen and Tsang (2005), knowledge is shared through formal or informal exchanges that are facilitated by established rapport and friendships on an individual basis. Empirically, we realized that Africans used such informality in its various forms through diverse communication channels, many of them informal, to learn from the Chinese. A comparison of this African behavior to Monteiro, Arvidsson, and Birkinshaw’s (2008) notion of communication reciprocity implies that the African strategy has theoretical support in an alliance context. According to the authors, the recipients’ motivation and absorptive capacity, and their perceptions concerning the capabilities of the units from which they seek knowledge, is what drives the process of knowledgetransfer in international organizations. Thus, subsidiary units will provide privileges to the units with which they have some communication reciprocity and from which they can obtain knowledge. From the unit’s internal perspective, employees working within those receiving units (African
The academic research and development com- munity has put substantially more emphasis on seeking patent protection for its work over the past years by adopting a blockbuster mentality. There is a controversial discussion around the question of whether universities are behaving like ‘patent trolls’. The trend has been fuelled by some spectacular suc- cess stories which have been reported in the public domain. 20 By its very preventive nature, the trend is counteractive towards collaboration and one may reasonably ask the question of whether this is an economically sensible approach. The role of publicly funded institutions should rather be to create a pool of findings and validated concepts that may or may not represent economic value, but offer even more value when bundled together. This is particularly true in complex fields such as MSE. Similar to the case of the IT field, public R&D could be seen as an open innovation community, with a subtle differ- ence, however, in that public R&D institutions are not innovators. They do not create new products. A priori they would have no incentive to gain access to other patents, and the patent portfolio would not function as an exchange currency for ideas. That is, of course, only if they do not enter a public–private innovation partnership, in which the open innova- tion model makes sense for them after all. There, they would make available their protected ideas for testing by technology developers. Complex tech- nologies can then be developed and validated, and
One first proposed solution has been to make holes along the through-plane direction in the hydrophobic GDLs. In theory, liquid water prefers invading large pores in fully hydrophobic porous media. As a consequence, these large holes perforated in a purely hydrophobic GDL would be preferential pathways for liquid water. This would permit to concentrate the liquid water in these through-plane pipes and the rest of the GDL would mainly remain dry to let the reactant gas diffuse. This solution has been tried in several experimental studies [1–6]. Laser perforation methods have been used to make the holes. Among the different studies, it has been tried to perforate the GDL only or the MPL+GDL assembly. Furthermore, different sizes of holes have been tested (80µm [1, 2], 200µm , 300µm ) and one of the study has found an optimal diameter of 60µm . In some studies the holes have been aligned below the channel region [1, 2, 6] while some others have created 2D grids of holes [3, 5]. The impact of the presence of holes in the hydrophobic GDLs has been assessed by performing ex-situ experiments  or more generally in-situ experiments. Depending on the studies, the improvements have been assessed in terms of liquid water distribution and or polarization curves. All the studies come to the conclusion that the presence of holes in hydrophobic GDLs improves the performances of the fuel cell. The limiting current is reported to increase [1, 2, 6]. Furthermore, thanks to neutron radiography  or synchrotron radiography , the transport of the liquid water has been observed in operating fuel cells. The holes are reported to fulfil their role of preferential pathways. As theoretically expected, the liquid water prefers invading the large holes. Lee et al.  have modelled perforated GDLs using pore network approach. To the best of our knowledge, this is the unique modelling study that has been performed. They used a PNM which only considers the liquid water transport without phase change.
(e.g., data clusters). They adopt background knowledge but are limited by expressivity, which in turn restricts the rea- soning and inhibits rich explanations.
On the other hand, transfer learning which utilizes sam- ples, features (i.e., representations of original data) or mod- els of one learning domain (i.e., a pair of dataset and predic- tion task) to enhance prediction model training in another learning domain (Pan and Yang 2010) has been widely ap- plied, especially in dealing with critical challenges like lack- ing training data. Its explanation aims at justifying the good or bad performance of the prediction model trained by a spe- cific transfer learning algorithm with a specific parameter setting. Current work on transfer learning explanation such as analyzing the impact of a feature’s specificity and gener- ality on its transferability (Yosinski et al. 2014) aim at ML experts and represent the insights in a machine understand- able way. It’s hard for common users to understand why transfer from one learning domain contributes to an accu- rate prediction model (i.e., positive transfer) while transfer from another learning domain contributes to an inaccurate prediction model (i.e., negative transfer).
God, no capacity for entitative reception but on the con trary Infinite Perfection, Pure Act, and therefore su preme knowability.
And the capacity to know, likewise, grows pro portionately. For the capacity to receive intentionally or immaterially, is the opposite of receiving entita- tively. In the senses, dim beginnings of immateriality in so far as forms are received without matter, though still in material organs. In the intellect of man, re ception of forms not only abstracted from matter, but also received in an immaterial faculty. In separated substances, an ever increasing recession from materia lity by an ever increasing power to receive intentional ly. And, finally, in God, "in summo cognitionis".... "cum sit in summo immaterialitatis". (1.14.1)
Emotional Capital and Older Workers Management 7
2.2 The management of all ages through the transformation of the organisation of labour
The age structuring management at work seems not to be appropriate anymore. Managing older workers can not be separated of the overall management. It’s also essential to improve the integration of young people and take account of employees in mid-career and older workers in overall which implies to transform the organisation of labour. Indeed, taking action on the organisation of work means linking the corporate plan to a consideration of the issues of age, the arduousness of work, the conditions of work, the rate of work and working time with a view to ensuring that there is no discrimination. Tailoring career paths to individual needs because they are still dependent on circumstances and opportunities and do not take account of the extension of working life. Revitalising training arrangements andknowledge transmission as its management are a necessity in a background of major changes in the system of training such as the prospects opened up by the cross- industry agreement and the new law in France, but also a situation in which workers over the age of 50 still have very great difficulties in following training; especially, if the transfer of competencies has to be considered a priority for maintaining the quality of the company services and products’ and for the company’s survival. Also, beyond the management of all ages, promoting links between the generations must be considered as a crucial issue in France as in other EU countries.
The objective of the FP7 EURATOM NUGENIA-PLUS project was to support the NUGENIA Association in its role to coordinate and integrate European research on safety of the Gen II and III nuclear installations in order to better ensure their safe long-term operation, integrating private and public efforts, and initiating international collaboration that will create bene ﬁt in its activity ﬁelds. 1 The project was a combination of Coordination and Support Action and a Collaborative Project. The Coordi- nation and Support Action was aimed at establishing a management structure to carry out the planning and management of R&D including project calls, proposal evaluation, project follow-up dissemination and valor- isation of R&D results in the area of safety of existing Gen II and future Gen III nuclear installations. The part dedicated to collaborative project was based on thematic calls for research proposals organized among the NUGE- NIA technical areas, i.e. plant safety and risk assessment, severe accident prevention and management, core and reactor performance, integrity assessment of systems, structures and components, innovative Generation III design and harmonisation of procedures and methods.
2 defined by Willcocks and Kern (1998). Different categorizations of outsourcing were proposed in literature (see (Dibbern, Goles, Hirschheim and Jayatilaka, 2004) for a comprehensive survey). In our particular –real– case study, the IS department outsources the development of a new software necessary to a business direction (project management outsourcing (Lacity and Hirschheim, 1993)), to one service provider (simple outgoing arrangement (Gallivan and Oh, 1999)). The IS department still manages the project and keeps being the selected interlocutor of the business direction, it is an interface between the business direction and the service provider. From the IS department point of view, the outsourcing cycle involves five stages: Decision of outsourcing, Invitation to tender, Selection, Implementation, managing relationships and termination. This last stage corresponds to the end of the contract. We distinguish several classical main cases: reversibility process, transition process or real termination. In particular, it is now well known that knowledge sharing between the client (the IS department here) and the service provider plays an important role in outsourcing performance (Dibbern et al., 2004) (Lee, 2001). Several studies showed that knowledge sharing andtransfer are major predictors for outsourcing success and that not only explicit but also tacit knowledge sharing plays an important role in outsourcing success (Lee, 2001). The dealing with a change of service provider brings further problems (Whitten and Leidner, 2006). If a part of the outgoing provider knowledge is not transferred during the transition process then it is lost for the project. Few proposals focused on the specific case of changing provider from a knowledge management point of view. To the best of our knowledge, Alaranta and Jarvenpaa (2010) are the only one to explicitly address this question. Their interesting work exhibits key facilitators (which can be seen as good practices) for improving knowledgetransfer in the transition phase. Theses key facilitators impact the whole outsourcing cycle. For our part, we focus on (complementary) good practices for knowledgetransfer that can be applied -“locally”- during the termination stage, independently of the project history. Pragmatically, we define “really concrete” operational actions for improving knowledgetransfer during a transition phase, these actions being performed under timing constraints (as it has to be done in practice). Based on literature, we emphasize some effects of transferknowledge process and several postulates of interests.
cannot reject the hypothesis that they are equal to one. Finally, the estimates of α 52 and α 53 are also sensible: the estimate of α 53 is not statistically different from the normalized value of one,
while that of α 52 is different but very close (the upper bound of the confidence interval is 0.85).
We run several robustness checks. In the interest of space, we only summarize the results. 13 We have estimated the model allowing for different cut-offs to determine the volatility regimes. The results have been found to be qualitatively the same. However, it is important to mention that if the cut-off is too big (more than 2.5 standard deviations), then very few regimes are found. In principle, this makes the identification harder. On the other hand, if the threshold is too small (0.5), the covariance matrices are very well estimated but their differences across regimes are small. As a result, this implies that the estimates are also noisy. Nevertheless, the message in the end is similar. We have also performed several other robustness checks: we have included more than five lags in the original VAR − this has made no difference. We have also varied parameters a H and 1-a F from 0.75 to 0.9, and α from 0.65 to 0.9. This only changes the average value of the coefficients without changing dramatically the relative importance of the variances. In other words, in a variance decomposition exercise the results are (roughly) unaltered. However, remember that both a H and 1-a F have to bounded away from 1/2 to be consistent with the home bias in consumption.
V L2p;R2p;k;L2s arise from the simple fact that the electrons
that are involved in the decay are indistinguishable. An essential difference occurs when the participating electrons are located at two different atoms, as in the case of ICD in a neon dimer. The direct integral [Eq. ( 1 )] describes the case in which a 2p electron of the same atom drops into the previously created 2s hole and a 2p electron from the other atom of the dimer is emitted. [See Fig. 1(a) , left pathway.] The exchange integral [Eq. ( 2 )] describes a process of electron transfer: the 2s hole at the left neon atom is filled by a 2p electron from the right atom, leading to the emission of another 2p electron from the left atom. [See Fig. 1(a) , right pathway]. The contributions from these two integrals to the decay rates depend very differently on the internuclear distance R of the involved atoms [ 12 , 13 ]. The exchange integral requires some overlap of the two wave functions, and thus the decay rate exponentially decreases with increasing R, whereas the direct term decreases more gently and survives at large R where the overlap of the wave function is negligible [ 6 ]. The direct integral of Eq. ( 1 ) may alternatively be called ‘‘virtual photon ex- change’’ in contrast to the ‘‘electron exchange’’ of Eq. ( 2 ) [ 13 ]: the 2s hole in the left atom is filled with a 2 p electron in the same atom by the virtual photon emis- sion, and a 2p electron in the right atom is ejected by the
Independently of the company’s stakes, this process presents its own stakes and includes activities. The constraints and the dysfunction of these activities give rise to problems which can weaken them and put in danger the process they belong to. A risks assessment, practiced for the sensitive process, allows to determine the critical activities. The problems connected to these activities are called “determining problems”. Identifying them constitute the second stage of the GAMETH approach. Some of them can be solved easily by eliminating some constraints. The other ones lead to the knowledge necessary to their resolution. According to the value of this knowledge with regard to its vulnerability (scarcity, accessibility, cost and delay of acquisition) and to its influence on the company’s life, markets and strategy, this knowledge can be identified as “crucial knowledge”. Identifying crucial knowledge constitutes the third and last stage of the GAMETH approach.
proved to be particularly useful for structuring the content of the KE project. Interprofessionalism was also at the heart of the development process, as the project sought to bring together educators from OT and PT programs, knowing that they had various disciplinary and professional
backgrounds. One of the underlying aims of the project was to respond to the lack of formal guidance in rehabilitation ethics education by sharing knowledge on the subject with OT and PT educators. Because ethics training (and other subjects) is common to both OT and PT students in some Canadian programs (Laliberté et al., 2015), and ethics is a subject that is well suited for interprofessional work (Aveyard et al., 2005; Hewison & Sim, 1998; Kurtz & Starbird, 2016; Langlois, 2016), it was appropriate to bring together educators in both programs to share knowledge. Interestingly, none of the issues that emerged during the CREW Day discussions were specific to either OT or PT. This finding reinforces the value of interprofessional work between these professions (Richardson & Edwards, 1997). It suggests that further collaboration between educators providing ethics teaching in OT and PT programs within the same university should be encouraged (Cleary & Howell, 2003). The potential for extending interprofessional ethics education to include other health disciplines, such as speech language therapy, nursing, pharmacy or medicine was not discussed during the workshop. However, several studies suggest the potential benefit of such wider interprofessional activities for enhancing student learning (Lennon-Dearing, Lowry, Ross, & Dyer, 2009; Manspeaker, Donoso Brown, Wallace, DiBartola, & Morgan, 2017; Solomon & Geddes, 2010) and for broadening the field of interprofessional ethics (Clark, Cott, & Drinka, 2007).
Accepted 2004 March 17. Received 2004 March 2; in original form 2002 July 5
S U M M A R Y
The temperature of a 10-point vertical profile at the rock–atmosphere interface has been mon- itored since 2000 September in an underground vault at Aburatsubo, Japan, where resistivity variations have been reported in association with earthquakes. The non-ventilated vault is characterized by an annual temperature variation of about 1.2 ◦ C peak to peak, compatible with thermal diffusion in the surrounding tuff rock, and by a long-term temperature increase of about 0.1 ◦ C per year, possibly due to a local or global climate change. Owing to a careful relative calibration of the 10 thermistors used in this experiment, these data establish that the ceiling temperature is higher than the floor temperature by 0.04 to 0.28 ◦ C. Transient tem- perature variations are observed in association with human presence or with typhoons, with a characteristic spatial pattern revealing structural heterogeneity. Variations with periods ranging from 1 day to 1 week, with an amplitude two time larger and a phase advance on the floor with respect to the ceiling, are observed from November to May. Variations with periods larger than 1 week, with an amplitude two times smaller and a phase lag on the floor with respect to the ceiling, are observed from June to October. These cycles are linked to the sign of the seasonal heat flux. We propose an interpretation in which heat transfer in the cavity is dominated by diffusion of water vapour from June to October (heat flux downwards, summer regime) and by convective water transport from November to May (heat flux upwards, winter regime). The water flow inferred from this model can be used to predict the water saturation of the rock as a function of time. Because of a permanent radiative heat flux from top to bottom, the upward water flow in the winter regime is larger than the downward water flow in the summer regime, resulting in a slow depletion of water from the rock below the cavity. This unbalanced water flow could contribute to an observed steady secular increase of rock resistivity, and possibly also to the long-term temperature increase of 0.1 ◦ C per year. It is important to understand these processes in the context of underground geophysical observatories, underground waste storage and contaminant transport, as well as for the preservation of cultural items such as cave paintings.
L’organisation de ce colloque faisait suite à un double constat : la sociologie française de l’environnement brillait par son absence au sein du comité de recherche « Environment and Society » de l’ISA et, pourtant, les col- lègues non francophones n’en étaient pas moins de- mandeurs. Ils souhaitaient en savoir plus sur la posture épistémologique du pays d’Émile Durkheim, qui prônait l’explication du social par le social, et mieux comprendre l’architecture théorique d’une sociologie française dont les principaux ambassadeurs connus outre-mer pro- posent des approches très diﬀérentes, qu’il s’agisse de Pierre Bourdieu, Alain Touraine ou Bruno Latour. Les jeunes chercheurs français, particulièrement bien repré- sentés au cours de ce colloque, présentèrent, à par- tir de leurs travaux, les débats théoriques qui dyna- misent actuellement la sociologie de l’environnement française, entre sociologie du dévoilement et sociologie de la traduction.
α+1 as the
complement of Σ 0 α+1 sets. The hierarchy is strict
and does not collapse (Kechris, 1995).
(Asher and Paul, 2012) characterize types of di- alogues and their conversational goals using the BM framework. Message exchange games are BM games hX ω
innovation (its determinants, temporality, actors and context), and wants to be a knowledge tool intended to engineers of the field.
Beginning in 2000, the project first lasted thirty months. It was led by a multidisciplinary team involving three history laboratories (Cnam, Sorbonne and University of Evry), an engineering school (Supélec), and PSA Group. Historians’ techniques (sources research and analysis, actors’ interviews, iconography…) were applied scrupulously, in binary interaction with field specialists. This resulted in a historical book, "Electricity electronics: one century of automobile development "(Loubet et al., 2003). It mixes historical documents, technical and photographic illustrations of PSA archives, interviews with field specialists who lived certain periods under study, etc. It covers all the subjects that rely to automotive electricity and electronics: lighting, battery, ignition, theft protection device, electric motor etc. It recalls the technical evolution genesis of the PSA Peugeot Citroen and shows the determinants and conjunctions governing the choices. The historical perspective, as an organisational memory, is particularly informative and allows a better understanding of technological dynamics and of the role of people who initiated innovation.
Because the first two dependent variables are count variables, we estimate these as poisson models. 1 The third dependent variable is binary, so we estimate the last two regressions as probits (marginal effects are presented). The results are found in Table 5. All regressions results report bootstrapped and clustered standard errors. There are four main regularities to report from Table 5. First, risk and ambiguity pre-chat are correlated negatively with age. Second, women are more risk averse than men, and pay fewer times to avoid ambiguity pre-chat than men. Third, previous experience in lottery experience reduces the pre-chat likelihood of choosing to pay to play the first ambiguity decision. Fourth, most significant results occur in the risk instrument. The average value of a dwelling where the subject lives is significant only for the pre-chat number of safe choices. And employment enters significantly only on one occasion in the entire table. Notice that the effects of controls are not always the same in pre-chat and post-chat. This suggests including these as controls in a difference-in-difference approach, which we now turn to.
These solvent and solute transfer variations reflect changes in the membrane properties associated with the hydration of the counter-i on coming from swelling mechanism s at a microscopic scale. These effects were particularly studied in the case of ion-exch ange resins [18,19] and Nafion membranes  . In pres- ence of solvent, the ion exchanger usually expands or swells due to the combination of different phenomena such as the solvation of the fixed and mobile ions, the osmotic pressure difference be- tween the solutions inside and outside the ion-exchanger and the electrostatic repulsion between the fixed ionic groups  . Ion exchangers swell in solvent only to a limited degree since swelling equilibrium is reached when the expanded forces balance the contractive force of the elastic matrix. As previously men- tioned, the influence of the nature of the counter-ion on the swell- ing of an ion exchanger may be very complex. Indeed, for moderate ly and highly cross-linked ion-exchanger s, swelling in- creases with the counter-ion hydration whereas this order may be partially or completely reversed in very highly cross-link ed ion-exch angers due to incomplete solvation.