Six suggestions were analysed. Four of them concerned modifications of the planning of the lessons to be videotaped (e.g., teaching one lesson at the beginning and a second at the end of the teaching field practice and proposing that the student teacher teaches the same lesson after the video analysis session). Even if these suggestions were really interesting, they would be difficult to implement because they increase the organisational requirements. Moreover, an instructor recommended inviting supervisees to choose more difficult classes in order to increase the opportunities of reflection. In fact, with “easier” groups, fewer pedagogical aspects can be developed. Finally, a more general improvement of the whole reflective practice unit was suggested to improve the process again. It consists of integrating the student teacher’s self-evaluation with the pupil’s evaluation. This approach is already proposed in some teachereducation programmes (Barnes, 1985). In this case, it would cause a new increase of the students’ workload that has been pointed out as a critical point of the unit.
phonological awareness). While still debated, 9 this view is in line with the conclusions of the National Reading Panel (1999), which canvassed a large body of evidence on literacy in the 90s in the US.
To my knowledge, only two reports from the Institute of Education Studies, as well as two scientific articles, can be directly compared with the results of this article. Both IES reports, which rely on randomized experiments, find no effect of the teacher training programs (Garet et al., 2008, 2011). The older report is particularly meaningful for my purpose, as it evaluates the effect of a training program aimed at improving first graders’ reading skills. This training program, as is the case here, is based on the findings of the National Reading Panel (see Section 4.3 below, where the training program is described). Also similar to the program studied here is the one implemented recently in France where researchers analyzed the impact of a similar teaching pedagogy in first grade, again with no results on student achievement (Gentaz et al., 2013). Finally, using a cross section difference-in-differences strategy on a large dataset, Machin and McNally (2008) were able to convincingly identify an overall effect of 8.3% of a standard deviation in England from a training program called the “Literacy Hour,” which resembles those evaluated both in France and in the US. It could be argued that these three results are not necessarily inconsistent, as both randomized experiments could only satisfactory identify effects above .22 s.d. (Garet et al., 2008) and .25 s.d. (Gentaz et al., 2013), 10 far from the 8.3% found in England. 11
Research (e.g. Schleicher, 2016; OECD, 2014) suggest that preparing technology- competent teachers is a challenging and sensitive issue that starts in initial teachereducation. No doubt, teacher educators play an important role in building the capacity of pre-service teachers. There is need to examine how pre-service teachers’ learning should be designed so that they know how to effectively plan technology integrated lessons for their students. Since pre-service teachers are relatively unfamiliar with teaching practices, the methods for teaching them about pedagogical uses of the technology tools could differ from that for in-service teachers (Divaharan and Koh, 2010). Therefore, educators must not only learn new content and skills but, at the same time, “unlearn” many common beliefs and assumptions about the nature of teaching, learning, and schooling. For those educators who cannot relinquish the lectern, and who feel uncomfortable letting students make and discuss their own scientific predictions, or participate in unscripted simulations, or design their own virtual experiments, such digital tools will be problematic (Dede, 2014). Some researchers would argue (e.g. Dede, 2014; Dunleavy and Dede, 2013) that if we want educators to learn programs such as SimCalc and EcoMUVE effectively, then we should give them professional development opportunities that also make use of digital teaching platforms and immersive authentic simulations, demonstrating the opportunities that we hope they will provide to their students.
Teachers in these flagship schools can be encouraged and supported to undertake masters and doctoral study and/or to be involved in research projects focusing on transformative, needs- led PE. An example of the latter is the Promoting Active Lifestyles (PAL) research project (Harris et al., 2016) which developed from previous research demonstrating the inadequacy of health-related aspects of PETE. This aligns with Lawson’s (2018) view that a field that claims the ability to be a key influence on pupils’ lifestyles should feel obliged to deliver on this immense potential. The PAL project involved pre-service and experienced teachers from partnership schools being invited to work collaboratively (as a community of practice) with the aim of increasing pupils’ activity levels within the school setting. A flexible approach to achieving this was encouraged to cater for a diverse range of school contexts, populations and budgets. Collectively, the pre-service and experienced teachers who volunteered to be
• The first level is composed of communities (groups of
population) and regions (territories // states USA, Länders) • Most powers relating to education are exercised by
communities ( Communauté française => Federation Wallonie Bruxelles)
The federal government and the state governments in their education policies have budgets for education, part of which is allocated to students who are likely to be unable to repay, in the form of grants and scholarships or loans. The grants and the scholarships include financial aid in grants, tuition or fee waivers or reductions, and fellowships or scholarships According to Federal Student Aid, an Office of the U.S. Department of Education, grants and scholarships are often called "gift aid" because they are free money-financial aid that does not have to be repaid. Grants are often needs-based which are based on a student’s financial need. They might be awarded based on a student’s low income. Meanwhile, scholarships are usually merit based, awarded, for example, on the basis of a student’s high grades or other achievements to help pay for education expenses. According to the Federal Student Aid, an Office of the U.S. Department of Education, grants and scholarships can come from the federal government, your state government, your college or career school, or a private or non profit organization There are many other types of grants like aid for serving in the military or for being the spouse or child of a veteran, tax benefits for education, an Education Award for community service with AmeriCorps, Educational and Training Vouchers for current and former foster care youth, Federal Pell Grants, Federal Supplemental Educational Opportunity Grants, TeacherEducation Assistance for College and Higher Education Grants, Iraq and Afghanistan Service Grants. There are also thousands of scholarships, from all kinds of organizations. Students might be able to get a scholarship for being a good student, a great basketball player, or a member of a certain church, or because your parent works for a particular company, or for some other reason. 2
While exposure in initial teachereducation is important, in practice in schools a pragmatic approach that facilitates deepening of teacher awareness and commitment is also needed. Evidence suggests that successful implementation of health promotion in schools is influenced by the level of in-service training that teachers receive and by collective involvement of the school ( Jourdan et al., 2002, 2010). Sustained and effective professional learning both influences and is influenced by teacher professional identity. Individual professional identify will influence the motivation and commitment of the teacher to engaging in professional leaning (Day and Gu, 2010). In turn professional learning can also influence teacher professional identity to include sustained motivation and commitment to implementation of an initiative (in this case the teacher as a health educator). Teachereducation that facilitates teachers to identify more clearly that they have an important role as a health educator and to incorporate that role as part of their vision of themselves as teachers (in other words their professional identity) is important because how teachers perceive who they are, their self-image, the meanings that they attach to their work and the meanings attached to it by others (Day and Gu, 2010) have a significant bearing on what teachers choose to teach.
the assessment target (the quality of re ﬂective practice in pre-service teachers) and what was actually assessed (the effectiveness and relevance of support mechanisms for re ﬂective practice).
The case of promotional studies. We end this section with a cautious critique that is seldom verbalized in the literature, and for which we take complete responsi- bility. It concerns our subjective impressions after reviewing a large number of empirical studies on reﬂective practice in initial training programs. Without focusing on any study in particular, and without generalizing either, it appears that some empirical studies on re ﬂective practice in initial training have misappropriated this theme. It is used not only as a study objective, but also as a pretext to make claims for a tool or program designed to support re ﬂective practice. A number of authors have voiced fears that re ﬂective practice has become a catchword of education reform and innovation (Fendler, 2003; Hawkes & Romiszowski, 2001; Richardson, 1990; Zeichner & Liston, 1996). The intuition is that these studies have leveraged the interest in re ﬂective practice for promotional gain, as presented in some com- mon features: the authors have generally developed the tool of program themselves; the conceptual framework is generally underdeveloped and limited to a description of re ﬂective practice in layman’s terms, with no speciﬁc position by the authors, despite the lack of consensus on the concept; and the ﬁndings, regardless of the methodology used, are interpreted as promising for re ﬂective practice, to the credit of the tools or program in question.
Does teachers’ pre-service training contribute to more equitable classrooms and schools for visible minorities and ethnic groups? In other words, are future teachers being prepared for a pedagogical practice that reflects the experiences and cultural diversity of their students, irrespective of the subject being taught? This practice, that Berger (1995) refers to as the inclusiveness of multiculturalism, should not be the subject of a single course, as is the case in the few institutions that have thus far attempted to prepare future teachers for the cultural diversity of today’s Canadian schools. It should rather be found in the policies and the purposes of teacher training programs and in the pedagogical practices of education faculties and practicum settings, in order to allow future teachers to appropriate it. In this perspective, multicultural education is no longer one more task for a trainer or one more topic in the curriculum, but rather part of an integrated, global practice in planning the strategies to be used by trainers, through the course material selected, the learning activities put forward, the interaction between trainers and students, the assessment of learning and the integration of students’ cultural background.
said, it is important that avenues for learning “be expanded so that no prisoners are denied a chance to better themselves” (Harris, 2004, p. 58).
In addition to the barriers outlined above, perhaps the greatest on- going threat to already scarce education initiatives inside prisons are “budget cuts and changes in the tide of bureaucratic or public opinion” (Graves, 2004, p. 94). These tensions are heightened in times of economic uncertainty where misinformed individuals believe funds earmarked for post-secondary prison education are taking away from those allocated for the schooling of ‘law-abiding’ citizens. They are of the perspective “why-should-they-get-an-education-for-free-when-I-will-have-to-work- two-jobs-and-go-into-debt-to-put-my-son/daughter-through-college” (Nagelsen, 2004, p. 134). Politicians and prison officials have fostered and mobilized these sentiments to dismantle higher educationin carceral institutions in Canada, the United States and elsewhere in the world. For instance, in 1993 the Correctional Service of Canada shut down university accreditation programs citing budgetary shortfalls and the need to shift these resources to target the ‘criminogenic’ propensities of prisoners (Murphy, 1998, p. 40). This move “hardly bears scrutiny since the monies allocated for university programming were minuscule to say the least in terms of CSC budgeting” (ibid). South of the border, legislation was passed by American lawmakers in 1994 that prohibited prisoners from applying for Pell Grants made available to individuals in financial need who wished to pursue a post-secondary education (Taylor, 1998). The passage of this unjust law had a significant impact:
The Way Forward (Larry Keeley)
• Think big and stand in the future…Focusing too tightly on the status quo will force failures
• Prototype a compelling model solution…Not because you will get it right, but instead because it is a shared idea
Based on what we observed in the preparation (while making sure everyone has a turn), we then pick groups at the time to go and play in front of the class, assigning them to roles of teachers and students. The groups choose which member is going to play. Since each group prepared separately, the students really have to improvise, and the goal is, for the “teacher” to work from the “pupil’s” perspective (having him/her explain a solution, use a manipulative, reformulate, exemplify, and so on) in order to move his/her mathematical thinking forward. There is no script, and no specifically pre- defined end-point either. This is in part because in the group discussion which follows every sets of play, we want to engage with the students on the variety of possible interventions, and how they relate to one’s intention and to what comes from the pupils. This also serves to reiterate our belief that improvisation is at the heart of teaching, as opposed to the idea that there might be one best way to teach this or that concept, or to address this or that student’s question or production (as an already decided outcome might do). It allows us to reflect with the class on what happened, what might have been done, what could be done next, and so on, while keeping the questions open to the requirements of the situation in which they will encounter them in their own teaching.
reliance. Although I didn’t then have any clear sense of what it might be to bring these ideas to bear on one’s own life, I felt an excitement I couldn’t account for and wanted to hear more. I was, however, too timid to approach him or to go to his office hours. My professors generally struck me as otherworldly beings—not an unusual experience for a student from a non-academic background—and, in light of the simultaneously jubilan- tly playful and pointedly serious manner in which he carried off his extreme breadth of learning, Cavell was especially terrifying. Especially beguiling and therefore especially terrifying. I didn’t ask him to advise my undergraduate thesis, even though it was dedi- cated in substantial part to his work. Yet, when it came time for the oral defense of the thesis, for which he was roped in as an examiner, he took pains to tell jokes and intro- duce asides with an eye to putting me at my ease. When, having received my A.B., I took a teaching job at an international school in Ecuador, he encouraged me to apply to Ph.D. programs in Philosophy and wrote in support of my applications. And, when, be- cause my partner—Nathaniel—was at Harvard Medical School, I took a leave from my Ph.D. program at the University of Pittsburgh to spend an academic year back at Har- vard, Cavell hired me as his research assistant and also as one of the teaching fellows for his iconic Moral Perfectionism lecture course. That is a quick overview of my earli- est interactions with Cavell, and, although I would have an enormous amount to be gra- teful for if this were all there was to say, it is merely the backdrop for the more remar- kable episodes I want to relate.
Abstract: Collaboration is becoming increasingly important in the realm of education (Novoa, 2004). For
instance, as soon as training is undertaken, the future teacher must develop an ability to cooperate in a pedagogical context. However, in order to learn to make a relevant contribution to a teaching team’s undertakings and to provide innovative suggestions in pedagogical matters (Gouvernement du Québec, 2001), the student teacher needs solid backing from the cooperating teacher. A student teacher’s willingness to reflect on and to question his own teaching practices will create a much more promising learning context (Portelance & Durand, 2006). Reciprocally, the cooperating teacher will make a positive contribution to the student teacher by accepting that his positions be questioned and even altered (Johnston, Wetherill & Greenebaum, 2002). It is the dynamics of sharing of knowledge and know-how in this partnership that retains our interest. From 2004 to 2007, the researchers carried out a study of the subject by examining four practicum sessions at high school level in a number of Quebec schools. To gather data, the researchers used written questionnaires, individual interviews, as well as recordings of conversations between student teachers and their cooperating teachers. These conversations pertain to the conception and to the execution, by the student teacher, of teaching-learning situations. These dialogues were integrally transcribed and processed by N’vivo, software designed to analyze qualitative data. the researchers present a typology of the respective roles taken on by the two partners in their discussions. The cooperating teacher reveals himself to be an advisor, a transmitter of information and a teacher. The student teacher also takes on the role of transmitter of information, as well as that of reflective practitioner, among others. the researchers observed that the conversations are usually carried out in an egalitarian spirit and, in some cases, give rise to co-construction of practical knowledge.
"Dangerous knowledge" is defined as incorrect knowledge (wrong answer) associated with a high degree of confidence (>40% confidence). In this specific case, students are quite
confident in the answer they gave, which is yet an erroneous information. When this double mistake (cognitive and metacognitive) is observed, the student is brought back to the content whose appropriation is insufficient. After a new study sequence, he is invited to pass the formative test again. Only when he gives the right answer with a higher confidence degree, is he allowed to move ahead in the UoL.
L’ INFIRMIER À DOMICILE ET SUR LES LIEUX DE VIE
En 1977, a été créé par le Dr C. Ernould, ini- tialement dans le cadre de l’Action Jeunes Dia- bétiques de l’O.N.E (1977-1993) puis dans le cadre des conventions de rééducation en diabé- tologie pour enfants et adolescents, un service de soutien infirmiers «sur le terrain». Ces infir- mier(e)s assurent les informations et formations auprès des écoles, des mouvements de jeunesse, des clubs sportifs, etc. amenés à prendre en charge un jeune diabétique. Un soutien tech- nique direct, mais aussi moral, à la demande du médecin traitant, de la famille ou du jeune dia- bétique lui-même est aussi assuré en se rendant à domicile. Enfin, en liaison avec l’équipe édu- cative et les médecins, ces infirmier(e)s assurent un retour d’informations et d’observations faites au domicile afin d’optimiser la prise en charge.
In less than three decades, the Thai educational system has been able to accommodate successive cohorts of children for longer years of schooling increasing from four years in 1976 to almost twelve years by 2007. This massive growth of the educational system benefited from favourable circumstances. On the one hand, the demographic context saw a decline of the size of cohorts, which expanded the benefits of previous investments. On the other hand, economic growth also permitted greater expenditure on education. Thailand has financed the growth of its educational system through sustained economic growth. The demographic changes allowed Thailand to go beyond the limits of economic growth and the result was an impressive growth of enrolment at all levels. The achievement of the goal of nine years of compulsory education was particularly noteworthy, and ranks very well by international standards. However, there are dark sides to these remarkable achievements. Mass education has been achieved at the expense of quality. In particular, there is a noticeable increase of the student per teacher ratio at all levels of education since the beginning of the 1990s. This increase is an indicator of a declining quality. In this new situation, the emphasis of educational policies should now shift to achieving a significant rise in the quality of education across the board.