human-in-the-loop

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Human-in-the-Loop Feature Selection

Human-in-the-Loop Feature Selection

Conclusion and Future Work We address the problem of human-in-the-loop per-example feature selection as a stochastic computation graph. It is a general approach that can be applied to a variety of machine learning tasks with little modifications, as demonstrated by the very distinct datasets we tackled in this paper. Direct ap- plications could be in the context of transfer learning (Chen et al. 2018). With the image classification dataset, we visu- ally proved the model can identify the most relevant features of each example, even though in that simple task, that did not reflect in a gain in accuracy. With the PRC dataset, we showed that our model successfully employed real human feedback to produce a significant improvement in accuracy, while also providing business-driven insights to the users. Most importantly, this new architecture enables a symbi- otic interaction with stakeholders as the feature selection not only can enhance the model performance but also inform the most relevant properties of each example to the users. Thus, this type of interaction might prove useful in further devel- opments of explainable artificial intelligence.
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Cyber Security of the Railway wireless system: detection, decision and Human-in-the-Loop

Cyber Security of the Railway wireless system: detection, decision and Human-in-the-Loop

The paper presents the first contributions on Cyber Security for railways that can be divided into three main aspects dealing with the Cyber Security of the wireless part of the railway communication system: detection, decision and Human-in-the-Loop. Part of the work will be devoted to the development of an Open Pluggable Framework (OPF). The OPF is a software framework based on automation principles. It monitors the environment, then some algorithms detect abnormal behaviours, and next, OPF decides which reaction to take and finally apply this action (e.g. an alarm or a reconfiguration). The last part “human in the loop” aims at answering the questions: what happens if the automatic countermeasures fail and how the driver can cope with the attack consequences. It consists in placing professional drivers and Central Traffic Control operators in a realistic simulator and playing scenarios involving attacks and observing the reactions of the professional drivers. A preliminary methodology is proposed and discussed through a concrete case study.
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Automatic selection of ergonomic indicators for the design of collaborative robots: a virtual-human in the loop approach

Automatic selection of ergonomic indicators for the design of collaborative robots: a virtual-human in the loop approach

Automatic selection of ergonomic indicators for the design of collaborative robots: a virtual-human in the loop approach P. Maurice 1 , 2 , 3 , Ph. Schlehuber 1 , 2 , V. Padois 1 , 2 , Y. Measson 3 and Ph. Bidaud 1 , 2 , 4 Abstract— The growing number of musculoskeletal disorders in industry could be addressed by the use of collaborative robots, which allow the joint manipulation of objects by both a robot and a person. Designing these robots requires to assess the ergonomic benefit they offer. However there is a lack of adapted assessment methods in the literature. Many biomechanical quantities can represent the physical solicitations to which the worker is exposed, but their relevance strongly depends on the considered task. This paper presents a method to automatically select relevant ergonomic indicators for a given task to be performed with a collaborative robot. A virtual hu- man simulation is used to estimate thirty indicators for varying human and robot features. A variance-based analysis is then conducted to extract the most discriminating indicators. The method is validated on several different tasks. The relevance of the proposed approach is confirmed by the obtained results.
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Human-in-the-Loop Schema Inference for Massive JSON Datasets

Human-in-the-Loop Schema Inference for Massive JSON Datasets

Several approaches and tools exist for inferring structural information from JSON data collections [13–15]. As pointed out in [10, 11], the common aspect of all these approaches is the extraction of some structural description with a precision that is fixed a priori, by the approach itself. While this methodology has the advantage of simplicity, it is in practice not satisfactory, since a JSON dataset can be rather (oftentimes highly) irregular in structure, and for this reason it can be typically described at different precision levels by a schema, while there exists no “best” precision level that can be fixed a priori. In general, one is interested in a description that is compact, easy to read even if it hides lots of details, typically in the first exploration steps, while in subsequent steps he/she is likely to be interested in a more
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Multimedia and human-in-the-loop: Interaction as content enrichment

Multimedia and human-in-the-loop: Interaction as content enrichment

2. MEDIA PRODUCTION AND ANALYSIS: A CONTINUUM OF SENSE-MAKING ACTIVITIES The main human-centered activities in multimedia are identified as media production, annotation, organization, archival, retrieval, sharing, analysis, and communication [4]. One could look at these as separated but related activities. However, when the lifecycle of a video document is the focus of attention, the basic distinction between media production and media analysis tends to blur, as the media analysis can produce additional media to be blended with the original media, such as index information included as text captions, resulting into a new media composition subjected to further interpretation and analysis. This interpretation process i s similar to the semiosis process defined by Peirce, where the interpretant of a sign is another sign for the same object [5, 6]. Looking at the continuum of multimedia production and analysis from this perspective, one is draw to the position that the multimedia lifecycle is a continuum of sense making activities mediated by multimedia interpretation generated b y Permission to make digital or hard copies of all or part of this work for
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Cardiac effects of long-term active immunization with the second extracellular loop of human ß1- and/or ß3-adrenoceptors in Lewis rats

Cardiac effects of long-term active immunization with the second extracellular loop of human ß1- and/or ß3-adrenoceptors in Lewis rats

720 (1:100, Santa Cruz Biotechnology Inc., CA, USA) for 1 h at 37 ◦ C. After being washed in PBS, the sections were incubated with the sec- ondary antibody, AlexaFluor 555-conjuguated donkey anti-rabbit (1:300, Life Technologies, Saint Aubin, France) or donkey anti-goat (1:300, Life Technologies, Saint Aubin, France) during 1 h at room temperature. After being washed, the sections were stained with nuclear dye DRAQ5 (1/1000, BioStatus, Shepshed, United Kingtom) and mounted in Mowiol (Calbiochem, San Diego, CA, USA). The immunolabeled sections were scanned serially using the helium neon laser (543 nm) to observe Alexa fluor 555 (!-AR immunola- bellings) and with a helium neon laser (633 nm) to observe DRAQ5 signals (nuclei). Each image was recorded in a separated channel (channel red for Alexa fluor 555 and channel blue for DRAQ5) and overlayed. Acquisitions were performed by using a confocal micro- scope (Nikon, C1, Champigny-sur-Marne, France). Image analysis were performed to evaluate !-AR expression level in the heart ven- tricle of immunized rats by using Fiji software. Mean Fluorescence Intensity (MFI) values for !-AR immunolabelling in each condition were acquired from 5 different fields of immunolabeled ventricule heart sections by section with 5 rats by conditions. Finally, analy- ses were performed at least on 550 ± 100 cardiac fibers by animal. The same threshold was used to measure the sum intensity fluo- rescence of !-AR immunolabelling in each section and the MFI was reported to total area of analyzed section.
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Magnetic loop antenna for wireless capsule endoscopy inside the human body operating at 315 MHz: Near field behavior

Magnetic loop antenna for wireless capsule endoscopy inside the human body operating at 315 MHz: Near field behavior

V. CONCLUSION Through the use of numerical simulations, a low profile magnetic loop antenna is shown to be suitable for the capsule endoscopy systems. The characteristics of the human body, which are considered in simulations, are studied at first. Then, the antenna is simulated inside the human body and in free space. At last, the electric and magnetic field behavior is investigated in the near field region. It is demonstrated that the magnetic field is less absorbed by human tissues than the electric field. At a distance of 12 cm from the antenna, the magnetic field is still not absorbed by biological tissues and the attenuation of the magnetic field is still in acceptance level until important distances. The results confirm that the proposed antenna is suitable for the near field magnetic coupling in the capsule endoscopy systems. In order to characterize the propagation channel inside the human body in term of attenuation and dispersion, the design of a magnetic receiving antenna is going to be studied. To take into account, the fact that the endoscopic capsule can be rotated inside the gastrointestinal tract, a 3-D antenna should be an advantage. This antenna should present a larger bandwidth to allow the video data transmission and to take into account the frequency shift due to the various layers which compose the human body. A magnetic substrate could be used to design the antenna in order to maximize the bandwidth and minimize the sizes of the antenna. In this study, at a first time, the body is considered as a uniform model. In future works, the study of a capsule antenna, in a multilayer phantom, whose dielectric constant and conductivity of different layers, depend on the frequency, should allow observing the eventual variations due to the presence of inhomogeneous layers. The variability of the dielectric properties of the phantom, in presence of the capsule, when it is moving, can result in the antenna impedance mismatching. So the association with a retro-matched system should be a good alternative, in order to ensure adequate power transfer. The orientation and the position variations of the capsule, ingested in the human body, should be associated to this study to correctly consider the influence of all these parameters on the capsule-receiver link. An association with a captor, that measures vital signals of the patient (pH, pressure,
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The Q-loop Disengages from the First Intracellular Loop during the Catalytic Cycle of the Multidrug ABC Transporter BmrA

The Q-loop Disengages from the First Intracellular Loop during the Catalytic Cycle of the Multidrug ABC Transporter BmrA

ATP-binding cassette (ABC) 3 transporters form one of the largest protein families in all species and are involved in the cellular or subcel- lular uptake or export of an extraordinary variety of substrates, includ- ing ions, sugars, lipids, amino acids, organic compounds, peptides, or even proteins (1). Several human ABC transporters are associated with genetic diseases such as cystic fibrosis and adrenoleucodystrophy, whereas others are responsible for multidrug resistance (MDR) pheno- type of cancer cells, namely P-glycoprotein, MRP1, and BCRP (2, 3). In microorganisms as well, many medically relevant members are found, including MDR efflux pumps such as pfMDR1 in parasites, Pdr5p in yeast, and LmrA in bacteria (4). The core structure of ABC transporters is composed of four domains: two transmembrane domains (TMDs), quite divergent in sequence and topology, are involved in substrate translocation, and two nucleotide-binding domains (NBDs) energize the transporters through ATP binding and hydrolysis (5). These four domains are either found on the same polypeptide (full-length trans- porter) or on separate subunits, from two (half-transporter) to four (1). The NBDs are highly conserved in sequence and show a similar fold regardless of their origin and function (prokaryotic versus eukaryotic and importers versus exporters), suggesting that all ABC transporters share a similar overall mechanism for energy transduction (6). Four high resolution three-dimensional structures of complete ABC transporters are available: the lipid A exporter, MsbA, was crystallized either as an open (EcMsbA) or a closed (VcMsbA and StMsbA) dimer, and the vitamin B12 importer, BtuCD, shows a closed compact structure (7–10). Although the NBD structure in BtuCD agreed well with the tertiary structure of isolated NBDs, the one found in VcMsbA was only partly in agreement with other known structures, showing an unprece- dented fold. This new fold was therefore regarded as a possible conse- quence of crystal packing constraints (6, 11). An even stronger skepti- cism greeted the EcMsbA structure because the partially resolved NBDs are oriented toward the outside of the dimer interface with an unusually limited TMD interface (6, 11–14). Thus, a complete rotation of the NBDs with respect to the TMDs would be required during the catalytic cycle to reconstitute the two ATP-binding sites at the NBDs interface in a conformation supported by many pieces of biochemical and structural evidence (15–19). The third MsbA structure very recently obtained, StMsbA, appears more consensual than the two previous ones and might reflect a post-hydrolytic conformational state (10).
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Full-Term Human Placental Macrophages Eliminate Coxiella burnetii Through an IFN-γ Autocrine Loop

Full-Term Human Placental Macrophages Eliminate Coxiella burnetii Through an IFN-γ Autocrine Loop

( Aboagye-Mathiesen et  al., 1994; Lee et  al., 2001 ) that are likely to be  involved in pregnancy. The role of the IFN-γ produced by placental macrophages remains elusive. Interestingly, the release of IFN-γ by placental macrophages and their microbicidal activity were significantly correlated, suggesting that an autocrine loop could lead to their microbicidal activity. Additionally, IFN-γ was found involved in the increased expression of IDO1 leading to the deprivation of tryptophan, as essential amino acid for bacteria ( Nelp et  al., 2018 ). Interestingly, we found an up modulation of IDO1 in C. burnetii infected placental macrophages. Indirectly it has been previously reported that this process lead the inhibition of bacterial growth ( Pantoja et al., 2000 ). This result is reminiscent of the observations that the co-culture of decidual macrophages and NK cells increases the production of IFN-γ, which contributes to control the infection of macrophages with HIV ( Quillay et  al., 2016 ).
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On the use of inner position loop in co-manipulation task

On the use of inner position loop in co-manipulation task

Fig. 3: Behaviour without position loop (full) and with position loop (dashed) 4.2 Experimental validation Experimental validations were performed on the EMPS robot. During these ex- periments, the worst case for the environmental impedance is considered to tune k e1 . The extremity of the force sensor was fixed to the base of the robot and a specific input τ ref was applied. Because a human operator cannot apply a precise signal, it has been digitally simulated with an input signal. This input is a sinusoidal signal with an amplitude equal to 1 and a frequency between 1 and 150 rad/s. In this case, the bandwidth of the force loop is equal to 65 rad/s for the case without force loop and 23 rad/s for the case with force loop. These results are presented in Fig. 3b.
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Tactful Networking: Humans in the Communication Loop

Tactful Networking: Humans in the Communication Loop

Social Networks (MSNs) are in [29], focusing on works related to security, privacy, and trust in MSNs. Environment, context, reputation, community check, and other aspects ap- peared in trust management, cooperative models, and mobility analysis [30]. A survey [31] on mobile social networking middleware brought a valuable remark about opportunistically created communities that should be determined not only by shared interests or contacts but also by mobility-related context like physical location and co-presence. The paper [32] calls attention to user empowerment discussions in data offloading, where the decision making shall not belong only to the network, but to the user. A debate about a self-adaptive system for data dissemination in opportunistic networks relying on a recognition heuristic with human-brain-like decisions is in [33]. Social ties and user characteristics, such as com- munities, visited locations, friendship, selfishness, people’s daily routines, and others, were used in MSNs, DTN, and routing initiatives [34], [35]. In [36], privacy, and anonymity of user sensitive data were a concern. In [37] is discussed the importance of users as participatory sensors to understand city dynamics and their inhabitants’ urban behavioral patterns. In [38], user-perceivable metrics such as application quality, energy, and monetary costs were applied to optimize network use. User ubiquity applied to extend network service, interac- tivity, and interoperability in rural areas and opportunistically share content based on user preferences. Human social-ties applied to satisfy user requirements in bandwidth allocation.
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The occluding loop of Cathepsin B prevents its effective inhibition by human kininogens

The occluding loop of Cathepsin B prevents its effective inhibition by human kininogens

Gel-filtration studies of the complex-forming capacity of HMWK with wild-type cathepsin B and its mutants LMWK (120 nM) and wild-type cathepsin B (30 nM) were incubated together or separately for 1 h at 37 °C in 0.1 M sodium acetate, pH 5.5, containing 2 mM DTT, 2 mM EDTA, and 0.01% Brij 35. The mixture was then loaded on a size-exclusion chromatography Superdex 200 column (AKTA purifier 900 HPLC system, Amer- sham, GE Healthcare Bio-Sciences AB, Uppsala, Sweden), and the products eluted in the same buffer (0.4 ml/min, 1 ml fractions, λ 220 nm ). The calibration curve was obtained using the standard proteins, ferritin (450 kDa), albumin (68 kDa), chymotrypsinogen (25 kDa), and cytochrome c (12.5 kDa). The same protocol was repeated with His111Ala and His110Ala mutants of cathepsin B. Residual enzymatic activity and residual inhibitory potential towards papain (1 nM) were recorded in the presence of Z-Phe-Arg-AMC. In addi- tion, sample fractions were blotted onto nitrocellulose sheets (Cross-Blot system, Sebia, Issy-Les-Moulineaux, France) for 1 h at room temperature under gentle agitation. After blocking [PBS, 0.1% Tween 20, and 5% (w/v) dried milk for 1 h at room temperature], we performed visualization of wild-type cathepsin B and mutants using a rabbit anti-human cathepsin B antibody (dilution: 1/300) (Fitzgerald, Concord, MA, USA), while HMWK was detected by a rabbit anti-human HMWK (dilution: 1/1000). 51 Enhanced chemiluminescence was used for detection (ECL Plus™ Western Blotting Detection, Amersham Biosciences).
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Collaborative Virtual Environments for Ergonomics: Embedding the Design Engineer Role in the Loop

Collaborative Virtual Environments for Ergonomics: Embedding the Design Engineer Role in the Loop

Since the assembly process represents a significant part of the cost of a product [2], assembly tasks have been massively stud- ied with VR-aided tools. Commercial CAD softwares are typically used to simulate the assembly process by manually selecting the mating surfaces, axes and/or edges to assemble the parts. Neverthe- less these softwares do not reflect human interaction with complex parts, especially the human factors of manipulation and control in- volved in such tasks. Moreover, CAD software based systems are unable to evaluate the ergonomics of the task, e.g. to detect awk- ward postures or peaks of muscular activity reached during assem- bly operations. To circumvent this crucial issue, haptics saw an outstanding development in the past few years. by using haptics technology, engineers can interact with complex CAD parts and adopt a realistic behavior and a natural motion when performing virtualized assembly tasks [19]. From an assessment point of view, a quantitative analysis concerning the significance of haptic inter- actions in performing simulations of manual assemblies was per- formed in [18].
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Loop currents in two-leg ladder cuprates

Loop currents in two-leg ladder cuprates

Put together, all these experimental observations allow one to get a rather accurate descrip- tion of the observed magnetic patterns, especially thanks to the large set of collected magnetic instensites at various Q points: i) The magnetic signal is short-range, 2D and exclusively car- ried by the ladder subsystems with weak inter-ladders correlations. ii) The magnetic scattering appears on wavevectors of the form (H,0,L) with integer and odd H and L values, which are forbidden for the atomic structure due to additional symmetries of the 3D crystal structure [34]. That indicates that the translational invariance of the ladders sub-lattice is preserved with the same magnetic unit cell as the atomic one (q=0 magnetism), as reported for the superconduct- ing cuprates and iridates [1, 3, 4, 5, 6], which is usually interpreted in terms of LCs. These first two points concern both Ca contents. In contrast to the SCCO-8 compound where the magnetic intensity exhibits a pronounced maximum at (3,0,1), the SRM remains confined to a single two-leg ladder for SCCO-5, as reported for the (La, Sr) 2 CuO 4 cuprate [3], with only
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Closed-loop pallet manipulation in unstructured environments

Closed-loop pallet manipulation in unstructured environments

Cambridge, MA, USA Cambridge, MA, USA {mwalter, teller}@csail.mit.edu {sertac, frazzoli}@mit.edu Abstract— This paper addresses the problem of autonomous manipulation of a priori unknown palletized cargo with a robotic lift truck (forklift). Specifically, we describe coupled perception and control algorithms that enable the vehicle to engage and place loaded pallets relative to locations on the ground or truck beds. Having little prior knowledge of the objects with which the vehicle is to interact, we present an estimation framework that utilizes a series of classifiers to infer the objects’ structure and pose from individual LIDAR scans. The classifiers share a low-level shape estimation algorithm that uses linear programming to robustly segment input data into sets of weak candidate features. We present and analyze the performance of the segmentation method, and subsequently describe its role in our estimation algorithm. We then evaluate the performance of a motion controller that, given an estimate of a pallet’s pose, is employed to safely engage each pallet. We conclude with a validation of our algorithms for a set of real-world pallet and truck interactions.
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Cuts from residues: the one-loop case

Cuts from residues: the one-loop case

In this paper we close this gap in the literature and perform the first rigorous study of cut integrals in dimensional regularization. We focus on cut integrals at one loop, though we expect that many of the concepts we introduce in this paper are generic and will carry through to higher loops. In fact, many of these concepts have been introduced into the mathematical physics literature in the 60s [ 1 , 2 , 31 – 33 ] (albeit without the machinery of dimensional regularization), but they have since slipped into oblivion. The cornerstone of our approach to cut integrals is the multivariate residue calculus of Leray [ 34 ]. In this setup, the integrand is modified by evaluating its residues at the poles of the cut propagators, and this new integrand is integrated over the vanishing sphere. Through a generalization of the residue theorem, the cut integral can also be written as an integral over the vanishing cycle, in which case the integrand is the same as for the uncut integral. Moreover, cuts are intimately connected to discontinuities through the Picard-Lefschetz theorem, which relates the change of the integration contour under analytic continuation to integrals of residues over the vanishing spheres. The study of the vanishing cycles naturally leads to the study of the homology group associated to one-loop integrals, which is the right language to discuss the different inequivalent integration contours for one-loop integrals.
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Hybrid open-loop closed-loop path-following control

Hybrid open-loop closed-loop path-following control

L’archive ouverte pluridisciplinaire HAL, est destinée au dépôt et à la diffusion de documents scientifiques de niveau recherche, publiés ou non, émanant des établissements d’enseignemen[r]

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Conformal two-boundary loop model on the annulus

Conformal two-boundary loop model on the annulus

Clearly, p is the number of boundary vertices which inject charge in the system minus the number of those which take charge from it (see Fig. 4). Such a configuration must be counted with a weight e ipr 12 γ . In addition, we must treat the non-contractible loops. Note that a non-contractible loop which touch the boundary is no longer a loop in our prescription for the Coulomb gas, because it is broken in several half-loops on the boundary. However, the non- contractible loops which remain in the bulk must be counted correctly (see Fig. 7). Remember that we do not want to compute the full partition function here, but only the character K 0 corresponding to the representation of 2BT L without string V 0 . Consider
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Conformal boundary conditions in the critical O(n) model and dilute loop models

Conformal boundary conditions in the critical O(n) model and dilute loop models

The dilute model admits one more relevant parameter than the dense model: the fugacity of the basic monomers making up the loops. Only when this parameter x is adjusted to a critical value x c does the model become conformally invariant in the bulk. This freedom translates into a more complicated boundary behaviour: not only can one adjust the weight of loops touching the boundary, but one can (and must) also adjust the weight of boundary monomers. Indeed, in the dilute model a generic loop touches the surface with probability zero, so the surface fugacity has to be critically enhanced to allow a finite fraction of boundary sites to be occupied by loops. This is not necessary in the dense model since the boundary is always covered with loops in the continuum limit. This has also a nice interpretation in the language of symmetry breaking boundary interactions in the O(n) model [15], that we discuss shortly below, and is the key to physical applications to appear elsewhere [16]. Once this feature is under control, the basic aspects of CBCs in the dilute case are formally similar to those in the dense case, after a proper redefinition of the parameters. Carrying this out in details gives us control of key combinatorial quantities and crossing probabilities that were not known up to now.
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Reductive groups, the loop Grassmannian, and the Springer resolution

Reductive groups, the loop Grassmannian, and the Springer resolution

This would explain the relationship between the results of the present paper and localization theory. We will not attempt to prove the commutativity of ( 1.10 ). One difficulty in trying to prove such a relationship is that the construction of the equivalence ( 1.8 ) depends on the choice of a “splitting bundle” for some Azumaya algebra; in order to prove some compatibility result we would most likely have in particular to understand this choice better, and see how one can choose the bundle in a more canonical way. 1.7. Application: a character formula for tilting modules. The results of this paper open the way to geometric approaches to various deep problems in the representation theory of G, either via constructible sheaves or via coherent sheaves. First, in [ 50 ], the second author and G. Williamson conjecture that the mul- tiplicities of standard/costandard modules in indecomposable tilting modules in Rep ∅ (G) can be expressed in terms of the values at 1 of some `-Kazhdan–Lusztig polynomials (in the sense of [ 35 ]), which compute the dimensions of the stalks of some indecomposable parity complexes on the affine flag variety Fl of ˙ G ∨ . This conjecture is proved in the case G = GL n (k) in [ 50 ], but the methods used in this
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