Co-integration relies on the place the host society and the receiving country grant or allow to immigrants in “the process of becoming an accepted part of society” (Penninx, 2004). This highlights precisely what is at stake: the place that the society assigns tothe migrant and how social interactions can take place. Some even consider that “[t]he most important factor of integration is acceptance and that means maintaining a positive perception and appreciation of diversity” (Süssmuth and Weidenfeld, 2005). The point, in this paper is that through social interactions between established members of the society and newcomers, one can observe and measure steps and degrees of the co- integration process and the dynamics of a changing society. This paper also adheres to the ideas of contact theory that Allport (1954) pioneered stating that prejudice can be reduced by interpersonal contacts between different social groups. Blau and his colleagues have also showed that “[m]ultigroup affiliations further the integration of the diverse segments of complex society in two ways: by fostering crisscrossing conflicts, which mitigate the chances of deep cleavages and sustain democracy, as political sociologists have pointed out (e.g., Lipset), and by promoting marriages as well as friendships between members of different groups […]” (Blauet al., 1984).Language proficiency in the hostcountry language is also an element that is put forward by several authors in terms of the social integration of migrants (Jacobs et al. 2004; Chiswick and Miller, 2007; etc.). If some very basic social interactions may happen without sharing a common language, it is obvious that the language proficiency of the receiving country constitutes a powerful tool in order to actively communicate and interact with members of the receiving society. A question that might reasonably be raised is, thus, whether the country of origin undertakes any action that helps emigrants to learn the language of the receiving society and thus to have an impact upstream of social interactions. The specific INTERACT position paper on language offers potential answers.
Several limitations to the current study suggest opportunities for future research. First, we have considered s a single kind of experience among the many available to an entrepreneur on a foreign sojourn. Precisely, our empirical observations focused on short business sojourns and participation to trade shows organized by public agencies. Entrepreneurs ex ante and ex post perceptions of the hostcountry are likely to be determined by various other forms of experiences (for example. leisure trips, foreign schooling, etc.) which impact may be of equal if not superior importance.
by K` onya (2006) that is based on SUR systems and Wald tests with country speciﬁc bootstrap critical values. We have used annual data over the 1980- 2005 period for 22 OECD countries which are the major host countries.
Our study has provided evidence that immigration does not cause host economic conditions (unemployment and income per capita) and the in- ﬂuence of host economic conditions on immigration depends on the hostcountry. Indeed, on the one hand, our ﬁnding suggests that, only in Portu- gal, unemployment negatively Granger causes immigration inﬂow, while in any country, immigration inﬂow does not Granger cause unemployment. On the other hand, our results indicate that, in four countries (France, Iceland, Norway and United Kingdom), economic growth positively Granger causes immigration inﬂow, whereas in any country, immigration inﬂow does not Granger cause economic growth. This heterogeneity in the inﬂuence of host economic conditions on immigration can be related to the characteristics of hostcountry immigration policies.
LEO - University of Orl´eans and Toulouse Business School
This paper examines the causality relationship between immigra- tion, unemployment and economic growth of the hostcountry. We employ the panel Granger causality testing approach of K´onya (2006) that is based on SUR systems and Wald tests with country specific bootstrap critical values. This approach allows to test for Granger- causality on each individual panel member separately by taking into account the contemporaneous correlation across countries. Using an- nual data over the 1980-2005 period for 22 OECD countries, we find that, only in Portugal, unemployment negatively causes immigration, while in any country, immigration does not cause unemployment. On the other hand, our results show that, in four countries (France, Ice- land, Norway and the United Kingdom), growth positively causes immigration, whereas in any country, immigration does not cause growth.
by K`onya (2006) that is based on SUR systems and Wald tests with country specific bootstrap critical values. We have used annual data over the 1980- 2005 period for 22 OECD countries which are the major host countries.
Our study has provided evidence that immigration does not cause host economic conditions (unemployment and income per capita) and the in- fluence of host economic conditions on immigration depends on the hostcountry. Indeed, on the one hand, our finding suggests that, only in Portu- gal, unemployment negatively Granger causes immigration inflow, while in any country, immigration inflow does not Granger cause unemployment. On the other hand, our results indicate that, in four countries (France, Iceland, Norway and United Kingdom), economic growth positively Granger causes immigration inflow, whereas in any country, immigration inflow does not Granger cause economic growth. This heterogeneity in the influence of host economic conditions on immigration can be related to the characteristics of hostcountry immigration policies.
The implantation of a retail company in a hostcountry may reduce trade costs for suppliers of domestic retail stores. Indeed, retailers that penetrate foreign markets may continue to source from domestic suppliers for their overseas stores (at least at the beginning). The access to retail- ers’ network of overseas outlets would permit to these domestic suppliers to avoid some of the regular sunk costs for entering foreign markets (e.g. searching foreign partners, learning about foreign regulation and consumer preferences) and to face lower variable costs for selling their goods abroad (e.g. group exports with other domestic suppliers of the same retailer to lower transport and distribution costs). Suppliers of retail brands should be the main beneficiaries of the overseas retail network, as they are involved in specific contract with the retail company. The multinational retail investment may also induce a reduction of trade cost for all domes- tic food exporters by generating information spillovers. The successful entry of a retailer on a foreign market signals to other domestic firms the potential for increased sales and profits on that market. In addition, these other food exporters may benefit from scale economies in transportation.
Amongst countries with middle- or low-emissions, OECD countries, particularly in Europe (e.g., Finland, Switzerland, Sweden) have more papers in the database than their shares of GHG emissions would suggest. Developing countries, on the other hand, tend to be closer to the line or below.
The tail of the distribution is also relevant for policy making. Of a total of 197 Parties to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change, 143 have less than 10 papers in the database, 127 less than 5, and 65 have none. In their survey of urban climate mitigation case studies, Lamb et al. ( 2019 ) similarly find a very uneven distribution of papers by country. While it is difficult to determine a threshold below which the number of forward-looking publications on mitigation would be "insufficient" to inform policies, 10 papers or less (to be compared with 39 major topics in the database, see below) leaves little chance that even the different sectoral aspects of mitigation be adequately covered. Policymakers and stakeholders in Africa, in particular, have for the most part scant scientific literature to rely on, despite rapidly increasing emissions. Informing strategies to limit growth in GHG emissions (and ultimately start reducing them) while continuing to other development goals needs a major shift in the focus of research towards the continent.
fully located without any disorder or ambiguity. Otherwise, formation of this striking molecular core-shell-like arrangement cannot be explained from this resulting solid-state structure analysis which reveals only few short contacts and hydrogen bonds between the three components (see Supplementary, section 126.96.36.199 for full structural description of 2). Then, this hierarchical assembly must be seen as the ending snapshot coming out from the context of intricate molecular recognition phenomenon occurring in solution, wherein the water molecules play a non-innocent and decisive contribution for strengthening the supramolecular interactions. In context, the chalcogenide-bridged [Re 6 Q 8 (CN) 6 ] 4- clusters have been already classified as chaotropes owing to its host-guest
In a world without international trade, the costs of pollution control measures would be confined to the country taking the action. We live, however, in a world tightly knit by trade, importantly including a massive trade in oil and other fossil fuels. As a result, the effects of emissions restriction will be felt throughout the world economy even if controls are adopted by only a sub-set of nations. In countries accepting restrictions the cost of using carbon-emitting fuels will rise, simultaneously lowering the demand for these fuels (thereby reducing their international prices) and raising the cost of goods that require them as inputs. Also, the total level of economic activity in these countries may fall somewhat relative to the output levels that otherwise would be achieved, lowering their demand for imports of all kinds. These changes
4. Here we want to sketch a country which faces the corruption phenomenon. There are many ways to formalize this phenomenon. One is to assume that the production function in the consumption sector exhibits fixed costs. But it will raise many mathematical complications. So, we use the way proposed by Dimaria and Le Van (2002). We assume that at every date t, the bribers divert a fraction η ∈ (0, 1) of national resource, S t+1 , devoted to the next
t → θ ∞ = α e α +α e d .
Proof. See Appendix 1. Comments
1. S s is the steady-state of our economy in the case of concave technology. If the critical value from which the economy becomes to import technological capital and to produce new technologies (S c ) is higher than the steady-state value, the economy will never take oﬀ. In fact it will converge to its steady- state with a constant value of income per capita. On the contrary, if the steady-state value is higher than the critical wealth from which the economy produces new technologies, it will follow an endogenous growth path with a constant increase in income per capita. More precisely, if for any period t, the country does not invest in technology, then its economy converges to S s . But when A
The second contribution of this paper is to provide some evidence of the existence of a vicious circle. A vicious circle entails a complex of events that reinforces itself through a feedback loop toward greater instability, because the negative effect ampli- fies and feeds the causes which produced it. Certainly, market failures which justify ruling out the “fairer” sex may decrease as a country develops. Thus higher GDP per capita may reduce gender inequality (Dollar & Gatti (1999)). Gender inequality and economic development may be considered as the causes and consequences of each other. After using a 2SLS estimator to determine the impact of gender inequality on long-term per capita income and vice versa, the 3SLS is applied to take into account such a vicious circle.
this time, the cricket is active at the surface and attractive to aquatic predators such as fish and frogs (F.T., unpublished observations). Death of the worm would be expected to result from generalist predation upon the host at this stage unless the parasite were capable of an antipredator response.
host defense mechanism elicited by autophagosomes to use the autophagic vesicles as nutrient source for microbial growth.
An example is Anaplasma phagocytophilum that uses a secreted effector, Ats-1, to promote autophagosome nucleation and stimulates its own growth by using the nutrients contained in the autophagosomes ( 19 ). Indeed, autophagy induction using rapamycin favors bacterial infection, while autophagy inhibition decreases A. phagocytophilum replication ( 20 ). Another example is Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, a Gram-negative bacterium that replicates intracellularly by establishing a specialized compart- ment, the Yersinia-containing vacuole (YCVs), which accumu- lates autophagy markers ( 21 ). The stimulation of autophagy with rapamycin increases the size of the YCVs and the numbers of replicative bacteria in the YCVs, whereas autophagy inhibition restricts bacterial survival, suggesting that autophagy promotes Y. pseudotuberculosis replication ( 21 ). Yersinia pestis also repli- cates within YCVs decorated with autophagosome markers ( 22 ). The authors suggested that autophagosomes may provide a source of membrane, along with late endosomes, for the expansion of the YCV into a spacious compartment ( 22 ). The same mechanism was described for Coxiella burnetii, the causative agent of Q fever. Coxiella-replicative vacuoles (CRVs) are decorated with the autophagy proteins LC3, Beclin1, and Rab24, and overexpression of LC3 or Beclin1 increases the number and size of the CRVs ( 23 , 24 ). Similar to A. phagocytophilum and Y. pseudotuberculo- sis, autophagy induction increases C. burnetii replication, while inhibition of autophagy blocks Coxiella vacuole formation ( 23 ,
Editorial on the Research Topic Host Manipulation by Parasites
Host manipulation by parasites is a widespread phenomenon by which parasites alter the phenotype of their hosts to increase transmission success. Alterations can range from subtle to profound traits modifications, and can occur across a wide range of host and parasite taxa ( Moore, 2002 ). This topic has generated much interest among researchers of different disciplines, and has evolved from simple descriptions of new cases to a full integration of the complexity of the phenomenon at different levels of biological organization. However, although substantial advances have been made in the last years, there are still important knowledge gaps and new challenges to face. Here we aim to provide an integrative overview of current lines of research at both the mechanistic (proximate) and functional (ultimate) levels.
Received: 6 June 2014 / Accepted: 9 February 2015 / Published online: 19 February 2015 The Author(s) 2015. This article is published with open access at Springerlink.com
Abstract The moth Spodoptera frugiperda is a well- known pest of crops throughout the Americas, which consists of two strains adapted to different host-plants: the first feeds preferentially on corn, cotton and sorghum whereas the second is more associated with rice and several pasture grasses. Though morphologically indistinguishable, they exhibit differences in their mating behavior, pher- omone compositions, and show development variability according to the host-plant. Though the latter suggest that both strains are different species, this issue is still highly controversial because hybrids naturally occur in the wild, not to mention the discrepancies among published results concerning mating success between the two strains. In order to clarify the status of the two host-plant strains of S.
Commonly, in Imaclim-Country and other CGE models, the investment is a vector: it informs for each sector its investment within the overall economy. It makes it difficult to undertake a robust evaluation of the impacts on structural changes in contrasted investment plans for a specific sector j. This is why a specific modeling approach can be set up by describing a complete investment matrix I ij at calibration (thanks to capital breakdown literature). Instead of being of vector dimension, Equation 62 is then of matrix dimension, but the modeling constraint remains the same. However, for each time step, it allows us to specify the demand for investment -by sector- generated by the sector j. This specification is used to model contrasted investment in the power sector’s technologies.
CARDI as Chair of the AFNC has been leading the process to manage monthly virtual meetings addressing a number of areas that are supported directly under the APP as well as complementary actions by other institutions. Since the start of 2014, a smaller core of agencies, comprising CARICOM Secretariat, IICA, FAO, CDB, UWI, OECS Secretariat, CRFM, CRFM, FAO, CARPHA, CaFAN and CABA have been holding monthly coordination meetings, of which four have been face-2-face. With support from the APP, in its short life the AFNC has managed to establish itself as a credible mechanism to foster collaboration on agency work activities to minimize overlaps and accelerate consensus on solutions to tackle common issues. Given that these key institutions provide direct support to agriculture in the countries, these meetings facilitate open dialogue and information sharing which could impact on delivery of support in country or could be based on sharing of successful experiences in country that could be replicated. Under the AFNC, teams have been created to champion the development process of priority commodities. These priority commodities and the lead agency are (a) Small Ruminants (CARDI), (b) Roots & Tubers (FAO), (c) Herbs & Spices (CABA)
The flat cross country comparison is a companion of the consolidated report (WP3 D10 P1) and is organised into five sections. The First Section outlines background information on the case studies. The Second Section presents the Agri Environmental Schemes (AESs) and gives an overview of institutional settings. Section Three focuses on the disigning period while Section Four deals with enforcement issues. Finally, Section Five addresses the environmental impacts; it integrates the outcome of the mid term evaluation.