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Role of respirometric analysis in the modelling of hospital wastewater treatment by submerged membrane bioreactor

Role of respirometric analysis in the modelling of hospital wastewater treatment by submerged membrane bioreactor

KEYWORDS: submerged membrane bioreactor, hospital wastewater, modelling, heterotrophic yield, respirometry References 1. Park, H.D., Lee, Y.H., Kim, H.B., Moon, J., Ahn, C.H., Kim, K.T., Kang, M.S. Reduction of membrane fouling by simultaneous up ward and down ward air sparging in a pilot-scale submerged membrane bioreactor treating municipal wastewater. Desalination 251(1–3)(2010)75–82.

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Role of respirometric analysis in the modelling of hospital wastewater treatment by submerged membrane bioreactor

Role of respirometric analysis in the modelling of hospital wastewater treatment by submerged membrane bioreactor

KEYWORDS: submerged membrane bioreactor, hospital wastewater, modelling, heterotrophic yield, respirometry References 1. Park, H.D., Lee, Y.H., Kim, H.B., Moon, J., Ahn, C.H., Kim, K.T., Kang, M.S. Reduction of membrane fouling by simultaneous up ward and down ward air sparging in a pilot-scale submerged membrane bioreactor treating municipal wastewater. Desalination 251(1–3)(2010)75–82.

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Feasibility of Micropollutants Treatment by Coupling Nanofiltration and Electrochemical Oxidation: Case of Hospital Wastewater

Feasibility of Micropollutants Treatment by Coupling Nanofiltration and Electrochemical Oxidation: Case of Hospital Wastewater

90% of the regular emerging pollutants were removed after 2 h of electrolysis. To obtain better design treatment strategies and to improve the efficiency of coupling process, further studies are needed. Hospital wastewater which is one of the main sources of micropollutants, especially pharma- ceuticals, has never been used for testing the coupling process. Thus, the present work proposed to evaluate the coupling process of NF and EO for the complete elimina- tion of pharmaceuticals which are present in MBR effluent from hospital wastewater. Ciprofloxacin (CIP), a widely used antibiotic, was selected as a target molecule in this preliminary study, because it was found in different waste- water effluents [2, 3, 16] and was also detected in this MBR effluent from hospital. Moreover, NF/EO process was also performed in synthetic solution and a comparison of the performances was done for both matrices.
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In vitro tests aiding ecological risk assessment of ciprofloxacin, tamoxifen and cyclophosphamide in range of concentrations released in hospital wastewater and surface water

In vitro tests aiding ecological risk assessment of ciprofloxacin, tamoxifen and cyclophosphamide in range of concentrations released in hospital wastewater and surface water

Toxicology has long been dominated by an emphasis on very high doses and the assessment of toxic responses. In comparison with human health risk assessment, ecological risk assessment is poorly un- derstood. In the environment, it is important to know what happens with a low dose, corresponding to real water contamination. The con- centrations chosen were based on the range reported in the literature, although the concentrations of PPCPs vary at each site with pharmaceu- tical usage patterns, the size of the surrounding population, the specific wastewater treatment available, and the discharge location. Thus, the concentrations are not meant to be an exact match to what is found at one municipal wastewater treatment plant, or field site, but to represent concentrations that are environmentally reasonable. The high concen- tration tested was near the highest reported concentrations found in hospital wastewater up to 150 μg/L ( Martins et al., 2008; Negreira et al., 2013a, 2013b; Santos et al., 2013 ).
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Nanofiltration performances after membrane bioreactor for hospital wastewater treatment: Fouling mechanisms and the quantitative link between stable fluxes and the water matrix

Nanofiltration performances after membrane bioreactor for hospital wastewater treatment: Fouling mechanisms and the quantitative link between stable fluxes and the water matrix

combined to MBR is to avoid the dilution of highly concentrated hospital wastewaters, in terms of toxic organic compounds, into the domestic wastewater ( McArdell and Moser, 2010 ). MBR system enables the removal of major parts of organic matter and biode gradable compounds due to the biological reaction. This system also enables the ef ficient separation of biological sludge and turbidity due to the micro or ultra filtration membranes installed in the system. The downstream NF process is capable of removing biorefractory micropollutants, hardness salts and heavy metals and therefore improving the water quality. Even if in certain conditions a reuse standard can be reached by NF permeate ( Alturki et al., 2010 ; Wang et al., 2015 ), it is important to consider that NF would not allow complete rejection of salts, thus we could expect that the concentration of salts in the treated water will be too important to allow direct reuse without further treatment ( Shanmuganathan et al., 2015 ). RO could alleviate this problem but dissolved organic matters present in the secondary ef fluent would not allow the direct use of RO filtration at this step of the combined process ( Tang et al., 2016 ).
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Stoichiometry and kinetics of hospital wastewater treatment in a submerged membrane bioreactor

Stoichiometry and kinetics of hospital wastewater treatment in a submerged membrane bioreactor

Sgd oqdrdms _qshbkd cd_kr vhsg sgd b_khaq_shnm _mc u_khc_shnm ne _ ahnknfhb_k lncdk ne RLAQ enq gnroh, s_k v_rsdv_sdq sqd_sldms trhmf qdrohqnldsqx- Hm _ “qrs o_qs+ sgd rsnhbghnldsqhb _mc[r]

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Stoichiometry and kinetics of hospital wastewater treatment in a submerged membrane bioreactor

Stoichiometry and kinetics of hospital wastewater treatment in a submerged membrane bioreactor

Sgd oqdrdms _qshbkd cd_kr vhsg sgd b_khaq_shnm _mc u_khc_shnm ne _ ahnknfhb_k lncdk ne RLAQ enq gnroh, s_k v_rsdv_sdq sqd_sldms trhmf qdrohqnldsqx- Hm _ “qrs o_qs+ sgd rsnhbghnldsqhb _mc[r]

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Nanofiltration performances after membrane bioreactor for hospital wastewater treatment: Fouling mechanisms and the quantitative link between stable fluxes and the water matrix

Nanofiltration performances after membrane bioreactor for hospital wastewater treatment: Fouling mechanisms and the quantitative link between stable fluxes and the water matrix

Furthermore, the complexity and variability of the composition of MBR ef fluents make it difficult to manage stable fluxes and control NF fouling. MBR ef fluents contain numerous salts, in addi tion to organic matter that may cause different types and degrees of membrane fouling. Studies in synthetic and real wastewater ma trixes have indicated that the composition and morphology of the foulant layer lead to diverse impacts on flux behaviour ( Li and Elimelech, 2006 ; Contreras et al., 2009 ; Jacob et al., 2010 ). For example, stable fluxes for membranes fouled by humic acid and dextran exceed the fluxes obtained on membranes suffering from alginate fouling when foulant feed concentrations are the same ( Contreras et al., 2009 ). Another study shows that the combination of organic and silica colloidal fouling induces a decrease in flux (flux decline 40 L/h.m 2 ) that is more signi ficant than the simple sum of the flux declines. Decrease in flux was 10 L/h.m 2 for simple organic
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Chitosan for direct bioflocculation of wastewater

Chitosan for direct bioflocculation of wastewater

Sludge dewatering A major environmental problem facing wastewater treat- ment is the high volume of produced sludge during sewage treatment. Sludge dewatering, disposal and management are major challenges in the water industries, in particular to reduce the costs of final disposal and transportation. Typi- cally, dewatering aims at reducing the weight and volume of the sludge. For this, the primary means of volume reduction is water removal. Depending on the operation and process used, sludge is usually a dilute suspension that generally contains a heterogeneous mixture of 50–80% of pollution in the form of a high-organic load, colloids, pathogenic germs, mineral particles, captions and metals (Zhai et al. 2012 ). As a consequence, if sludges are inadequately managed, they induce environmental pollution. Hence, the main target of sludge treatment is (1) to dewater as much as possible in the most economical way, (2) to eliminate smell by reducing the quantity of organic solids, and (3) to reduce the number of disease-causing microorganisms present in the solids. All such treatments are important for both economical and envi- ronmental reasons.
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The REUSE, as a reinvention of wastewater ?

The REUSE, as a reinvention of wastewater ?

Currently, the Reuse is being promoted by an "epistemic community" (Haas, 1992) of experts as a solution to climate change and water resource reduction (water stress, drought, maintenance of biodiversity, agricultural activities). Presented as a promising solution, the Reuse would be working for a rational water management. Regularly compared to other devices (desalination or water transfer process), the promise is based on environmental and social benefits (Lazarova, and al. 2001). As such, the principles of the circular economy are used to give treated wastewater the image of recyclable resources and no longer that of "taboo" waste (Jeanjean, 2000).
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COVID-19 epidemiologic surveillance using wastewater

COVID-19 epidemiologic surveillance using wastewater

Wastewater epidemiologic surveillance Classical clinical diagnostic tests to detect the virus in indi- viduals are useful but are limited by cost, supplies, ratio of tested versus untested people, and by the inability to test a large population urgently, as well as by the complicated process of nasopharyngeal swabbing. Alternatively, waste- water epidemiology, which involves tracking SARS-CoV-2 in wastewater, provides rapid and complementary infor- mation to assist public health decisionmakers to minimize risks associated with COVID-19 in the community (Kitajima et al. 2020 )(Fig.  1 ). Indeed, wastewater epidemiology pro- vides a community diagnostic integrating the potential con- tamination of a large number of individuals. In particular, in regions with limited resources where it is difficult to per- form clinical diagnosis, monitoring wastewater may assist in controlling the spread of epidemics (Bivins et al. 2020 ). Overall, tracing of SARS-CoV-2 through detection at sewer lines and wastewater treatment locations will immediately identify areas of epidemic concerns. Moreover, wastewater epidemiology addresses the social stigma of a community
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A 500-bed suburban general hospital

A 500-bed suburban general hospital

Traffic is generated by certain radiological procedures in the operating rooms and if a daik room is not provided within the surgical suite, then the exposed film must be [r]

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Probabilistic design of wastewater treatment plants

Probabilistic design of wastewater treatment plants

factor sets generated from known or assumed probabilistic laws. It offers a practical approach to uncertainty analysis because the random behavior of the system response can be duplicated probabilistically (Tung et al., 2006). Prior to setting up a Monte Carlo simulation, the relevant sources of uncertainty and variability that will affect the distribution of effluent wastewater compositions must be identified and taken into account in the calculation of PONC. In the proposed methodology the important sources of uncertainty and variability that are considered are: 1) the uncertainty in the parameters of the model used for simulating the treatment performance of designs under dynamic conditions, and 2) the variability in influent time series (including both the annual and inter-annual influent variability). The explicit characterization of uncertainty/variability in the performance of the technical components of the WWTP system is beyond the scope of this study (e.g. the uncertainty/variability in the functioning of sensors or pumps). Model structure uncertainty or uncertainty about the relationship among the different variables of a system (Beck, 1987) as well as evaluation of different model structures for selecting the optimum model structure for dynamic simulation of WWTPs are not tackled in this study.
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Urban Wastewater Treatment by Catalytic Ozonation

Urban Wastewater Treatment by Catalytic Ozonation

wastewaters using the same catalytic system (Fontanier et al. 2005 ; Baig and Petitpain 2003 ). The heteroge­ neous catal ys t involved in this process is made with supported-type metal oxides. Experiments were carried out on treated wastewater issued from biological treat­ ment to determine the performances, and the global kinetics of this process. As adsorption is an essential step for catalytic ozonation, a focus was made on its kinetics, and the experimental results were confronted to the most common models described in literature.
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Mining Wastewater Treatment by Slag Filters

Mining Wastewater Treatment by Slag Filters

4.4.6 Practical recommendations In full scale applications, the phosphorus removal performance of a calcium-rich slag filter can be increased by providing an efficient upstream treatment. Components of wastewaters that compete with phosphorus precipitation should be removed prior to slag filtration. A biological treatment (e.g. constructed wetland) reduces the organic matter loading to the slag filter, limiting biofilm formation and solids accumulation that would favor filter clogging. Chemical clogging by carbonate precipitates may happen, particularly at a high HRT (Liira et al., 2009). The formation of carbonate precipitates was not observed in this study because of the composition of the synthetic wastewater that did not contain inorganic carbon. In full-scale applications, the HRT should be high enough to favor compact crystallization and low enough to minimize the precipitation of carbonates. The formation of calcium carbonate in the slag filter can be limited by trapping bicarbonate in an easily cleaned preliminary coarse slag filter and by minimizing exposure to air (instead of CO 2 trapping in a high pH solution). Major cations such as
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View of Hospital-acquired infections (1)

View of Hospital-acquired infections (1)

L’âge moyen des patients infectés était de 38 ans avec des extrêmes allant de 19 à 79 ans, la durée moyenne d’hospitalisa- tion des patients infectés est de 16 jours, le GCS moyen des p[r]

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Costing Hospital Surgery Services: The Method Matters

Costing Hospital Surgery Services: The Method Matters

anaesthetic and surgical costs and separately for weekdays and weekend/night procedures. Statistical Analysis Unit costs were presented using means, standard deviations and quartiles as appropriate. The overall agreement between the two methods was assessed using two complementary approaches: the Spearman non-parametric coefficient of correlation and the Bland and Altman method [31]. Regarding the correlation coefficient, values above 0.5 are deemed satisfactory for group comparisons (i.e., comparisons of several strategies based on pooled data from multiple patients) and values above 0.9 are adequate for individual assessments (i.e., the cost estimation for a single patient) [13]. The Bland and Altman method is widely used in clinical epidemiology when the same concept is measured by two different methods. The acceptability threshold was set at 2 000 Euros, i.e., the average unit cost per inpatient stay at Montpellier University hospital in 2010. The cost difference between the two methods was calculated as top-down cost minus bottom-up cost. Hence, a positive cost difference indicates that the top-down cost is greater than the bottom-up cost. To understand discrepancies, a bivariate analysis of the cost difference was performed using linear regression models with the following variables: gender, age, anaesthetic risk, staffing level (number of surgeons performing the procedure), status of the responsible surgeon (senior vs. junior surgeon), duration of the intervention phase, relative cost index (RCI), occurrence of an anaesthetic complication during the procedure, emergency context and procedure performed during on call periods (weekends or nights). The individual anaesthetic risk was assessed through the American Society of Anaesthesiologists score (ASA), which measures the physical status of patients before surgery [32]. The ASA score ranges from 1 (full health) to 6 (brain-dead patient). Age, ASA score, RCI, staffing level and intervention duration were analysed as continuous variables. Then, a multivariate analysis of
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462 - Donación de un terreno en Turrialba para la construcción de un hospital

462 - Donación de un terreno en Turrialba para la construcción de un hospital

a. que el terreno sea usado exclusivamente para la construcción y operación de un hospital/centro médico público para la población de Turrialba y zonas vecinas; y b. que el comodato caduque y el terreno revierta al IICA en el caso de que el terreno solicitado sea usado para fines ajenos a los indicados en el párrafo “a” arriba y/o el hospital/centro médico no sea construido y puesto en funcionamiento pleno dentro del plazo de cinco años contados desde la fecha de cesión.

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A Mathematical Model of Hospital Attraction Area

A Mathematical Model of Hospital Attraction Area

Introduction The aim of this study was to elaborate an efficient tool for observation and prediction of the attraction area for hospital decision-makers and health policy makers. Our mathematical model is based on “the principle of least effort” to go from home location to hospital regarding the gravitation Newton law. We used a geometric algorithm called Relative Neighbourhood Graph (RNG) which calculate the proximity area of attraction, in order to draw and weight the model and to calculate the balance distance point between two attractive masses. Through the equation, we tried to analyse some parameters which influence the attraction of a dedicated hospital, and to give a measure of this attraction area. It was assumed that the hospital attraction could be relate to: The distance to hospital; Geographic accessibility; Number of beds and size of population from the estimated hospital proximity area.
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A children's hospital in a medical center

A children's hospital in a medical center

is now used by the present Winnipeg Children's Hospital --.. aoonsideration of some importance.. In: the atteaah ig, hospitaL ageg.[r]

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