Considering the small number of women in high level positions, one may conclude that the French press tends to focus more on female leaders than male.
We focused on articles where the leader’s personal life was mentioned. Twenty-one articles included information on a female manager’s non-professional life; this represented 27% of all articles which dealt with female leaders. Forty-six articles gave details about a male manager’s personal life; these represented 31% of all articles dealing with male managers. We concluded that the physical appearance, personal tastes and personality of both sexes are often mentioned in the press. We went on to study specific aspects mentioned, for example: character traits, extraprofessional activities and family responsibilities. Concerning character traits we used the Bem grid (Bem, 1974) and classified traits according to: masculine, feminine and androgyne. With regard to physical appearance, we looked for terms indicating femininity, masculinity or androgynity in the descriptions given. Leisure activities were divided into four categories: sports, culture, community life and social activities. Finally, we looked to see if there was mention of their family responsibilities, either a role (mother, father, spouse etc.) or reference to a family member (son, daughter, children etc.).
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Obviously, the mass inflow of students in management programs at universities led to a classical funding shortage that stands as a critical and sensitive issue. This resource shortage is being addressed by universities through the implementation of various legal provisions. For example, since 2007, universities have gained autonomy: they are being allowed to manage the entirety of their budgets. Consequently, universities now have the right to hire scholars on private contracts. Furthermore, universities can receive tax-free funds by creating foundations that can in turn create partnerships with companies. As tuition fees are regulated – and almost insignificant – inFrance, some universities, as previously mentioned, have also circumnavigated the constraint, managing to increase the tuition fees, especially at the master’s level. Finally, following business-schools’ strategy, some universities have chosen to develop continuous education programs (such as executive MBAs and executive master’s degrees) thus increasing their financial resources and in turn awarding better compensation to their faculty. As a specific public semi-university / semi-Grande Ecole dedicated to life-long continuing education, Cnam (the Conservatoire National des Arts et Métiers) has consistently been focused on offering the full range of degrees (Bachelor-License, Master, MBA, DBA, Doctorate, HDR) via evening classes and distant and blended learning.
This strategy means that the definition of a top athlete should be clearly stated and applied. Moreover, the sport policy must also be accepted by all structures that contribute to the success of the student-athletes. InFrance, UK and Flanders, there are close relationships between the academic institutions and sport organisations. It is not the same in Wallonia. We pointed out that sport leaders considered that the federations are not a key variable in the success of the student-athletes experience. Moreover, it appeared that there was no communication between highereducation and the sport world as it was evidenced at secondary school level in some context [ 12 ]. Because there is not any organized coordination, academic person in charge and sporting counterparts seemed to consider that the others should take more care of the problems which the student-athletes encounter in their everyday life. One of the professional athletes who were interviewed considered that: “… the status of athlete doesn’t mean anything for people
In this context, we designed the "MooSciTIC: A shot of science!" project as a small-scale capacity-building initiative aimed at West African teaching assistants, early-career lecturers, and research scientists, focusing on cross-disciplinary aspects of their work. In order to maxi- mize the long-term impact of our training, we used a "training of trainers" format: based on a rough estimate provided by West African colleagues from different universities of the subre- gion, we anticipated that each teacher would teach to 40 master students and an even greater number of undergraduate students. Throughout the 3 years of the project, we could therefore expect to indirectly reach hundreds of students ( Fig 2 ). We anticipated a further amplifying effect over the duration of each teacher’s career, and out of the habit, common in West Africa, of disseminating one’s training among peers within one’s home institution. Though similar issues arise in English-speaking Africa, we targeted this geographical and linguistic subregion due to a history of collaboration between research institutes inFrance and French-speaking Western Africa.
[Please insert Figure 3]
The results of the combination of these three variables will be presented in the graphs of the article so as to stress the different interactions.
With this combination, we can see that less well-qualified younger women (FL1) experience the most fear of being ridiculed if making mistakes. Women seem to be more aware of the negative effects of language mistakes and may be more concerned with linguistic standards and rules. Conversely, highly qualified older men (MH3) feel the least fear. Higher qualified males, whatever their ages, appear more constant and self-confident. This may correspond to the fact that they will occupy a higher position in the company, keeping in mind that, as discussed above, socio-professional categories inFrance are usually linked to the education level.
The defeat of university autonomy
After the First World War, as Philip Altbach and Hans de Wit stated in a recent issue of IHE, the development of international academic relations benefited from the rise of Geneva internationalism. France quickly took the leading position in the international student market: 17,000 students came to Francein 1931, i.e. about 20 to 25 percent of the total number of internationally mobile students at this time, while only 9,000 international students went to the United States, about 7,000 to Germany and 5,000 to UK. The percentage of international students in French universities was up to 25 percent of the total number of students. In some universities this rate even reached 80 percent, e.g. Rouen University in 1930.
A potential issue associated to the use of tax data as a proxy for economic resources is linked to the funding of primary schools by municipalities. Indeed, one may imagine that municipalities impacted by the Guizot law would increase the amount of taxes collected to pay their newly hired teacher. Then, this would mechanically raise the taxes per capita without no link with a higher economic growth. Firstly, one should note that there was no specific tax created to finance education. Municipalities could therefore only try to levy more taxes by collecting additional cents on the four existing contributions aforementioned, which was likely to be rejected by the inhabitants. Secondly, municipalities could ask the departments or the state for financial assistance if their resources were too low to pay for the opening of the school. This was very likely to characterise small municipalities, close to the threshold of 500 inhabitants, that is to say those on which the regression discontinuity is applied. Therefore, as the funds needed to finance the primary school were certainly mostly coming from existing taxes or from the financial assistance of departments, it is unlikely that the Guizot law contributed to significantly increase the amount of taxes per capita at the municipality level and then drive the main part of the effect of education on growth.
Joint or hybrid actors are different from the other actors involved in innovation because their professional identities are constructed in both the HERS and in firms and because they are managed by the partnership for the duration of the relationship. Nevertheless, the influence of each "instituted" organisation (Lourau) remains considerable, and despite their affiliation to a joint entity, their referents in terms of rules and values remain close to those of their original occupational space. Their competence is essentially scientific or technological in nature and they are recognised both for their excellence in this sphere and for their general awareness of knowledge and practices throughout their sphere of activity (from academia to the market). They are, firstly, individuals whose professional identities have been constructed simultaneously or successively in the academic and industrial spaces and who continue to have professional practices common to the two spaces. This shared history equips them with a cognitive background that gives them a distinct advantage in cooperative ventures. Administratively and hierarchically they belong either to the HERS or to industry. They may be university professors (Austria-Pharm2; France-Pharm2) working simultaneously and/or successively in the two worlds, long-term trainees, doctoral students funded by the firm or doing their doctoral research in the firm (France-Tel1 and 2; UK-Tel2), postdocs paid by the company but retaining strong links with the university or researchers seconded to the firm. However, they may also be engineers or researchers teaching in the HERS or spending time in academia in order to acquaint themselves more thoroughly with a leading-edge technology. These various actors, most of them with backgrounds in the HERS, are participants in the university’s enterprise culture, in Etzkowitz’s (1997) sense of the term. They may also be organised entities set up by the partners to be the medium for the relationship. The purpose of these entities is to pool the competences of the firm and of the HERS for a limited period of time and for specific, jointly determined objectives. They may take the form of research contracts concluded within the framework of an overall agreement, mixed units, certain platforms developed around a particular instrument or spin-offs in a very early stage of development. The individuals who structure these entities are industrial and academic researchers, project managers involved in a collaboration contract and doctoral students or postdocs funded by industry who are taking part in joint projects. Researchers working in Brims, a unit managed jointly by UK-IT2 and the mathematics department of the University of Bristol, and in the France-Pharm2 unit at the Evry Génopôle (genetic research development site) are involved in this type of project.
From the 1980s, the merchant model prevailed in many countries: US, UK, Canada and Chile, for example, adopted the main characteristics of this model such as charging for highereducation, increased student debt and competition among universities. In Germany some of the lander experi- mented with tuition fees before reverting to free education. A few countries adopted a contributory education scheme. InFrance, although most institutions charge very low fees for tuition, student grants and university resources are notoriously inadequate. Norway is an interesting case: highereducation is free and grants and subsidized loans for living costs are widely available. Debts are cancelled in the case of some academic careers, professions or settlement locations. Levy (2004) states, the absence of tuition fees combined with subsidized loans points to a public policy aimed at inter-generational income redistribution to minimize income discrepancies. Since higher educa- tion is free, student loans do not contribute to human capital and we would agree with Vinokur’s (2007, p. 213) statement that ’The portion of the active generation that received support from the loans funds by its reimbursement a portion of education of the following generation; what remains
3 shed light on the interesting predicament of Canada’s public universities today and the ability of current legal frameworks to adequately govern them.
This paper aims to use a discussion of the particularities of the university-student contractual relationship to underscore the contemporary issues of commercialization that face Canada’s highereducation systems. Though this relationship is not the archetype of contractual relationships, the private law of contracts has played a central role inhighereducation litigation, in part because there is no obvious alternative. When an aggrieved student takes a university to court, there are a number of legal bases outside the parameters of contract law for making a claim, particularly on constitutional grounds. On issues of academic freedom or freedom of expression, for example, constitutional claims have been attempted in Canada, but with no success. 5 Part of the reason for this is that major universities in Canada are autonomous entities incorporated by private provincial statutes and therefore do not act as governmental authorities 6 in the way that some public community colleges do. 7 Universities in Canada generally do not come under the purview of the Charter because they do not fall within the definitions set out in section 32. 8
In addition to the division between private and pub- lic networks, the Quebec school market is characterized by the vertical differentiation of subjects, in both private and public institutions. Since the 1980s, the Public Educa- tion Act has allowed public secondary schools to develop special programs for so-called talented or gifted students. Gradually, several public institutions have adopted this strategy, especially in urban areas, in order to retain the “good” students who are migrating in increasing num- bers to private institutions. Such a provision allows them to counter, or at the very least to confront, competition from the private sector, which continues to heighten. The expansion of special projects has given rise to cur- riculum differentiation which, in fact, now makes it pos- sible to offer unequal training depending on the grade level of students (Marcotte-Fournier, 2015). There is a broad variety of enriched programs, but in general they focus on a small core of areas: mathematics, science, lan- guages, arts and technology. In response to this differen- tiation, private institutions have adopted the same strat- egy to maintain competition with the public sector. In both cases, private and public, these enriched programs must be approved by the Ministry of Education. It is up to each school to decide on the number of places offered and admission criteria used to select or reject students.
There is some literature about the effects of student’s mobility on the provision of highereducation. A branch focuses on tax-financed systems and the free-rider problem, which depends critically on the degree of graduates return migration. Del Rey (2001) assumes that all for- eign students return home after accomplishing education and pay taxes only in their countries of origin. Mechtenberg and Strausz (2008) consider foreign students who acquire productive mulitcultural skills and stay in their host country with an exogenous probability. In both pa- pers, governments underinvest in public education as long as some of their native students come back, due to the free-rider problem. Justman and Thisse (2000) analyze a model with endoge- nous labor mobility. Graduates take into account regional wage differentials among other factors when deciding in which country they prefer to work. Here the reason for underinvestment ineducation is that the emigration of some graduates in equilibrium generates positive external effects on the other region that are ignored by the local government. Lange (2008) extends the analysis by allowing some mobility for both skilled workers and students. Depending on the stay rate of graduates, over- or under-investment ineducation is possible. Our analysis sensibly differs since pure free-riding and spill-over effects are not present. Allowing for differentiated educational levels across countries, it is the competition for students that generates distortions and may result in inefficient equilibria if return probabilities of foreign students are sufficiently low.
The present implementation sectors are numerous : medicine, marketing, military, tourism, architecture and contracting, cultural aspects . But according to Havard , half of the AR uses in an industrial context are made in the maintenance sector, and to a lesser degree one fourth to help maintenance as well as for training or for logistic purposes. Palmarini et al. have studied different AR applications in maintenance . They concern mainly mechanical or plant maintenance as well as the aviation industry. These maintenance operations concern mainly assembling/ disassembling (33%), repairing (26%), inspection/ diagnosis (26%) and training (15%).
As I have already emphasised, my focus lies on what I perceive to be a fundamental injustice of the general tax model compared to the other three: It violates the beneficiary pays principle. 14 Yet, why also discard
models 2 and 3? I consider that the model combining tuition fees with scholarships and bursaries is not an option due to its violation of the equal opportunities for equal abilities principle. What about deferred fee pay- ments? Why not user pays instead of the beneficiary pays of the graduate tax? Here is the short answer to this question: If someone makes a risky investment, they expect a return on this investment and will not be con- tent with simply getting their money back adjusted for inflation. Moreover, from a normative perspective, we consider that the investor is entitled to a return from her investment. As set out in the section on the failure of the capital market inhighereducation, investment in human capital is a particularly risky investment. Therefore, if the state – read: the community – makes this investment, this amounts to buying a share in an individual’s earning prospects (cf. Friedman 1962, 103) and should yield a return that reflects this risk. On this interpretation, the graduate tax does not “take something away” from the individual, but merely represents a transfer payment from the recipient of the investment to the investor. The interest of the government in this case would not be to maximise the return from this investment, but only to make highereducation pay for itself – something that a deferred payment scheme based on the user pays model is unable to achieve.
The study presented here also points towards an obvious further piece of research: relaunching a TPB-based inquiry on BL after the pandemic and check whether the predictors of intention and their underlying beliefs have been affected by this constrained “emergency remote teaching” [21–22]. In this perspective, the current study, taking place just before the lockdown, could somehow serve as a useful yardstick to calibrate possible evolutions of faculty readiness to practise BL. For Teaching & Learning Centres, it would be very interesting – and conceivably somewhat depressing – to establish whether a nasty virus has done more in several months for the promotion of BL in teachers’ minds than years of patient argumen- tative work in favour of thoughtful hybrid instructional design. Of course, recent circumstances have given rise to a series of articles regarding technological adapta- tion and BL efforts due to the COVID-19 pandemic across the globe [53–56, 8]. However, contrasting empirical pre- and post-lockdown data obtained through a comparable and well-documented research methodology would have a value of its own.
The allocation of scarce resources is a complex problem, specially when it comes to budget constraints. Therefore, this work aims to propose a multicriteria web-based Decision Support System for resource allocation in the context of highereducation organizations, more precisely, public universities that have budget constraints, such as Brazilian federal universities. To do so, a Brazilian federal university was chosen as a parameter to make a numerical application to validate the multicriteria model for resource allocation proposed and, afterward, a web-based DSS was developed. For the MCDM resource allocation model, an additive value function was considered to set the percentage of the total budget that every alternative should receive. The problem was seen as a particular case of project portfolio selection problem because its approach is deemed to be appropriate for a resource allocation decision context. The results were satisfactory, and the system provided a clear vision on how the resource allocation procedure works, the entire process became more transparent to the ones that are affected by it, to the decision makers and the government, enabling them to take more efficient and reasonable decisions.
“Le Salésien High School in Sherbrooke set up two outdoor classrooms for the beginning of the 2019 school year. One is of the agora type (rows of tables) and the other has a more collaborative layout (tables of 6). Based on this first year of exploration, the implementation of outdoor educational environments is without a shadow of a doubt an added value for both staff and students. These new environments bring pedagogy to the forefront of teaching work. While a small number of teachers immediately felt at ease in these new environments, others gradually adapted to them and slowly changed their way of teaching. Initially, with the presence of electrical outlets, we believed that the teachers would use their usual projection equipment. In practice, very few took advantage of this possibility, seeking instead to change their practices for sharing their teaching materials. This is good news for pedagogical innovation! Among our students, we have seen an increase in interactions that promote positive collaboration. We also seem to observe improved concentration and motivation. In the future, we anticipate collaborations between students in different cycles.”
5 Innovative practice
5.1 Know-how at the heart of the microelectronics field: innovative platforms
The innovative practice is first of all dedicated to the field of microelectronics and nanotechnologies. Indeed, this field is directly connected to the Moore’s Law and More than More’s evolution. New software for modeling the elementary devices for which the dimension reaches the nanoscale, new tools for CAD able to design very complex analog and digital circuits that contain billions of transistors, but also very high frequency modules for the transmission a very high flow of digital data, must be introduced in the content of the CAD platforms of the network. In addition, the heter- ogeneous technology assembling that combines many functions involved in connected objects must be designed with new multi-physic simulators in order to include in the systems sensors and actuators, significant components of the connected objects. All the students at the level of master of engineering must have some know-how of these tools that are used in the research centers and in the companies. Because the perfor- mances are directly linked to the fabrication process, the innovative platforms are created in order to prepare the students to the novel technologies such as, 3D elemen- tary devices, optoelectronics involving III-V compound materials, thin film technolo- gies, large area electronics for displays and energy conversion, flexible electronics, and more recently “plastronics”, for the most known ones. Specific training on tech- nological platforms are thus created and introduced in the menu of the users.