While MDD-related maladaptive affect and cognition has been associated with altered frontal-limbic brain processes, transient changes in mood can also transiently alter neural functioning in these networks. This has been demonstrated by experimental studies in healthy individuals, combining fMRI with experimental mood-induction techniques such as emotional videos/images/music and autobiographical recall of emotional events (e.g., Harrison et al., 2008 ; Subramaniam et al., 2016 ). In healthyadults, experimental induction of negative mood has been associated with heightened brain activity in amygdala and hippocampus and various prefrontal regions including the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), MPFC, ventral LPFC, and ACC, as well as with lowered rsFC between posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and MPFC and greater ACC-insula rsFC (e.g., Pelletier et al., 2003 ; Habel et al., 2005 ; Harrison et al., 2008 ). Induction of positive mood in healthyadults has been associated with greater neural activity in MPFC, dorsal LPFC, and PCC (e.g., Habel et al., 2005 ; Subramaniam et al., 2016 ).
Abstract: The aim of this study was to assess associations between performance in the timed up-and-go (TUG) and six-minute walk distance (6MWD) with physiological characteristics in young and old healthyadults. Thereto, we determined TUG, 6MWD, normalised jump power, centre of pressure displacement during 1-leg standing, forced expiratory volume in 1 s, percentage of age-predicted maximal heart rate (HR%) and height in 419 healthy young (men: 23.5 ± 2.8 years, women: 23.2 ± 2.9 years) and old (men: 74.6 ± 3.2 years, women: 74.1 ± 3.2 years) adults. Normalised jump power explained 8% and 19% of TUG in young (p = 0.025) and older men (p < 0.001), respectively. When fat mass percentage and age were added to normalised jump power, 30% of TUG was explained in older men (R 2 adj = 0.30, p < 0.001 to 0.106). Appendicular lean muscle mass percentage (ALM%) and age were the best determinants of TUG for older women (R 2 adj = 0.16, p < 0.001 to 0.01). HR% explained 17–39% of 6MWD across all groups (R 2
In a cross-sectional study, 93 healthyadults were randomly selected in the general popula- tion of Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo, between June 2015 and April 2016. We compared mGFR by plasma clearance of iohexol with eGFR obtained with the Modified Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) equation with and without ethnic factor, the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology (CKD-EPI) serum creatinine (SCr)-based equation, with and without ethnic factor, the cystatin C-based CKD-EPI equation (CKD-EPI SCys) and with the com- bined equation (CKD-EPI SCrCys) with and without ethnic factor. The performance of the equations was studied by calculating bias, precision and accuracy within 30% (P30) of mGFR.
formers, young low performers showed lower density (one-sided P <0.05) and lower fractional anisotropy of left CB. There was no difference in re- spect to tractography indices between low and high performers in the elderly group. Conclusions: These data indicate that working memory performance is related to connectivity within the DMN in young healthyadults. Lack of such association in the elderly group suggests that DMN connectivity is not a determinant of memory function in normal aging. Instead, local processes, such as synaptic dysfunction, atrophy, abeta accumulation and microangiop- athy might play a dominating role here.
B6 in severely stressed healthyadults may be attributed to the complementary effects of Mg and vitamin B6, which have been demonstrated clinically in a number of studies using differ- ent psychometric and laboratory measures [ 14 ]. In a cohort of 9 healthy female volunteers, high-dose vitamin B6 (100 mg twice a day for four weeks) was shown to enhance Mg concen- trations in plasma and red blood cells [ 15 ]. Clinical trials have clearly demonstrated the superi- ority of vitamin B6 (40–50 mg per day) in combination with Mg (200–250 mg per day) over Mg alone on subjective measures of anxiety and mild depression in women with premenstrual syndrome [ 33 , 34 ], and the superiority of Mg–vitamin B6 over placebo in reducing anxiety [ 17 ]. This has led to the hypothesis that Mg–vitamin B6 influences anxiety states via modera- tion of the stress response [ 17 ], possibly by vitamin B6 facilitating cellular uptake of magne- sium by limiting its excretion and increasing its effectiveness [ 15 ]. In addition, a prospective intervention trial evaluating Mg–vitamin B6 supplementation over 6 to 8 weeks reported improvements in autonomic nervous system function and perceived stress (as measured by the Ray-Holmes Life Events Scale) in women with stress and low serum magnesium concen- trations [ 35 ]. Furthermore, the addition of vitamin B6 to a magnesium supplement could reduce the risk of homocysteinemia, thus providing additional benefits [ 36 ]. The results of the current trial add to this body of literature, and suggest that the complementary effects of Mg in combination with vitamin B6 are more pronounced in people with severe and extremely severe stress compared with moderately stressed individuals.
We also examined the amount of change in our mea- sures over 2 years. Cortical volume measures tended to show reliable decreases over time, consistent with previous research for healthyadults in this age range. 31,32 For example, BA1 volume decreased by 3%, and BA4a/BA6 volume decreased by 2% on average. While these effect-sizes are relatively small, the high reliability (ie, low within-subject variance) provided adequate statistical power to detect change. Cortical thick- ness, however, did not show statistically signi ﬁcant changes over time, suggesting that the magnitude of change may be smaller than that of cortical volume. It is also likely that Freesurfer measurements of cortical thickness are less reliable, given that small errors in segmentation can signi ﬁcantly inﬂate thickness values for particular regions where volumetric
that rs3918226 can potentially modulate the expression of NOS3 .
It is important to mention that the epistatic interaction between IL4R SNP rs1801275 and the VEGF-related SNP rs6921438 was associated with a significant increase in VEGF plasma level in our healthy population. IL4 biological actions are mediated by its binding to the re- ceptors IL4, which leads to the activation of intracellular signaling pathways . The IL4R SNP rs1801275 is a substitution of Arg with Gln at the position 576 of the protein, resulting in an enhancement in the receptor sig- naling. In addition, the VEGF-related SNP rs6921438 is an intergenic variant that is located at 171 kb down- stream of the VEGF gene on chromosome 6p21.1. In a previous GWAS, the minor allele of the polymorphism was associated with decreased VEGF levels . The mechanism of this interaction is not known and as few data are available in the literature, the biological explica- tion of this epistatic effect cannot be hypothesized.
Chad W. MacPherson 1 , Olivier Mathieu 1 , Julien Tremblay 2 , Julie Champagne 2 , André Nantel 3 , Stéphanie-Anne Girard 1 & Thomas A. Tompkins 1
Clinical efects of antimicrobials and probiotics in combination have been reported, however, little is known about their impact on gut microbiota and its resistome. In this study 16S rRNA gene amplicon, shotgun metagenomics sequencing and antibiotic resistance (ABR) microarray were used on fecal samples of 70 healthy participants, taken at four time points in probiotic (Lactobacillus rhamnosus R0011 and Lactobacillus helveticus R0052) and placebo groups to proile the gut bacterial microbiota and its resistome following administration of amoxicillin-clavulanic acid for one week. Signiicant shifts in microbiota family composition caused by the antimicrobial in both groups that included decreases in the proportion of Lachnospiraceae, Coriobacteriaceae and unidentiied Clostridiales; and notable increases for the proportion of Enterobacteriaceae, Bacteroidaceae and Porphyromonadaceae compared to baseline levels. Resistome showed a corresponding enrichment of ABR genes compared to baseline from such classes as aminoglycosides and beta-lactams that were linked, by in silico inference, to the enrichment of the family Enterobacteriaceae. Despite perturbations caused by short-term antibiotic treatment, both gut microbiota and resistome showed prompt recovery to baseline levels one week after cessation of the antimicrobial. This rapid recovery may be explained by the hypothesis of community resilience.
In contrast to the two factors “time of sampling” and “gender” which had close to no effect at the group level on saliva proteome profiles, inter-individual variability was quite significant. Such an observation has been repeatedly reported [6,7,14,15] , and variability was described as exceeding that of plasma  . What the present study additionally documents is the identification and classification of proteins which are discriminating subjects. First, because the majority of identified proteins appeared to be intact proteins, and not fragments, proteolysis was most probably not a predominant explanatory factor in the between- subject variations observed. This is noteworthy given the importance of proteolysis in the oral cavity but it is in agreement with reports of a high consistency of proteolytic profiles generated in whole saliva collected from different healthy subjects  . Second, one should note that spots which levels varied between subjects often corresponded to different isoforms of the same protein (e.g. 4 spots identified as α-amylase, 5 spots identified as PIP). It was previously described that many spots separated on 2-D gels correspond to the same accession number, which was explained by extensive in vivo post-translational modifications or processing of salivary proteins  . It is therefore unlikely that the overall abundance of one protein, which could be evaluated by immunological techniques for example, is correlated to the abundance of specific isoforms. To further support this, Fig. 4 reveals for example that the α-amylase isoforms have contrasted levels of expressions within the group. Thus, spots 256 and 476 are generally less abundant than the group average in subjects 7, 1, 6, 5, 11 and 8 but this trend does not stand for spots 195 and 210. These results illustrate that, when searching for salivary biomarkers, it is necessary to use highly resolutive techniques which allow discriminating between the many isoforms of abundant proteins.
• Considering the publication bias 6 , these results are alarming and demonstrates that harking 7 (hypothesizing after the results are known) in such context can result in serious
misleading conclusions about the true neurobiological associations
• Thus reported SBB associations within small to medium samples of healthy individuals should be interpreted with caution, before their replication is demonstrated in independent datasets.
Conclusions: In young, healthy humans, drinking mineral water decreased heart rate in a time-dependent fashion, potentially due to its mineral properties.
Water is recommended as the preferred beverage of choice for health for the general population ( Popkin et al., 2006 ). Despite the focus on water drinking for health, the precise physiologic responses to water ingestion and the potential mechanisms underlying these re- sponses have not yet been elucidated. Water drinking induces distinct hemodynamic responses that largely depend on the functionality of the autonomic nervous system. Indeed, patients su ﬀering from disorders of autonomic failure substantially increase their blood pressure in re- sponse to water drinking ( Cariga & Mathias, 2001; Jordan et al., 2000; Jordan, Shannon, Grogan, Biaggioni, & Robertson, 1999 ). However, this is not the case for healthyadults ( Brown, Barberini, Dulloo, & Montani, 2005; Girona, Grasser, Dulloo, & Montani, 2014; Joannides, Moore, de la Gueronniere, & Thuillez, 1999; Jordan et al., 2000; Monnard & Grasser, 2017; Routledge, Chowdhary, Coote, & Townend, 2002; Scott, Greenwood, Gilbey, Stoker, & Mary, 2001 ) where an intact autonomic nervous system concomitantly activates sympathetic- and parasympathetic nerves in response to water drinking. In this context, water drinking induced parasympathetic related changes that resulted in an elevation of measures of cardiac vagal tone, which lead to a de- crease in heart rate ( Brown et al., 2005; Girona et al., 2014; Grasser, 2020; Monnard & Grasser, 2017; Routledge et al., 2002 ) with
c.2 Hashtags et instances de reconnaissance de la communauté
Dans la communauté "healthy food", certains hashtags sont d’importants marqueurs identitaires, qui permettent de lier cette communauté. Les utilisateurs qui souhaitent appartenir à cette communauté prendront soin d’utiliser certains hashtags pour manifester leur intérêt envers ce sujet, voire plus, pour construire leur identité numérique à travers le partage de leur alimentation "healthy". Ainsi, les hashtags sont, pour les utilisateurs d’instagram, un code de langage à part. Le hashtag prend, dans mon étude, une place toute particulière, car il vient donner une certaine polysémie à un post instagram, ou peut au contraire préciser le sens d’une photo ou d’une vidéo polysémique. De plus, à travers l'utilisation des hashtags, les utilisateurs peuvent véhiculer les messages qu’ils veulent vraiment faire passer, messages qui ne sont pas toujours explicites au sein des photos. Ainsi, grâce à l’utilisation de divers hashtags, les utilisateurs healthy se différencient les uns des autres, et affirment leurs choix alimentaires et de vie. Ainsi, il semble exister trois sortes de hashtags 78 : les hashtags généralistes, communs à tous les mangeurs sains, comme #motivation #inspiration #love #goodvibes #happyme #wellbeing #comfortfood #detox #healthylife #fitfood ; les hashtags qui démontrent une certaine individualisation des pratiques alimentaires à travers différents régimes, comme #vegan #fullyraw #plantbased #raw #sloweating #mindfuleating ; et les hashtags qui ancrent les pratiques dans une perspective plus large, avec de réelles prises de position de la part des mangeurs sains observés, comme #conciousliving #slowlife #fitnessgirl #earth #environment #nature. Grâce
A last striking observation of the current analysis is the strong geographical correlation of the incidences in adults and children. This correlation may be explained by the fact that adults with T1D share the gene alleles known to be associated to incidence of T1D in children, [86,87], and/or some predisposing environmental causes . For example, in a previous study on incidence of T1D in children, a significant positive correlation was detected between the percentage of urban popu- lation and the incidence of T1D in children (r = 0.41 p-value: < 0.0001) ; in this review a significantly higher urban proportion of T1D incidence among adults was found in 4 of the 7 studies reporting differences between rural vs urban areas [15,21,42,75].
Declarative memory is defined as our capacity to acquire facts and events that are subject to conscious recollection. After the encoding phase, new memories undergo offline transformations, which allow the initially labile traces to become fixed into the physical structure of the brain; a process called consolidation. There is also accumulating evidence that once a consolidated memory is reactivated or retrieved, the latter goes through a reconsolidation process during which it can be degraded, maintained or enhanced. In the present study, we sought to answer the following question: Are retrieved consolidated traces susceptible to disruption by the same type of information? Method: We developed a task based on work by Sonni et al. (Sonni and Spencer 2015), in which subjects were required to learn the location of 36 everyday objects images located on a computer screen. 40 healthy subjects (25.03 ± 3.66) participated in this study. Group 1: Interference (20 subjects); Group 2: control (20 subjects). Results: We found that the administration of the matrix B after recall of the first matrix (Group 1) interfered with reconsolidation of the memory, and thus significantly increase the amount of forgetting seen in the retest session on Day 3. In contrast we could not find any interference effect in the control group. Our results confirm the reconsolidation hypothesis for declarative memory, but further work is needed to identify whether the neural and neurophysiological substrates mediating reconsolidation are the same or different from those involved during consolidation.
US adults Mundurucu adults
US 3-5th graders US young children
Extending the previous analysis, we computed the subjective estimates of the operation separately for the different decompositions of the products (eg 4*9 vs. 6*6 vs. 9*4). The following graphs depict these estimates in function of n1 alone, n2 alone, or n1*n2.
Pointing is used to communicate about an object with another person. This skill has a triadic structure similar to speech: the first person “I” communicate with the second person “you” about an object of interest “it”. Taking advantage of the neuropsychological description of an acquired deficit in pointing called heterotopagnosia which is the inability to point at another person’s body parts, we build a new cognitive model involving the notion of a second person to explain pointing behaviour. We bring experimental evidence that pointing requires taking the addressee’s perspective through the elaboration of a heterocentric reference frame. Furthermore, we show that in heterotopagnosic patients and in healthy subjects pointing at another person’s body is more difficult than pointing at objects. We hypothesize that this difficulty reveals a conflict between two opposite views of the body of other persons: the human body as a subject to communicate with or as an object to communicate about. In addition, we show that heterotopagnosic patients and healthy subjects find it more difficult to point at female body parts than at male ones, perhaps because women are more easily considered as subjects. Finally, we explore the behavioural and neural bases of the perception of pointing. We confirm that the relationship with the second person is necessary to understand the communicative intention of the addressee about the object. As a whole, this work provides the first cognitive and neural evidence for the notion of a second person in the brain.
2 Treatment of newly diagnosed ITP
Newly diagnosed ITP patients are managed with corticosteroids with or without intravenous immu- noglobulins (IVIg) depending on the severity of thrombocytopenia and/or of bleeding signs and symptoms. Although impressive responses are seen using these therapeutic agents, these responses are usually short lived. Thus, in adults, ITP is very frequently characterised by relapses upon tapering or discontinuation of treatment, requiring repeated
3 areas can include promoting physical activity and healthy nutritional choices at work (Lifestyle habits), providing telecommute options to workers to aid in harmonizing their professional and personal responsibilities (Work-life balance), installing ergonomic work stations (Workplace environment) and starting an employee recognition program (Management practices). Interventions implemented in these latter two areas of the QHES aim to reduce the two main occupational risk factors for WMSP: adverse physical