Gulf of Lion

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Occurrence of microplastics in surface waters of the Gulf of Lion (NW Mediterranean Sea)

Occurrence of microplastics in surface waters of the Gulf of Lion (NW Mediterranean Sea)

enclosed seas, such as the Mediterranean Sea, aggregation patterns are not permanent and high variability is observed at a small scale (Suaria et al., 2016). Wind-induced effects on floating material and Stokes drift velocities require further investigation, such as refinement of regional models. Nevertheless, some available scenarios could be hypothesized with possible retention areas in the northwestern Mediterranean and the Tyrrhenian sub-basins (Poullain et al., 2012; Mansui et al., 2014). The Gulf of Lion is in the northwestern sector of the Mediterranean Sea, and its hydrodynamics are influenced by shallow water depths of the shelf, wind regimes (Mistral and Marin), the Northern Current (NC), and freshwater inputs from the Rhône River (Gatti et al., 2006; Fraysse et al., 2014). The NC has a high seasonal variability: while a decrease in intensity is observed in summer, it becomes faster, deeper and narrower in winter (Millot, 1991). Intrusion of the NC onto the shelf of the Gulf of Lion has been observed (Ross et al., 2016; Barrier et al., 2016 and references therein). This productive shelf is also highly exploited for commercial fishing (Bănaru et al., 2013) and the coastal area is strongly influenced by tourism activities. Given this areas great economic, touristic and environmental significance, monitoring threats, such as pollution sources, is essential. Therefore, the primary goal of this study was to provide insight into the temporal and spatial distribution of microplastics in the eastern sector of the Gulf of Lion. Furthermore, we wanted to examine relationships between microplastic size distributions and possible pollution sources and transportation routes.
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Input of particulate heavy metals from rivers and associated
sedimentary deposits on the Gulf of Lion continental shelf

Input of particulate heavy metals from rivers and associated sedimentary deposits on the Gulf of Lion continental shelf

Abstract Fluxes of the heavy metals chromium (Cr), cobalt (Co), nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd) and zinc (Zn) delivered by rivers to the Gulf of Lion (NW Mediterranean Sea) were estimated over a three year study of the River Rhone and its smaller tributaries. Most of the particulate metal fluxes (80e90%) delivered by these rivers occurred within a very short period of time (less than 12%), a typical trend for the Mediterranean environment, where highly contrasting hydrological regimes were observed over the year. Temporal and spatial variations in the fluxes of these particulate metals were driven by the fluxes in both water discharge and suspended particulate matter load. On the shelf, these particulate metal fluxes, largely arising from the Rhone watershed, were two to ten times more important than those resulting from atmospheric deposition. Co, Cr and Ni in the rivers and on the shelf surface sediments were mainly natural and associated with the finest particles. Cd and Phosphorus appeared to be associated with the silt fraction and to be enriched in the prodelta areas. Pb, Zn and Cu were more closely associated with the organic matter content and also showed enrichment in the organic rich prodeltaic sediments. Anthropogenic influences diminished off- shore, except for Pb and Zn which could be supplied from the atmosphere by man-made aerosols. Although most of the metals tended to be enriched in the prodelta areas, these did not constitute a permanent sink due to resuspension processes affecting these shallow depths. A resus- pension experiment conducted on sediment cores from the Rhone prodelta demonstrated that metal deposited on the surface layer, especially those associated with the organic matter, may be resuspended; this should be taken into account for a complete understanding of the biogeo- chemical cycle of these metals.
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Badlands as a hot spot of petrogenic contribution to riverine particulate organic carbon to the Gulf of Lion (NW Mediterranean Sea)

Badlands as a hot spot of petrogenic contribution to riverine particulate organic carbon to the Gulf of Lion (NW Mediterranean Sea)

rarely over 5 %. Therefore, badlands surfaces can be reasonably viewed as a major contributor to the pPOC input into rivers of this region. With a suspended particulate matter (SPM) flux ranging from 1 to 11 Tg yr -1 over the last two decades (Ollivier et al., 2010, Eyrolle et al., 2012, Delmas et al., 2012) and due to the Nile River management (e.g., the Aswan dam), the Rhône River, despite being strongly anthropised (e.g. dams) is now one of the primary continental tributary of the Mediterranean Sea with the Po and Semani rivers (Milliman and Farnsworth, 2011) and supplies approximately one third of the fresh water brought to this sea (Ludwig et al., 2009). In the NW Mediterranean area, 95 % of the sediments deposited in the Gulf of Lion are sourced from the Rhône River (Sadaoui et al., 2016). Accordingly, it is crucial to specify the primary sediment sources in the Rhône catchment and to discriminate the rPOC and pPOC fluxes to refine the lateral transfer of C from continental surfaces to the Mediterranean Sea and the C budget at this regional scale. Among the main tributaries of the Rhône River, the Durance River drains approximately 233 km 2 of the bare Mesozoic badlands locally named
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Defining zooplankton habitats in the Gulf of Lion (NW Mediterranean Sea) using size structure and environmental conditions

Defining zooplankton habitats in the Gulf of Lion (NW Mediterranean Sea) using size structure and environmental conditions

3 Department of Environmental, Earth and Ocean Sciences, University of Massachusetts Boston, 100 Morrissey Blvd, Boston, Massachusetts 02125, USA ABSTRACT: The size structure of zooplankton communities in the Gulf of Lion, NW Mediterra - nean Sea, was studied in May 2010 and January 2011. The integrated physical and biological measurements provided a 3D view with high spatial resolution of the physical and biological variables and their correlations over the whole gulf. The effects of physical processes such as freshwater input, coastal upwelling, and water column mixing by winds on phytoplankton and zooplankton distributions were analyzed using these data. During the winter, strong northerly winds mixed the water column, and the vertical distributions of biological variables were uniform over most of the gulf while there were local hot spots with high chlorophyll a (chl a) concentrations in front of the Rhône mouths and in coastal areas. During the spring, light winds and water column stratification resulted in less vertical mixing, and the Rhône River freshwater plume spread over a large part of the gulf. The nutrients delivered by the freshwater input encouraged high primary production in the surface layer. In the pycnocline, a thin layer of high particle concentration was associated with these high phytoplankton biomasses. Three habitats were distinguished based on statistical analysis performed on biological and physical variables: (1) the coastal area character- ized by shallow waters, high chl a concentrations, and a steep slope of the normalized biomass size spectrum (NBSS); (2) the area affected by the Rhône with high stratification and flat NBSS slope; and (3) the continental shelf with a deep mixed layer, relatively low particle concentrations, and moderate NBSS slope. Defining habitat is a relevant approach to designing new zooplankton sam- pling strategies, validating distribution models and including the zooplankton compartment in trophodynamic studies.
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Strong intrusions of the Northern Mediterranean Current on the eastern Gulf of Lion: insights from in-situ observations and high resolution numerical modelling

Strong intrusions of the Northern Mediterranean Current on the eastern Gulf of Lion: insights from in-situ observations and high resolution numerical modelling

Abstract The Northern Mediterranean Current is the return branch of the cyclonic circulation of the northwestern Mediterranean Sea. Because of geostrophic constraints, this warm and oligotrophic current is forced to flow westward along the continental slope of the Gulf of Lion. But, occasionally, it can pene- trate on the shelf and strongly impacts the local biogeochemistry and in turn the primary production. By combining in-situ observations and high-resolution modelling, it is shown that intrusions on the eastern part of the gulf are mainly forced by easterly or northwesterly wind events, through physical mechanisms that are very different in nature.
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Bioenergetic modeling of the variability of life history traits for anchovy and sardine between the Gulf of Lion, the Bay of Biscay and the English Channel

Bioenergetic modeling of the variability of life history traits for anchovy and sardine between the Gulf of Lion, the Bay of Biscay and the English Channel

Abstract (1600 caractères maximum) : Small pelagic fish show a general decrease in size and body condition over the past two decades in the North-East Atlantic. The underlying factors are still not well understood, however recent studies point to a bottom-up control. In order to understand how the environment impacts the main biological functions, i.e. growth, reproduction and maintenance, we adopted a bioenergetic modelling framework based on the Dynamic Energy Budget theory. To improve the robustness of our study, we chose a comparative approach between two species, Engraulis encrasicolus and Sardina pilchardus, both living in three areas, namely the English Channel, the Bay of Biscay and the Gulf of Lion. Our model is calibrated over the Bay of Biscay and then applied to the other areas, over the early 2000s and the mid-2010s. The environment alone, temperature and zooplankton, explained well the observed spatial differences in growth. The Gulf of Lion had a lower fit than the other areas, which might suppose local genetic adaptation. However, we could not highlight any significant trends between 2000 and 2015 in the environmental data we used. Thus, no significant differences have been observed in the model's outputs between the early 2000s and the mid-2010s. This could result either from the lack of interannual variability in our environmental data, and/or from a change occurring on a finer scale, such as a change in the size of zooplankton or a change in the structure of zooplankton's communities.
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Analysis of riverine suspended particulate matter fluxes (Gulf of Lion, Mediterranean Sea) using a synergy of ocean color observations with a 3-D hydrodynamic sediment transport model

Analysis of riverine suspended particulate matter fluxes (Gulf of Lion, Mediterranean Sea) using a synergy of ocean color observations with a 3-D hydrodynamic sediment transport model

Institut Universitaire de France, Paris, France, 3 Laboratoire de Physique Hydrodynamique et S edimentaire, Centre Bretagne, Institut Franc¸ais de Recherche pour l’Exploitation de la Mer, Plouzan e, France Abstract The export of riverine suspended particulate matter (SPM) in the coastal ocean has major impli- cations for the biogeochemical cycles. In the Mediterranean Sea (France), the Rhone River inputs of SPM into the Gulf of Lion (GoL) are highly variable in time, which severely impedes the assessment of SPM fluxes. The objectives of this study are (i) to investigate the prediction of the land-to-ocean flux of SPM using the complementarity (i.e., synergy) between a hydrodynamic sediment transport model and satellite observa- tions, and (ii) to analyze the spatial distribution of the SPM export. An original approach that combines the MARS-3D model with satellite ocean color data is proposed. Satellite-derived SPM and light penetration depth are used to initialize MARS-3D and to validate its predictions. A sensitivity analysis is performed to quantify the impact of riverine SPM size composition and settling rate on the horizontal export of SPM. The best agreement between the model and the satellite in terms of SPM spatial distribution and export is obtained for two conditions: (i) when the relative proportion of ‘‘heavy and fast’’ settling particles signifi- cantly increases relative to the ‘‘light and slow’’ ones, and (ii) when the settling rate of heavy and light SPM increases by fivefold. The synergy between MARS-3D and the satellite data improved the SPM flux predic- tions by 48% near the Rhone River mouth. Our results corroborate the importance of implementing satellite observations within initialization procedures of ocean models since data assimilation techniques may fail for river floods showing strong seasonal variability.
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Pre-Pliocene tectonostratigraphic framework of the Provence continental shelf (eastern Gulf of Lion, SE France)

Pre-Pliocene tectonostratigraphic framework of the Provence continental shelf (eastern Gulf of Lion, SE France)

The first reflexion seismic survey on the Provence con- tinental shelf has been performed in 1965 by the Oceano- graphic Museum of Monaco, using sparker seismic source, between the Planier islands and the Cassidaigne canyon. The results have been published by Leenhardt et al. [1969] who evidenced NE-SW anticlines and synclines south of Riou island as well as various small-scale paleo-canyons in- cising the edge of the continental shelf and filled with sedi- ment. Other sparker seismic profiles have been performed on the Banc des Blauquières, east of the Cassidaigne can- yon and studied by Froget [1974] who evidenced the occur- rence of a thick interval of deposits characterized by a layered seismic facies, crosscutting the Palaeozoic base- ment, that was interpreted as representing the sedimentary infill of a graben. During the 1980s, various oil exploration 2D seismic databases have been acquired in the Gulf of Lion. Most of the profiles are located in the continental slope or deep-water area, but some of them reach the conti- nental shelf. Maps and paleogeographic reconstructions of the Oligo-Miocene and Plio-Quaternary deposits of the off- shore Provence area have been performed from the strati- graphic interpretation of air-gun oil industry seismic profiles [Bache, 2008; Oudet, 2008; Oudet et al., 2010]. The recent acquisition of sparker and airgun seismic pro- files offshore Provence (MARSOLIG-2008, CASSEIS- 2009 and CASSEIS-2011 surveys) led to the revision of the interpretations by Froget [1974] regarding the Blauquières grabens. Tassy [2012] and Tassy et al. [2014] regarded such structures as steep flanked canyons formed during the Messinian and filled with Plio-Quaternary deposits.
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Repeated fluid expulsions during events of rapid sea-level rise in the Gulf of Lion, western Mediterranean Sea

Repeated fluid expulsions during events of rapid sea-level rise in the Gulf of Lion, western Mediterranean Sea

In situ testing carried out at 300 m long PRGL 1 (42°41’23.30’’N, 3°50’15.50’’E) and 115 PRGL 2 (42°50’58.20’’N, 3°39’30.85’’E ) boreholes ( Fig. 2 ), have led to the identification of five 116

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EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES ON THE RESPIRATORY METABOLISM OF MYTILUS GALLOPROVINCIALIS (MOLLUSCA BIVALVIA) FROM THE MEDITERRANEAN SEA (GULF OF LION)

EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES ON THE RESPIRATORY METABOLISM OF MYTILUS GALLOPROVINCIALIS (MOLLUSCA BIVALVIA) FROM THE MEDITERRANEAN SEA (GULF OF LION)

Experiments were carried out on the possible changes of the respiratory metabolism due to a decrease in the oxygen concentration, to a change in the body size [r]

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Thermodynamique et turbulence dans les épisodes de vent fort sur le Golfe du Lion

Thermodynamique et turbulence dans les épisodes de vent fort sur le Golfe du Lion

Abstract During winter, local strong winds (Mistral and Tramontana) occur in the Gulf of Lion and bring cold and dry continental air over a warmer sea. Those events, called cold air outbreaks, can lead to intense air-sea interactions which favour dense water formation and deep oceanic convection. The appropriate representation of air-sea exchanges in such conditions is fundamental for climate modelling and numerical weather forecasting. The ASICS-MED project aims to identify fine-scale processes leading to dense water formation and is a part of the “Intense air-sea exchanges” topic of the HyMeX program devoted to the study of the hydrological cycle in the Mediterranean. The processes occurring within the marine atmospheric boundary layer (MABL) and the oceanic mixing layer interact with one another at different spatial and temporal scales. Understanding the overall evolution of the MABL but also its fine-scale structure require taking into account all the local processes. The study presented here is aimed at characterizing the mean and turbulent structure of the MABL under strong wind conditions. The objective is to determine how the turbulent field is organized during CAO events and to estimate the surface fluxes during these strong wind conditions. The methodology adopted is based on the joint use of airborne observations collected during the HyMeX-SOP2 field campaign and numerical simulations.
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Atmospheric interactions with gulf stream rings

Atmospheric interactions with gulf stream rings

Commensurate with this is a secondary circulation which for a warm Ring tends to be inward in the upper layers and close through the downwelling regions outside the[r]

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Kinematics of regional salt flow in the northern Gulf of Mexico

Kinematics of regional salt flow in the northern Gulf of Mexico

In the present paper, we describe and analyze the available data that provide direct information on the direction of salt flow at the scale of the whole north margin of the GoM. Two databases are used: (1) in the slope area, digital bathymetric data (NOAA multibeam bathymetric survey), and (2) in the shelf area, a map of shelf break contours at the termination of successive depositional episodes (Galloway et al. 2000). The shelf can stabilize when the underlying salt stops flowing, due to extreme thinning. This allows the shelf break to progressively migrate seaward. Irregularities in the shelf break contours correspond to transfer zones that provide information on salt flow direction. Slope bathymetry displays narrow strike-slip displacements between the minibasins. As most minibasins are floating on top of allochthonous salt (Fig. 1), their relative displacements directly depend on the underlying salt flow. Seismic data show that the same kinematic pattern also explains the deformation observed at deeper levels. Contrary to all previous studies, these different datasets indicate a very consistent pattern of regional-scale salt flow from NE to SW in the north margin. Based on the above, we propose a three-stage model for salt tectonics and we discuss its tectonic significance within the framework of the GoM opening.
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Oblique rifting and segmentation of the NE Gulf of Aden passive margin

Oblique rifting and segmentation of the NE Gulf of Aden passive margin

similarity between the fault pattern in experimental clay models of oblique rifting (Clifton et al., 2000) and the fault pattern observed at the northern passive margin of the Gulf of Aden. Although the age of faulting cannot be ascertained, it may be proposed that the lower margin faults, perpendicular to the opening direction, formed after the upper margin faults, when the resisting part of the lithosphere (upper mantle) had been sufficiently thinned (Handy and Brun, 2004). Subsequently, the spreading segments of the Sheba Ridge formed along the same strike as the lower margin faults (N110°E-N120°E), as evidenced by the trend of the magnetic anomalies in the oldest oceanic crust. Such a scenario would agree with two diachronous extensional events during the rifting, an older N150°E-N160°E event and a younger N20°E-N30°E event, but, as stated above, our fault slip data do not provide any relative chronology between the two extension phases.
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Le lion du Bubasteion à Saqqara (Égypte). Une momie remarquable parmi des momies de chats

Le lion du Bubasteion à Saqqara (Égypte). Une momie remarquable parmi des momies de chats

CONCLUSION L’analyse détaillée du squelette a permis de pré- ciser certains éléments : il s’agit d’un lion âgé de 9 ans, ayant certainement vécu en captivité une large partie de son existence. L’état lamen- table des dents est sans doute à mettre au crédit d’une alimentation pour le moins inadaptée à ce fauve. Il est probable que la base de l’alimen- tation de l’animal était faite de « pâtée » essen- tiellement à base de farines de céréales. Ces farines, comme pour l’alimentation humaine, contenaient des fragments de silice accentuant l’abrasion des dents. Un tel phénomène est d’ailleurs observé de façon systématique sur les restes humains, squelettes et momies que l’on est amené à étudier en Égypte. Un animal pré- sentant une denture dans un tel état n’avait par conséquent absolument aucune chance de sur- vivre à l’état sauvage !
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On the eddies in the Amundsen Gulf.

On the eddies in the Amundsen Gulf.

We still need to analyse all the measurement from the samples of the eddy (January 28 th 2008). These measurements will then be compared to all the other data from CFL. We may found water with similar properties in the region. This could give us more information on the water origin.

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Surcotes dans le Golfe du Lion et conditions atmosphériques: variabilité contemporaine et future (1900-2100)

Surcotes dans le Golfe du Lion et conditions atmosphériques: variabilité contemporaine et future (1900-2100)

longue, plus la surcote maximale atteinte à n’importe quel moment lors de ces séquences est élevée (figure 67). Il est important de souligner que la surcote atteinte pour les courtes séquences de BL (< 6 jours consécutifs) est bien plus élevée que celle atteinte durant les mêmes séquences de GA (figure 67). La configuration barométrique moyenne durant BL montre en effet une dépression centrée au niveau du bassin méditerranéen occidental, alors qu’elle se situe au large sur l’Atlantique durant GA (cf. figure 27, § 5.4). Même pour de très courts épisodes de BL, le Golfe du Lion se trouve sous des basses pressions surélevant le plan d’eau par l’effet barométrique inverse. En revanche, durant GA, les courtes séquences ne sont pas toujours associées à un déplacement de la principale dépression de l’Atlantique central vers le Golfe de Gascogne. A partir des séquences de plus de 8 jours consécutifs, la moyenne des surcotes maximales devient quasiment similaire durant GA et BL (figure 67). Pour résumer, les derniers jours des séquences de GA et BL ne sont pas associés à l’intensité maximale des forçages météo-marins. Toutefois, plus la séquence homogène de ces types de temps est longue, plus il est probable que la circulation atmosphérique à l’échelle synoptique et régionale développe des conditions favorables à la formation d’un pic de surcote dans le Golfe du Lion, c'est-à-dire un fort gradient barométrique zonal associé à des forts vents d’afflux de secteur SE.
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Comparative metagenomics of hydrocarbon and methane seeps of the Gulf of Mexico

Comparative metagenomics of hydrocarbon and methane seeps of the Gulf of Mexico

for fermentation (formate and acetate) were highly represented in all samples (Fig.  3 ). This is consistent with the preponderance of organotrophic and chemosynthetic lifestyles in deep marine sediments. Sediments with no evidence of active hydrocarbon seepage. Although non-seep areas represent the vast majority of all marine sediments, they remain relatively poorly investigated compared to seep sediments. Methane concentration was extremely low (<0.05 µM) in the non-seep sediments analyzed. Moreover, no mcrA genes were detected in metagenomes or by targeted amplification. This is consistent with the geochemical data that indicated that these sampling sites were not influenced by seepage of hydrocarbons. 16S rRNA gene anal- yses (both amplicon-based and metagenomic) indicated a specific community composition with an overrep- resentation of the Planctomycetes, Marine Group I and Marine Benthic Group E archaea as previously observed in seafloor sediments from the Guaymas basin, with minimal influence of hydrocarbon seepage 14 , 22 . Comparative analysis of the metagenomes indicated an overrepresentation of several metabolic genes, notably affiliated to the Planctomycetes and Bacteroidetes, involved in the degradation of various glycans as well as chlorinated and sulfonated compounds, as previously detected by fosmids sequencing 45 . In marine environments, chlorinated compounds such as chloromethane and other chloroalkanes are derived from phytoplankton and algae (Gribble, 2003), while sulfonated compounds have been found as a major constituent of humic acids and algae (agar and fucans) 46 . Likewise glycans are abundant polysaccharides in marine invertebrate tissues and algae 45 . The commu- nities in the non-seep site were therefore likely adapted to grow on detrital organic matter delivered to the sedi- ment as marine snow and decaying organic matter particles. As has been previously observed 22 it was not possible to extract RNA of sufficient quality or quantity for subsequent analysis, from the non-seep sediments (data not shown). This observation, as well as the frequent detection of Marine Group I archaea and Planctomycetes in the water column 47 and/or attached to macroscopic detrital aggregates 48 , suggest that these microbes may predomi- nantly have a pelagic lifestyle, degrading the heteropolysaccharides of the marine snow, and primarily represent organisms deposited in the sediment with water column-derived organic matter and have limited activity in situ in these marine sediments. Nitrate reduction potential, inferred from narG genes was detected in members of
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Entre traité d’alliance et ordre de chevalerie : l’exemple lorrain de la « Compagnie au Lion » de 1468

Entre traité d’alliance et ordre de chevalerie : l’exemple lorrain de la « Compagnie au Lion » de 1468

quant à lui défini comme un ordre fraternel 24 . Il n’est pas possible ici de comparer point par point les textes de 1416 et de 1468 mais notons quelques ressemblances qui peuvent éclairer notre analyse. Dans un cas comme dans l’autre, l’initiative ne semble pas être celle du prince qui est pourtant au cœur du projet et dont le service est revendiqué par les membres. Le premier texte parle d’une « alliance et compaignie » et le second, d’une « compaignie », les différents articles qui y sont mentionnés constituent des « traictiez, pactions, actions secretes, confederacions et alliances ». Ce vocabulaire a précisément à voir avec celui des landfrieden ou « communes paix » en Lorraine définies par Christophe Rivière comme des traités d’alliances signés par les princes et seigneurs locaux ayant pour but d’éviter les guerres privées en leur préférant le recours à la voie judiciaire 25 . À propos du vocabulaire qui les désigne, il a relevé qu’après 1361 : « les seigneurs lorrains n’évoquent plus seulement la “trêve” ou la “paix”, ils emploient aussi les termes (…) de “convenances”, “alliances”, “confédérations” » 26 . Ce glissement sémantique est représentatif du changement constaté à la fin du XIV e siècle quand « le Landfried ne réunit plus les forces politiques d’une région autour d’un objectif de paix, mais devient une alliance diplomatique et militaire dirigée contre un ennemi commun, parfois désigné explicitement 27 ». Cette remarque vaut pour la compagnie au Lévrier blanc comme pour la compagnie au Lion de 1468. Même si le dernier traité de Landfried est conclu le 2 juillet 1408, Christophe Rivière mentionne des accords s’y apparentant en 1411, 1414 et 1422 28 . À l’aune de ces éléments, on peut donc estimer que la compagnie du Lévrier blanc en tant que traité d’alliance peut être
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Achille au Chant XXIV de l’Iliade : Lion exécrable ou héros admirable ?

Achille au Chant XXIV de l’Iliade : Lion exécrable ou héros admirable ?

dans ce passage, Achille reconnaît la suprématie d’Agamemnon qu’il niait si férocement au chant i : Homer, Iliad, Book 24 cité, p. 31. c’est aussi la lecture que font la plupart des commentateurs (pour la bibliographie, cf. Postlethwaite, « Agamemnon best of spearmen » cité, p. 95-6, notes n° 2-9 ; on peut y ajouter Dunkle, « nestor, odysseus, and the Mêtis-Biê Antithesis » cité, p. 16-7), à l’exception notable de samuel eliot bassett (« the ἁμαρτία of Achilles », Transactions of the american Philological association, n° 65, 1934, p. 53-8) et de norman Postlethwaite. en réalité, Achille limite soigneusement et poliment son com- pliment au maniement des armes de jet. et c’est bien plutôt Agamemnon qui lui obéit désormais (xxiii.895 : ὣς ἔφατ󰆇, οὐδ󰆇 ἀπίθησεν ἄναξ ἀνδρῶν Ἀγαμέμνων), contraire- ment à ses protestations initiales (i.287-9 : ἀλλ󰆇 ὅδ󰆇 ἀνὴρ ἐθέλει περὶ πάντων ἔμμεναι ἄλλων, | πάντων μὲν κρατέειν ἐθέλει, πάντεσσι δ󰆇 ἀνάσσειν, | πᾶσι δὲ σημαίνειν, ἅ τιν󰆇 οὐ πείσεσθαι ὀΐω).
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