Broadly defined in 2003 by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), “GAP refers to the application of practices or protocols to address environmental, economic and social sustainability for on-farm production and post-harvest processes resulting in safe and healthy food and non-food agricultural products”. These practices or protocols are best implemented through a well documented and understood GAP Plan, which must be understood by farm employees, who must therefore be trained in GAPs. The Plan should be re-evaluated at least annually, or at any time when there are changes in the farm that could affect safety. It is noted, however, that the term ‘good agriculturalpractices’ may mean different things and have varying implications depending on who defines it. These GAP requirements, which may be established as standard, codes or regulations, have been established mainly by the food industry and producer organisations but also by governments and non-governmental organizations (NGOs). The intention is to establish common requirements (based on which GAP standard is used) and by extension, a uniform approach to assessing farms with respect to meeting these standards, which may be industry, regulatory or internal.
Code [ 16 , 34 ]. Sectoral and market characteristics also make it difficult to set up contractual and incentive arrangements for sharing the value-added, which could contribute to the adoption of agri-environmental practices. The interviewees explain that overly opportunis- tic behavior, combined with the absence of quality standards and compensation payments, makes difficult for relations of trust between the farmers and processing companies of the region to develop. These problems of coordination to put in place quality standards are mentioned in many studies [ 22 , 35 ]. The difficulty to precisely measure the agricultural environmental externalities make it harder to set up incentive arrangements for environ- mental practices adoption along agro-food value chains [ 23 ]. Especially in the case of livestock effluents, the lack of specific legislation, perception of its impacts, and high cost of waste treatment facilities are the main obstacles to the adoption of best waste management practices. The policy should pay more attention to dairy farms effluent pollution, mainly in the case of the intensification of agriculture practices happening in Brazil now. More than regulation, it seems important to designing incentives to the adoption of low-cost dairy waste management solutions.
This study was conducted in two farms in French Guiana, South America (5°16’54”N, 52°54’44”W). Mean annual rainfall is 3041 mm and mean air temperature is around 25.7 °C. The study focused on a hilltop zone with clayey soils, classiﬁed as Ferralsols or Acrisols.
Using an econometric model with simultaneous equations, we were able to demonstrate that farmers who adopt organic farming label are more likely to sell their produce through short food supply chains. Conversely, farmers who sell their production using this channel are more likely to implement environment-friendly practices. Such results highlight the fact that proximity can be associated with quality, irrespective of the production considered. Moreover, our study confirms that environment-friendly practices are more likely to be implemented by younger producers who are furthermore better educated and claim to work more on their farm. Such practices require increased labour. Despite some differences depending on farm specialization, these results and their interdependency tend to prove that the quality of agricultural products and processes can be enhanced in several ways, either through the commercial channel or the adoption of environmental labels.
with the partners in the study, as part of an "acting knowledge”. This process allowed building a common perception on the conditions of herd management (allotment, allocation, reproduction, growth / fattening), grazing (stocking rate, rotation, recovery period (period of regrowth of grass), and land use planning. This approach of “distributed cognition” has established archetypes of farms organization and functioning which resulted in coherence between facts and actions, and between the permanent constraints such as feeding system and the long term logics of the durability of fodder resources. This perception of the situations favoured the development of adjustments of the practices while remaining in consonance with the production constraints. The direct impact of these “new” practices comes mainly from the type of vegetation cover (choice of species) and the grazing practices, due partially to the level of variation (rapid or adjusted) of operations (stocking rate /rotation/recovery period). Their interactions are reflected in the meadow structures more or less stretched (measurement method designed for this study). Dense and thick structure of grass swards are found mostly in healthy grasslands. The modes of organization also have an impact on the management of grasslands, particularly through the plots and livestock management, which both play on the flexibility in the livestock / grassland interactions. Seasonal effects should also be taken into account (higher vulnerability of fodder covers in key periods). The support to the perception and decision of local actors began with a "semantic modelling" to conduct common representations, which have been modelled on timing charts and maps. More oriented tools were selected such as pasture profile at the plot level which shows the variations of uses. Modelling has highlighted relevant factors to assess grazing systems in other countries (Brazil, Europe ...). These study results are part of ongoing work on the relevance of livestock systems in supporting agro-ecology and eco-development models through its contribution to soil fertility management and landscape ecology.
As a first step, we can identify the various factors leading to credit insecurity. They are both exogenous (linked to the wider financial environment) and endogenous (linked to the FI themselves). The issue of securing credit can therefore be tackled from two separate angles: From the lenders’ point of view, we will find the whole range of classic instruments to cover credit risk developed by FI as well as those requiring a third party. We will also encounter practices attempting to better coordinate the delivery of different FI operating in the same area, and methods to improve the operation and performance of FI. All these tools assist the FI in covering their own risk but tend to transfer the burden of financial risk to agricultural producers or to a third party. They may therefore constitute satisfactory tools for FI but are unlikely to solve the problem of securing credit which lies mainly in the insecurity of rural incomes.
Climate change has a large impact on land-use change. Climatic phenomena and environmental hazards such as floods, cyclones, droughts and wildfires increase insecurity of land tenure (Reale and Handmer, 2011). In particular, global warming exacerbates conflicts between nomadic cattle herders and crop farmers due to the scarcity of water and fodder. Another striking phenomenon concerns large land acquisitions by foreign investors, mostly for agriculture and mining (Woodhouse, 2010; Anseeuw et al., 2012a). It is a subject of concern for NGOs and multilateral organizations (Grain, 2008; World Bank, 2010; Geary, 2012). Large acquisitions affect all continents and are no longer restricted to developing countries as recent debates in France show (Levesque, 2016). Such acquisitions result from the combination of increasing demand for food and biomass for energy and growing opportunities for financial gains from raw materials (Grataloup, 2007). According to ’Land Matrix’, between 2000 and 2016, 26.7 million hectares of farmland have been handed over to foreign investors who own about 2% of the global farmland. The average area in these transactions was 35,756 hectares and the median size 8,650 hectares (Nolte et al., 2016), which means that some transactions involved very large areas. Purchases concern primarily land with high agronomic potential, densely populated and accessible. However, many of these investment projects cause a media outcry and do not reach a conclusion. Lack of transparency and respect for local users’ rights, as well as competition with local elite powers, explain the high failure rates of land grabbing projects and undermine business viability (Burnod and Tonneau, 2013). International institutions are trying to promote ’good practices’ (World Bank, 2007; FAO, 2012a) but some studies highlight that the balance of power usually works against small farmers, who are sometimes excluded or dispossessed (Anseeuw et al., 2012a; Deininger and Byerlee, 2012; Oya, 2013). Moreover, the agribusiness plans of large companies to develop rural services and infrastructure seldom come to fruition (Dayang Norwana et al., 2011). There are, for example, too many cases where the authorities displace local people on the grounds that the agricultural project will serve the general interest, even though the venture is of a commercial nature. Such exclusion is also observed in Eastern Europe (Bazin and Bourdeau-Lepage, 2011; European Parliament, 2015).
2.2.7 Step 7: designing prototypes, including constraints This step involved a return to reality at the field scale. Considering the defined objectives (identified in step 3), the farmers designed new prototypes by looking for solutions to deal with constraints (pedoclimatic and technical constraints identified in step 5). Economic and organizational constraints were not taken into account, as they had already been consid- ered in the objectives. Farmers analyzed the feasibility of the innovative prototypes developed for application in the real conditions they encountered on their farms, at the scale of the cropping system. Two different design workshops were used. The first (step 7a) involved all the farmers of the group in a role play situation inspired by the “exquisite corpse” para- digm; individual farmers were asked to make successive contributions to the development of a management system for one crop in the rotation, such that the entire cropping system fulfilled the defined objectives (i.e., farmer A designed the first crop management system, farmer B analyzed it and then designed the second crop management system, etc.). This tool enabled farmers to identify their constraints and to react to feedback from their peers concerning the management sys- tems they proposed. It also forced farmers to find a set of solutions concerning (1) the defined objectives, (2) the con- straints given by the first farmer, and (3) the combinations of practices imposed by the preceding farmers. This set of solu- tions involved choices concerning the relevant crops, crop management, and decision rules.
4.1 Robust weed control practices classification trees
In a first step, robust trees were performed on two sets of explanatory vari- ables coming from the two main sources of available data (agricultural census or geographical databases). The tree T1 was performed on the set 2 of predictors (characteristics of the farm holdings) with a frequency pa- rameter f = 95 %. T2 was performed on the sets 1 and 3 of predictors (physical characteristics and socio-professional environment) with a fre- quency parameter f = 80 %. These parameters were selected to get at least four farms in each leaf. These trees are plotted in figure 3.
L., Hanibal ; Y., Habtamu and J., Tsedalu
The farmers have been continuously experimenting informally and innovating new practices since the dawn of agriculture to adjust to their circumstances so that they can maximize or optimize benefits from the use of their natural, human and financial resources. Some innovations and adoption may take place on farms of individual farmers but quite often community action leads to large-scale adoption. Results of such innovations lead to practices, which are in most cases sustainable, practical and within the limits of their capabilities. Such practices may include areas of soil and water conservation, abstraction of water for irrigation, conveyance of water, methods of application and scheduling of irrigation water to crops, choice of crops, other agronomic practices for irrigated crops, and management of the water users in making decisions to share water, maintenance of irrigation scheme, conflict resolution, etc.
At the Courseulles site, pesticides could involve varia- tions in function of two factors: the pesticide spraying history of each field and the diversity of microarthropod reactions to any given pesticide. Indeed, the different pesticides can have different effects on soil invertebrates . Furthermore, even if qualitative and quantitative pesti- cide differences can be observed between the systems of each field, the pesticide spraying calendar should be taken into account when looking at the effects on microarthro- pods. Indeed, even if we can observe, from a general point of view, that pesticide use was less important in the “Integrated” than in the “Conventional” system (see the mean amount of pesticides used on ten fields during 5 years), this is not always true for each year. Thus, in 1997, the overall quantities of herbicides used were greater in the “Integrated” than in the “Conventional” system. These remarks are also valuable for each season of culture, since each system for each field was conducted independently from the other systems of other fields. Thus, for some sampling dates, particularly during spring when many pesticides were also sprayed in the “Integrated” system, the biodiversity was not always greater in the “Integrated” system, as it was observed in P3 and P4.
Although agriculturalpractices may directly impact soil erodibility, various other factors, directly related to the landscape conditions, may also accelerate soil erosion and sediment transport. In the Guaporé catchment, a strong link is observed between cultivation practicesand the relief (e.g., slope steepness, length and curvature). In the lower and middle parts of the catchment, the high drainage density has generated the formation of short, steep and concave slopes, where lateral flows dominate (runoff and subsurface flow), resulting in the formation of shallow and stony soils. Hillslopes are naturally well connected to the river network, because of the deep river incision. In addition to the impact of the slope gradient on soil erosion, soil compaction may also generate larger runoff volumes and a reduction of the soil surface roughness that may increase runoff velocity. In this context, farmers adapted their agriculturalpractices depending on the local context, the availability of technical solutions and their investment capacity. As a result, soil and landscape characteristics primarily guided the implementation of soil management strategies depending on the land use. Accordingly, no-till requiring heavy machinery that was initially designed for cereal cultivation is mainly implemented in upper catchment parts, characterized by gentle slopes. In contrast, conventional tillage is widely applied in lower catchment parts, where slopes are steeper which might cause the fall over of heavy machinery.
2.2 MULINO DSS
The decision support system used in this study is the MULINO-DSS (mDSS), a DSS developed within the context of an international project on MULtisectorial, INtegrated, Operational decision support for sustainable use of water re- sources at the catchment scale (Giupponi et al., 2004). mDSS is based on the Driving forces–Pressures–State–Impact– Responses (DPSIR) framework, introduced by the European Environmental Agency for environmental monitoring pur- poses. This approach is useful in conceptualizing and for- malizing the problem at hand. The conceptual phase consists in the identification of the DPS chains and the resulting indi- cators. The decision problem is therefore described and the cause-effect relation between the relevant socio-economic and environmental indicators is assessed. This task is par- ticularly complex in water resources conflicts where the lack of a multisectorial perspective can result in socio-economic damages to the different local users. The multicriteria deci- sion analysis in mDSS consists in comparing a limited num- ber of options, described by their attributes. An analysis matrix is constructed which contains the raw performance measures of the different options. The different options are then compared using a standardization procedure to generate values on a uniform scale. Since the multiple option perfor- mances are to be reduced to a single value or score, decision rules based on aggregation procedures are applied (Mysiak et al., 2005).
Earthworms improve soil structure, contribute to organic matter decomposition and nutrient cycling (Lemtiri et al., 2014) and play a key role in terrestrial ecotoxicological risk assessment (Sheppard et al., 1997; Weeks et al., 2004). They are therefore important terrestrial model organisms and require toxicity testing. The beneficial role of earthworms in soil, influencing a range of chemical, physical and biological processes, is beyond dispute (Scheu, 1987; Edwards and Bohlen, 1996; McCredie and Parker, 1992; Curry and Baker, 1998). Since, they are, in addition, easy to cultivate and handle for experiments, earthworms have become part of standard test organisms in ecotoxicology (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), 1984, 2004). On the other hand, it is well recognized that the accumulation of heavy metals in earthworms depends strongly on the metal that is bioavailable for uptake rather than the total. Dai et al. (2004); Spurgeon and Hopkin, (1996) and Hobbelen et al. (2006) observed the significant correlations between the concentrations of heavy metal accumulated in earthworms and bioavailable metal concentrations of field soils. Because of their capacity to accumulate and concentrate large quantities of organic and inorganic pollutants, earthworm species are widely recognized as suitable organisms for biomonitoring the effects of heavy metals in contaminated soils (Reddy and Rao, 2008; Peijnenburg and Vijver, 2009). Numerous studies concern the effects of metals on earthworms in terms of mortality (Neuhauser et al., 1985; Fitzpatrick et al., 1996; Spurgeon et al., 1994, 2000), loss of weight (e.g. Khalil et al., 1996; Spurgeon and Hopkin, 1996; Maboeta et al., 2004), cocoon production (e.g. Ma, 1988; Spurgeon and Hopkin, 1996; Spurgon et al., 2000), cocoon viability (e.g. van Gestel et al., 1992; Spurgeon and Hopkin, 1996) and growth (e.g. van Gestel et al., 1991; Khalil et al., 1996). Most of these studies are short-term experiments (14 or 21 days), performed in artificial soils or soil artificially contaminated by the addition of metal in solution (Nahmani et al., 2007). Few concern field-contaminated soils with multiple contaminants (Weltje, 1998; Conder and Lanno, 2000; Feisthauer et al., 2006). Despite a large body of literature on the impact of earthworms on the availability of metals in soils, only a few studies have been carried out into earthworm- assisted metal extraction by plants.
The issue of food security is a major challenge that occurs differently in the two study areas. In Western Burkina Faso, food security challenges are reflected in the need to increase milk production, but also to diversify food commodities (Lourme-Ruiz et al., 2016). The dairy farmers introduce practices to support family consumption and to supply the local dairies throughout the year. In the Grands Causses territory in France, food security issues concern health quality, traceability, but also the practices introduced by dairy farmers through signs of quality and origin, and supplying food (cheeses, ultra-fresh) for local consumption (Allaire & Sylvander, 1997). In Europe, consumers contribute to changes in farming practices because they buy labelled or local products (Allaire, 2016). This comparison between the two territories shows that agroecological transition needs a strong structural support, such as market organization demanding high quality products that respect the environment. The WBF example shows that, without support, such as the organic referential in the GCF territory, or organization, the trend would be towards specialization in order to facilitate production and secure supplies to dairies.
BIOSOL is a multidisciplinary scientific program (soil science, agronomy, geography) which aims at understanding and promoting agro-ecological practices among peasant communities in Burkina-Faso. In this work, the pedological, geochemical and microbiological characteristics of agricultural soils were investigated in order to make an inventory of soil fertility. Two sites (villages of Sampiéri and Bandougou) with contrasted pedo-climatic conditions were selected.
Results indicate that the microbial biomass for all samples are low. Metabolic quotients (qCO2) are very different and compared to samples from Sampiéri, statistically higher for samples from Bandougou, reflecting disturbed soils for these latter. Catabolic evenness were quite similar for all the samples. The soil ecosystem from Bandougou has significantly influenced the functions of soil microbial community and hence probably its composition. More generally, catabolic diversity of soil microbial community is variable under contrasted climatic and the influence of various cultural practices. This may indicate that the efficiency of soil quality restoration is under the control of many factors which could be further investigated such as the position on the slope along the topo-sequence, the composition of soils and particularly the availability of nutrients and the various cultural practices.
Mots clés : système de culture / Amazonie / petite agriculture tropicale
Abstract – Identiﬁcation and evaluation of agriculturalpractices that store soil carbon, a ﬁrst step towards low impact agriculture. In French Guiana, the general environmental context and the growing need for energy and food products, linked to population growth, are responsible for increasing pressure on natural resources through land use changes. Low impact practices are emerging in the aim of reconciling production and environmental objectives. In French Guiana slash and burn practices are still used to increase agricultural area, and lead to a large loss of carbon. A ﬁeld survey was carried out in order to understand the place of soil in farmers ’ choices, and to obtain a description of production systems andpractices, focusing on identifying those with low impact on carbon dynamics. This step was realized through speciﬁc soil carbon stock measurements. Our results show that the “soil object” is mastered by farmers in terms of physical properties, and organic matter is a recognized indicator which is used to inform spatial management of farming systems. Farmers mobilizing low-impact practices have efﬁcient production systems for their economic and environmental beneﬁts.
Although our analytical scope is mainly oriented towards an internal and close reading of his work, we have also tried to situate the devel- opment of Eisenman’s architectural and theoretical investigations with- in the larger historical, theoretical and critical framework of the architec- tural discipline, namely by examining and confronting the close interac- tion between his own architectural and theoretical constructions and the many disciplinary and cross-disciplinary references. In terms of inter- pretation, our main concern is to propose a factual, objective and prag- matic frame of interpretation, which stays as close as possible to the terminology of the author, without any interference of external frames of interpretation. In order to optimize this objective analytical frame, we have been trying to focus on changes and continuities, constants and variables, theories andpractices. The intention is not to make a linear description of a succession of facts and data, but to focus on the multi- layered, multiple and transformative aspects of the processes of thoughts and to consider the act of theorizing as a continuous work-in- progress, with its own moments of crisis, shifts, bifurcations and loops. Our intention is thus not only to engage in a recapitulative reflection on the major themes and concepts of Eisenman’s work and to highlight the most critical themes, writings and projects, but also to reflect upon the underlying motivations, assets and construction of Eisenman’s dis- course and to outline the main lines of development, transformation and disrupture. The main objective is to frame the most critical moments and lines of thought of the ‘Project Eisenman’ and to shed a light on the theoretical underpinnings and working methods, i.e. the ‘modus
3 ESG Université du Québec à Montréal, Montréal, Cananda & Singapore University of Social Science, Singapore 4 Université de Nantes LEMNA, Nantes, France
5 Warwick Business School, University of Warwick, UK
O bservation is the motor of empiricism. From ancient medicine (Pomata, 2011) to modern sociology (Platt, 1983), observing phenomena is considered critical to making sense of them. In social sciences, observation is more than a ‘technique’ or a ‘tool’. It is a broader epistemological position, which supposes that to study a phenomenon, one must watch it attentively and at length. In the Management and Organization Studies field, observation is also a data collection method that is frequently acknowledged as uniquely enriching. This is particularly the case when it comes to investigating phe- nomena that are difficult to examine otherwise or reexamining those already extensively studied to unsettle their accepted truths (Bernstein, 2012; Locke, 2011). Despite this, it remains under-engaged by management scholars (Cunliffe, Linstead, Locke, Sergi, & Hallin, 2011; Von Krogh, 2020), certainly com- pared with interviewing or quantitative analysis. Even when used, it is frequently over-stated: as Bate (1997) stressed, much of its use in our field is best described as ‘quasi-anthropological’ that is characterized more by “quick description” (Wolcott, 1995, p. 90) than ‘thick description’ (Geertz, 1973). The ‘ethno- graphic consciousness’ (Linstead, 1997) central to its capacity for rich contribution thus remains lacking. This is for both ana- lytical and practical reasons: some research questions are thornier than others in demanding more in-depth engagement; the contemporary realities of business schools rarely make space for extended forays into organizational fields.