engagement in learning physics

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The Contribution of the Theory of Relation to Knowledge to Understanding Students' Engagement in Learning Physics

The Contribution of the Theory of Relation to Knowledge to Understanding Students' Engagement in Learning Physics

This lack of theoretical references has consequences on the investigation methodology. Quantitative in most cases, its aim is to measure an attitude using averages of scores given to various propositions with the help of Likert or Thurstone scales , or of semantic differentiation ones. Then, these measures are used to examine the existence of possible links with other variables (age, gender, matter, etc.). The lack of an established reference leads the researchers to use various tests, involving five to seven items (Breakwell & Robertson, 2001) to some fifty (Goglin & Swartz, 1992 ; Weinburgh, 1998 ; Wood, 1998), and this makes the comparison between the results of various studies very difficult. Besides, in the same test, all sorts of indicators are often used, regarding for example the image of science in society, the usefulness of science for a professional career, the pleasure to ‘do’ science in class, etc. Even if the average of scores given to such various items is an easy way to account for the whole of the answers, it is difficult to give it some significance. Moreover, Gardner detailed at several times (1975, 1995) this problem of multi-dimensionality of scales of measurement and its consequences. So, if we suppose that the items have some coherence and allow the researchers to characterize an individual's attitude, the provided results are generally obtained from averages regarding a great number of students 3 , who may be very different, by age, school environment, gender, etc. For that reason, the obtained average represents very global information that hides considerable local disparities. Furthermore, it describes a state, or even its evolution, but it does not indicate anything about the processes that lead to it, which only qualitative studies might bring to light. These studies are very rare (Baker & Leary, 1995; Osborne & Collins, 2000; Piburn & Baker, 1993), even if some quantitative studies use them on a reduced part of the population sample to obtain additional information (for example Ebenezer & Zoller, 1993; Häussler, Hoffman, Langeheine, Rost & Sievers, 1998 ; Zohar & Sella, 2003).
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Promoting Engagement in a CS1 Course with Assessment for Learning.  A Practice Report

Promoting Engagement in a CS1 Course with Assessment for Learning. A Practice Report

Student’s Engagement Figure 1 presents the MCQs participation rate from 2013 to 2019. Since the MCQs take place at the beginning of the session, these figures are a proxy of the course attendance. The first MCQs have a participation rate higher than 80%. It decreases a bit for the third MCQs that take place shortly after the mid-term exam but before the results are made available to the students. Once they are, the participation rate drops for MCQ4 and the participation rate decrease continues for MCQ5. That rising number of absences through the semester is indicative of abandonment since the MCQs take place at the beginning of exercises sessions. In Figure 1 the participation rates are shown as decreasing over the years (except in 2016–2017), suggesting that, while the student numbers increased during that period (as can be seen in Table 1), the absenteeism rate increased as well. This may be partially explained by the open access policy to higher education in Belgium: students may enter the CS curriculum lacking some fundamental skills (e.g., in maths) and are discouraged (e.g., by maths and physics courses).
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Analysis of student engagement in an online annotation system in the context of a flipped introductory physics class

Analysis of student engagement in an online annotation system in the context of a flipped introductory physics class

B. Seeding We show that it is possible to seed prior-semester com- ments into the new semester ’s discussion to stimulate an above-average amount of discussion. Additionally, this discussion demonstrates an above-average amount of “gen- erative interaction, ” the interaction type demonstrated to be of greatest value for learning [34] . We have also found that students in seeded sections annotate and read significantly earlier and their annotations are of better quality compared to students in unseeded sections. The fact that, by seeding the discussion, instructors can influence students ’ annotating behavior is very important given the relationship we have shown between students ’ effort in thoughtful discussion online and their conceptual learning over the course of the semester. By seeding the discussion, instructors can increase the amount of thoughtful effort students put into their online participation. This finding is contrary to another study that looked at the relationship between the level of thinking discussion prompts and the related responses [35] . In this study, each student was required to post one prompt for discussion during the course of the semester. The level of thinking for both the prompts and subsequent responses were evaluated using Bloom ’s taxonomy. There was no relation- ship found between the level of thinking in the prompt and that in the response [35] . Our finding that seeding insightful prompts can effect the quality of responses in the discussion has powerful implications for instructors of flipped class- rooms who are interested in increasing the likelihood of students reading the material before coming to class and engaging in higher quality discussion.
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A quest for meta-learning gains in a physics serious game

A quest for meta-learning gains in a physics serious game

Contribution to research on confidence degrees Previous works in the field of confidence ranking have generally noted that learners tend to overestimate the quality of their answers, especially in areas where their skills and knowledge bases are weak (Ehrlinger, Johnson, Banner, Dunning, & Kruger, 2008; Kruger & Dunning 1999; O’Hanlon & Diaz, 2010). In other words, it has been regularly observed that students do not know enough to recognise that they lack sufficient knowledge for accurate self-assessment. The pattern observed in this experiment does not fit well in this overestimation tendency. Self-assessment episodes in the Intermediate test do not show high confidence degrees but a progression towards higher levels when good answers are given (see Table 7.1). It advocates for an excipient understanding of the connection between rightness and certainty. After all, it would have been possible that pupils only focus on reaching the target with the ball, neglecting the reflection on their actions and disregarding or using superficially the Confidence slider. On the contrary, the answers provided reflect serious meta- cognitive thinking. This fair level of engagement with reflection can be imputed to convergent factors: • during the general introduction to the experiment, students have been briefly explained why
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Introduction of interactive learning into French university physics classrooms

Introduction of interactive learning into French university physics classrooms

We report on a project to introduce interactive learning strategies (ILS) to physics classes at the Universite´ Pierre et Marie Curie, one of the leading science universities in France. In Spring 2012, instructors in two large introductory classes, first-year, second-semester mechanics, and second-year introductory electricity and magnetism, enrolling approximately 500 and 250 students, respectively, introduced ILS into some, but not all, of the sections of each class. The specific ILS utilized were think-pair-share questions and Peer Instruction in the main lecture classrooms, and University of Washington Tutorials for Introductory Physics in recitation sections. Pre- and postinstruction assess- ments [Force Concept Inventory (FCI) and Conceptual Survey of Electricity and Magnetism (CSEM), respectively] were given, along with a series of demographic questions. Since not all lecture or recitation sections in these classes used ILS, we were able to compare the results of the FCI and CSEM between interactive and noninteractive classes taught simultaneously with the same curriculum. We also analyzed final exam results, as well as the results of student and instructor attitude surveys between classes. In our analysis, we argue that multiple linear regression modeling is superior to other common analysis tools, including normalized gain. Our results show that ILS are effective at improving student learning by all measures used: research-validated concept inventories and final exam scores, on both conceptual and traditional problem-solving questions. Multiple linear regression analysis reveals that interactivity in the classroom is a significant predictor of student learning, showing a similar or stronger relationship with student learning than such ascribed characteristics as parents’ education, and achieved characteristics such as grade point average and hours studied per week. Analysis of student and instructor attitudes shows that both groups believe that ILS improve student learning in the physics classroom and increase student engagement and motivation. All of the instructors who used ILS in this study plan to continue their use.
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Conditions fostering productive disciplinary engagement during a regular physics lesson in a depressed area school

Conditions fostering productive disciplinary engagement during a regular physics lesson in a depressed area school

The analysis of the interactions also reveals particular ways this teacher managed the class: she problematized the topics under discussion, she based the exchanges on a collective maieutical process, she prioritized a dialogical communication (Mortimer and Scott, 2003), she facilitated the students’ reasoning, clearly identifying the knowledge at stake in each step, delimitating the elements submitted to discussion, highlighting the relevant features of the learning situations, frequently institutionalizing knowledge as it progresses, and concluding herself the exchanges when they became fruitless and demotivating. In point of fact, students contributed to the didactic action, which was a joint teacher-students action. In addition, the mesogenesis was elaborated in common, the topogenesis was shared, and the chronogenesis was carefully and deliberately slowed down due to the various exchanges. Lastly, there were very few disciplinary problems.
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Crowdsourcing as Reflective Political Practice: Building a Location-based Tool for Civic Learning and Engagement

Crowdsourcing as Reflective Political Practice: Building a Location-based Tool for Civic Learning and Engagement

One last area of concern was about where the survey questions came from and how the responses would be used. Three testers expressed varying levels of concern about who the sponsors of the survey questions were. One tester was emphatic that the questions not have any commercial framing, arguing “there is a difference between feeling like you are donating your data and opinion to a commercial thing versus a civic… or something that would improve your community.” They went on to cite Google and Facebook as examples of companies that want their data “so that they can sell ads better, which doesn’t relate to my overarching goals for [where I live].” Another tester wasn’t sure about the impact of their contribution because they didn’t know if the question was connected to an entity with sufficient power, “I guess it was unclear what that agency was, who was behind the survey, who was behind the answer—was it simply somebody who didn’t have any agency themselves who proposed the survey? It was hard to tell how far my interacting with it would go.” This indicates an interest in transparency that will need to be designed with sponsoring organizations. Commercial developers with municipal contracts may want to use the app for planning purposes and there will be a need to ensure that users feel like they are contributing to a cause that is improving the community rather than enriching the company, which is a part of designing a good and inclusive planning process as discussed in the needs assessment.
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en fr Patient Engagement in Health Education and Research Engagement des patients dans la formation et la recherche en santé

The primary goal and benefit of patient and public involvement (PPI) in healthcare is to improve individual and population health outcomes [1,2]. Such PPI comes with a shift in paradigm in the way health education and clinical trials are viewed as activities that are done ‘with’ or ‘by’ patients or public rather than ‘to’, ‘about’ or ‘for’ them [1]. Regarding PPI in health education, it varies from creating learning materials to a formal position in a Medical School, according to a 6 proposed levels scale [3,4]. Increasing evidence is available to show that clinical trials suffer from attracting and keeping patients for the duration of trials [5]. PPI in health education and in clinical trials has been one of the ways to resolve the above problems. In clinical research, PPI may be involved from the recruiting of patients in clinical trials to development of clinical protocols, taking part in ethical review or in steering committee. There is strong evidence that PPI have short and long term benefits in healthcare with the latter being less evaluated [3,6,7].
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Reactive Programming of Simulations in Physics

Reactive Programming of Simulations in Physics

broadcast events; we shall see that this notion of instantaneously broadcast event exists in the so-called synchronous reactive formalisms, which thus appear to be good candidates to implement physical simulations. Modularity. It may be the case that some components of a system have to be removed from the system because their simulation is no more relevant (imagine for example an object whose distance from the others becomes greater than some fixed threshold, so that its contribution may be considered as negligible). Destruction of components is usually not a big issue in simulations: in order to remove an object from the global system, it may be for example sufficient to stop considering it during the resolution phase. Dually, in some situation, new components may have to be created, for example in chemistry where chemical bonds linking two atoms can appear in the course of a simulation. Dynamic creation is more difficult to deal with than destruction; for example, a new created object must be introduced only at specific steps of the resolution method, in order to avoid inconsistencies. In informatics terms, both dynamic destruction and dynamic creation of parallel components should be possible during the course of simulations. This possibility is often called modularity: in a modular system, new components can appear or disappear during execution, without need to change the other components. Note that the notion of broadcast event fits well with modularity as the introduction of a new component listening or producing an event, or the removal of an already existing one, does not affect the communication with the other parallel components.
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On Probabilities in Biology and Physics

On Probabilities in Biology and Physics

Questions concerning the interpretation of probabilities are also central to foundational problems in classical statistical mechanics (CSM), a theory that relates Thermodynamics (TD) to classical mechanics (CM). The behavior of macroscopic systems, like a gas in a box, is to a large degree of approximation described correctly by TD. TD introduces macrostates that pertain to a physical system as a whole without any regard to the microscopic makeup of the system. The most important law of TD is the so-called Second Law, stating that the thermodynamic entropy of an isolated system cannot decrease. But there is an entirely different way of looking at the gas in a box, i.e. as a collection of molecules. In this way of looking at the gas the focus is on the microstates of the gas, which are constituted by the molecules’ positions and momenta and are governed by the laws of CM. CSM is supposed to establish a connection between the way TD and the way CM describe macroscopic systems and to account for the thermodynamic behaviour of macroscopic systems in terms of both the dynamical laws governing the microscopic constituents of these systems and some probabilistic assumptions. Now, in CM isolated physical systems could evolve into states with lower entropy, and one of the most puzzling questions in the foundations of CSM is why macroscopic systems never seem to evolve into lower-entropy states. Another way to express this puzzle is the question: how could expressly time-asymmetric behaviour of irreversible thermodynamic processes be reconciled with the underlying time-reversible dynamics of CM? The standard answer in CSM is given in terms of probability, namely that thermodynamic behaviour is highly likely, and the question arises as to the meaning of this probabilistic statement. Since CSM is a deterministic theory, it is natural to think of this likelihood as reflecting ignorance
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Scikit-Learn in Particle Physics

Scikit-Learn in Particle Physics

The Kaggle Higgs Boson challenge (in HEP terms) • Data comes as a finite set D = {(x i , y i , w i )|i = 0, . . . , N − 1}, where x i ∈ R d , y i ∈ {signal, background} and w i ∈ R + . • The goal is to find a region G = {x| g (x) = signal } ⊂ R d ,

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Aesthetic Engagement in the City

Aesthetic Engagement in the City

5. The senses and science A final example concerning atmospheric pollution demonstrates how the capacity of aesthetic engagement for enhancing the value of everyday experience is such that the scientific knowledge that might be associated with it is sometimes not even mentioned. The study in question was based on nearly sixty semi-structured interviews concerning ordinary residents' practices and representations with regard to air pollution in the eastern French city of Strasbourg. Half of the sample was composed of individuals suffering from asthma or allergies to grass pollen, following the principle of the "case-control" study widely used in epidemiology. Two interviews with heads of the local Association for the Monitoring and Study of Atmospheric Pollution (ASPA, the organization that officially monitors air quality in the Alsace Region), as well as a study of ASPA articles in the press, complemented the survey. These elements were then compared with measures of air quality indoors and outdoors carried out by physicians and chemists. The findings of this study may be summarized in three main points:
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Physics and information : what is the role of information in physics?

Physics and information : what is the role of information in physics?

Before continuing to tell the history of computers and how quickly information sciences devel- oped after World War II, let us go a little further back in time. Nearly exactly a hundred years earlier, the first complex computer program was written, when machines that were able to execute it were still futuristic and the amount of resources necessary to build such an device were immense. Augusta Ada King, Countess of Lovelace (Ada Lovelace for short) wrote an algorithm that calculates a series of Bernoulli numbers for a machine, that at this point only existed on paper. This machine was called the Analytical Engine and it was proposed by Charles Babbage in 1837. His designs are the first known plans of an device that fulfills a property that we nowadays call Turing-completeness. Back in the midst of a horrible war, the people in the United Kingdom Government Code and Cypher School at Bletchley Park did not know about Babbage’s design nor Lovelace’s algorithm. They constructed their own devices based on the first mathematical description of a computer introduced by Alan Turing [27]. This model, called a Turing machine, is the mathematical descrip- tion that we use in information sciences to describe computing devices. His article did not only feature the introduction of a mathematical model of computation, he also uses it to follow G¨odel’s footsteps. Years prior to Turing’s article G¨odel incompleteness theorems [28] had shattered David Hilbert’s dreams of finding mathematics to be complete and consistent with. Turing, fascinated by these results, added on top of this the proof that also the Entscheidungsproblem was uncomputable. This proof was given in a different form by Alonzo Church at the same time. Both of the proofs rely on the notion of ”effectively calculable” functions. Today we know this assumption as the Church-Turing hypothesis, in plain english it states that that a function on the natural numbers is computable if and only if it is computable by a Turing machine.
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Coupling approach in building physics.

Coupling approach in building physics.

1 ArGEnCO – LEMA, University of Liège, Belgium e-mails: mbarbason@ulg.ac.be, sigrid.reiter@ulg.ac.be Due to growing concerns in energy savings, architects and building engineers need to decrease buildings energy footprint. To achieve this goal, industrials have several tools and, among them, the two most interesting are the “Multizonal Approach” and the “Computational Fluid Dynamics”.

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Bridging Hubbard model physics and quantum Hall physics in graphene moire superlattices

Bridging Hubbard model physics and quantum Hall physics in graphene moire superlattices

3 Twisted Bilayer Graphene Aligned with Hexagonal Boron Nitride: Anomalous Hall Effect and a Lattice Model 51 4 Hubbard Model Physics in ABC trilayer graphene alig[r]

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New physics in the lepton sector

New physics in the lepton sector

Proverbe shadok The Standard Model contains every elementary particle that has ever been seen experimentally. With the discovery of the Higgs boson, the converse is now also true: every particle predicted by the Standard Model has been discovered. However, a complete theory of nature should, among other things, account for neutrino masses, dark matter and dark energy and provide an explanation for the origin of the matter- antimatter asymmetry of the Universe. Thus, the Standard Model has to be embedded into a bigger picture. In the lepton sector, low energy phenomena could provide an interesting probe of new physics. For instance, the observation of neutrinoless double beta decay would be an unmistakable sign that neutrinos are Majorana particles, while flavour violating processes in the sector of charged leptons are so much constrained in the Standard Model that their observation would be a very clear signal of new physics. A good example of the links that can exist between high energy and low energy physics is leptogenesis, that provides a common origin for neutrino masses and the matter-antimatter asymmetry of the Universe. Leptogenesis is in general difficult to probe directly due to the large mass of particles involved, but it can be related to properties of neutrinos: for instance, any indication that neutrinos are Majorana fermions would strongly advocate for such scenarios. In chapter 3 , we showed the importance of flavour effects in the context of leptogenesis with a scalar triplet, even in a temperature regime in which the Yukawa couplings of leptons do not allow to distinguish them. With respect to that matter, leptogenesis with a scalar triplet differs from scenarios involving hierarchical right-handed neutrinos. These flavour effects significantly enlarge the parameter space available for successful leptogenesis. We also studied a model in which the CP violation responsible for the lepton asymmetry can be expressed straightforwardly in terms of neutrino parameters, which makes it very predictive.
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Physics of rapid movements in plants

Physics of rapid movements in plants

A similar mechanism has been shown to operate in the suction trap of the less known but ubiquitous blad- derworts (Utricularia) [7]. Each trap of this aquatic plant is remarkably sophisticated. It is made of an elastic closed leaf, bladder-shaped, in which water pressure slowly de- creases under the action of pumping glands (Fig. 2d). The sealing of the trap is ensured by a flexible door that holds a few long sensitive hairs. Suction occurs within one mil- lisecond – a record – thanks to an instability mechanism that, here too, results from a snap-buckling instability. In the initial configuration, the trapdoor is a shallow dome whose convex face is facing outward, thereby resisting the pressure difference across it much like a Gothic vault in architecture. Triggering lowers this resistance, either through an electrical signal or just as a weakness point, which induces a buckling of the door and its rapid open- ing (Fig. 2E,F). Surrounding water is then quickly sucked in, with an acceleration of up to 600g, and it drags small preys that cannot swim against such a flow (Fig. 2D). Cavitation instability:
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Balancing Engagement and Neutrality in Technology Assessment

Balancing Engagement and Neutrality in Technology Assessment

Delvenne: Well, I think that Pielke’s terminology and idealized roles may be nice as a theoretical concept but are intrin- sically problematic in practice. Anyway, the philosophical foundations Armin mentioned are indeed the traditional roots of TA. As such, they forcefully influenced its ontology and evolving practices. While I acknowledge these foundations as evi- dent and important, which a rich literature supports, I think they are not sufficient to deal with contemporary politics. Rather, TA communities need to look for additio- nal philosophical resources. In the article with Céline Parotte mentioned, we suggest that Chantal Mouffe’s theory of pluralis- tic agonism may be a welcome addition to TA’s philosophical library. It provides po- werful resources for TA to invent its own politics, rendering more explicit the poli- tical normativities and values that under- lie its actions and projects. Unlike Haber- mas, Mouffe considers conflict not only to be legitimate but also to guarantee that democracy is alive and inhabited by plu- ralism. As Van Bouwel and Van Oudheus- den stressed, this move marks a clear dif- ference vis-à-vis deliberative democracy theorists in terms of the “meta-consen- sus” in democratic models, for example, regarding the way deliberative reasoning and (social) rationality should be unders- tood and invoked. In other words, the de- liberative theorists’ meta-consensus pos- tulates that, in principle, dissent can and should be resolved through deliberation and rational discussion. In contrast, Mouf- fe’s meta-consensus is conflictual; it im- plies an agreement on the impossibility to conclusively come to terms with dis- sent. In addition, according to Mouffe, we should not attempt to definitively re- solve dissent on the meta-level as doing so would oppose the very meaning of de- mocratic pluralism.
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Attosecond physics

Attosecond physics

2. Electronic relaxation and rearrangement: Attosecond absorption spectroscopy In the previous section we discussed how attosecond electron dynamics can be probed with strong, controlled light fields. Alternatively, sub-fs XUV pulses can also be used as probe pulses. Transient absorption spectroscopy 共 Loh et al., 2007 , 2008 兲 with isolated attosecond XUV and x-ray pulses 共IID1–IIID1; see Tables II and III 兲 will also provide unprecedented insight into the relaxation dynamics and rearrangement of the electronic system of atoms or molecules following controlled excitation by a waveform-controlled few-cycle IR or VIS pulse 共IC1-2; see Table I 兲 or by an intense 共possibly shaped兲 sub-fs XUV or x-ray pulse 共ID1-2; see Table I 兲. Isolated at- tosecond XUV pulses with a spectral width of several 10 eV 共 Schultze et al., 2007 ; Goulielmakis et al., 2008 兲 provide ideal prerequisites for implementing attosecond absorption spectroscopy 共AAS兲 by extending the experi- ments of Loh et al. 共2007 , 2008兲 into the time domain of the electronic response of matter 共 Breidbach and Ceder- baum, 2005 兲. This spectroscopy may give an answer to a long-standing question in atomic and molecular physics: How does the electronic system rearrange after the sud- den removal or excitation of an electron?
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Participatory science : encouraging public engagement in ONEM

Participatory science : encouraging public engagement in ONEM

enable the production, aggregation and sharing of data. These technologies stabilize knowledge by standardizing it as data stored in interoperable databases (Hanseth et al., 1996). Faced with the rapid development of participatory science projects, a number of authors have developed typologies with a view to better understanding and differentiating between projects. Wilderman (2007) proposes a distinction between citizen science and community science based on the locus of control of the inquiry. Her typology differentiates between scientist-driven situations in which the community either plays a consultative role or acts as workers, (“science for the people”) on the one hand, and community-based participatory research, characterized as “science by the people” on the other. Along similar lines, Bonney, Ballard, Jordan, McCallie, Philips, Shirk and Wilderman (2009) propose distinguishing between three types of public participation based on the degree and type of involvement: contribution, collaboration or full participant (co-creation). These typologies tend to focus on who designs or controls projects, and, by extension, on the types of activities citizens perform. Trying to integrate uses of technology and project goals into the equation, Wiggins and Crowston (2012) empirically identified differences between projects focusing on education and outreach, and those focusing on conservation and action (often regional and local in scope). The underlying assumption of these typologies is that a given citizen science project will fit nicely in one space or another. More recently, Prainsack (2013) has proposed a series of criteria to enable the classification of projects: how coordination is organised (locus of control) and agency
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