To cite this document: Boix, Marianne and Montastruc, Ludovic and Pibouleau, Luc and Azzaro-Pantel, Catherine and Domenech, Serge Minimizing waterandenergyconsumptions in industrial water networks. (2011) In: ICheaP-10, 10th
International Conference on Chemical and Process Engineering, 8-11 mai 2011, Florence (Italy).
The aim of this study is to design an energy ef ﬁcient water network considering several objectives. Indeed, in all the mentioned previous works, objectives are always waterandenergyconsumptions. Even if these two objectives are of great environ- mental concern, other criteria can affect the ﬁnal decision of an industrial practitioner. In fact, the number of streams, of heat exchangers, or the gain provided by regenerating polluted water represents also relevant objectives. Consequently, we propose to design an ef ﬁcient water/energy allocation network regarding several objectives solved with an MILP procedure. One optimal network is selected from the Pareto front and improved in term of energy consumption by heat integration through an MINLP procedure. The latter is a variant of the work of Yee et al.  and does not take into account stream mixing, as it was already done by Bogataj and Bagajewicz  . A comparison of our results with two examples from the literature [15,40] is carried out and illustrates the proposed method. Finally, the effects of mixing streams and the impact of choosing an optimal network before heat integration are discussed.
2.3. France (NutriNet-Santé Dataset)
French data come from the NutriNet-Santé database, a web-based observational prospective cohort including volunteers aged 18 years or older, launched in France in May 2009, with a scheduled follow up in 10 years. The study was conducted on a large sample of 94,939 participants. It aimed at determining the association of food intake, nutrients, and dietary behavior with ageing and quality of life. At baseline, socio-demographic data including age, gender, education, income, occupational category, and household location, as well as lifestyle (smoking status, physical activity), height, weight, and practice of restrictive dieting were self-reported. Leisure-time physical activity was assessed using the French short form of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, self-administered online [ 22 – 24 ]. Body mass index (BMI) was assessed using self-reported height and weight. Dietary data were collected at baseline using three-day records, randomly distributed within a two-week period, including two weekdays and one day of the weekend. Participants reported all foods and beverages consumed throughout the day: breakfast, lunch, dinner, and all other occasions. Daily mean food and beverage consumptions were calculated for each participant having completed the three-day records, with a weighting on the type of day (week or weekend) so that all days of the week were equally represented. Serving sizes were estimated using purchase units, household units, and photographs, and were derived from a previously validated picture booklet. EI and TWI were calculated through the NutriNet-Santé food composition table including more than 2000 food products [ 25 ]. The NutriNet-Santé study has been described in detail elsewhere [ 8 , 26 ].
4.1.2. Social Power Game
Social power game is a mobile game application aimed at exploring the potential of social interactions and game mechanics in driving people towards long term behaviour changes in the field of sustainable energy consumption. The application aims at connecting an entire neighbourhood to facilitate the collaboration and exchange between a multitude of people to increase collective energy-saving practices; to support mutual improvement in the adoption of more sustainable life styles; and to favour the viral diffusion of best practices. This approach seeks to provide a collaborative, action-oriented model for social learning in the context of a challenging neighbourhood-based energy-saving contest. Its features include tracking of household electricity consumption in a personalised way with easy-to-read visuals; visualisation of the electricity consumption trend over time; visualisation of the effect of user actions; team challenges to collaborate and compete; and information provisioning to users about how to make more efficient uses of energy. The gamification mechanism is based on two principal elements [ 57 ]: the players that represent the household dimension, and the energy hives that represent collective and social dimension (i.e., energy-related points of interest like transport stop or infrastructure, grocery stores, etc.). When users register to the game, they are assigned to one team and are provided with individual challenges (e.g., goals to reach), collaborative tasks (e.g., discovering the energy hives and report them in the application social map), and cooperation tasks that require coordination with others in order to be completed. The players get points by completing any of those tasks; they also receive information about how to make efficient use of the shared resources. Another objective of the game is to raise awareness of the energy use in user’s surroundings. The competition takes place between teams through visual comparison of the actions of each team including achieved points, average consumptions, and the individual player’s contribution to his team achievements. Players are awarded with badges for their individual achievements and for continuous or outstanding contributions to their teams [ 57 ]. Some preliminary results from the pilot show that 75% of the households participating in the project reduced their historical consumption between 1% and 25% [ 65 ].
water shortages there were several planned coal-to-liquid(CTL) plants abandoned(Qin, et al., 2015). The relationship between energyandwater is a major and important challenge(Feng, et al., 2019, Tang, et al., 2018).
The existing studies on waterconsumptions of energy sectors mainly focus on the analysis of water consumption in thermal power plants dominated by coal fuels(Larsen and Drews, 2019, Bravo, 2016). Qin, et al. (2015) used bottom-up approach to account the water withdrawal of various links in the production process of energy sectors in China. They found that if the existing energy sectors’ production technologies stayed unchanged, only the water withdrawal of coal-fired power plants will exceed the industrial water usage targets in water policy. Existing studies have analyzed the water usages of power sector’s production and consumption from different perspectives, including regional economies(Larsen and Drews, 2019), country level(Chini, et al., 2018), sub-national regions(Sun, et al., 2018). Liao, et al. (2019)accounted the water consumption of energy sectors in China's two major economic belts, the Jing-Jin-Ji Economic Belt and the Yangtze River Delta Economic Belt. They found that the water footprint of electricity consumption accounts for the largest proportion of all energy products. They also found that the energy production and supply of these two major economic belts aggravated local water shortage problems which will be worsened by the growing demand for energy.
The radiation transfer scheme at the land surface benefits from the introduction of canopy structure. The trunk version of ORCHIDEE prescribes the vegetation albedo solely as a
function of LAI. In the ORCHIDEE-CAN branch each tree canopy is assumed to be composed of uniformly distributed single scatterers. Following the assumption of a Poisson dis- tribution of the trees on the land surface, the model of Haverd et al. (2012) calculates the transmission probability of light to any given vertical point in the forest. This transmission prob- ability is then used to calculate an effective LAI, which is a statistical description of the vertical distribution of leaf mass that accounts for stand density and horizontal tree distribu- tion. The complexity and computational costs are largely re- duced by using the effective LAI in combination with the 1- D two-stream radiation transfer model of Pinty et al. (2006) rather than resolving a full 3-D canopy model. By using the effective LAI, the 1-D model reproduces the radiative fluxes of the 3-D model. The approach of the two-stream radia- tion transfer model was extended for a multi-layer canopy (McGrath et al., 2015b) to be consistent with the multi-layer energy budget and to better account for non-linearities in the photosynthesis model. The scattering parameters and the background albedo (i.e. the albedo of the surface below the dominant tree canopy) for the two-stream radiation transfer model were extracted from the Joint Research Centre Two- stream Inversion Package (JRC-TIP) remote sensing product (Sect. 4.7). This approach produces fluxes of the light ab- sorbed, transmitted, and reflected by the canopy at vertically discretised levels, which are then used for the energy bud- get (Fig. 1, arrow 6) and photosynthesis calculations (Fig. 1, arrow 5).
fuel process uses a liquid energy vector with high energy
density for long-term energy storage. In the present work, we simulate the power-to-methanol process in Aspen Plus. Then, we use heat integration to increase the conversion efficiency from 40.1 to 53.0 %, evidencing large improvement potential thanks to process integration. Further work includes experimental design and development of control strategies.
3.1. Heat integration
A systematic heat integration was performed using the pinch method as described by Douglas (1988). We assume a minimum temperature difference of 20 K in the heat exchangers. As shown in Figure 2 (left) by the composite curves (relative heat duties versus temperatures levels), the pinch point is identified at 245.2 °C. The overlap between the hot and cold composite curves represents the maximum heat recovery possible within the process, i.e. 3362 kW heat exchange between hot and cold streams. The maximal heat recovery can be reached if an optimal heat exchangers network is implemented, composed of 12 heat exchangers represented by the matches between hot (black) and cold (light grey) streams in Figure 2 (right). The main contributions to the heat recovery are (1) 1116 kW heat flowing from the hot syngas (at the electrolyser outlet) to the water feed heating (before the electrolyser), (2) 962 kW heat as a part of the heat generated by the methanol synthesis recovered in the reboiler of the methanol distillation column and (3) 506 kW recovered inside the internal condensation reactor, this last contribution coupling the heat recovered when cooling the product gas for methanol to condensate with the heat provided to the unreacted syngas after methanol condensation to bring it up back to the reaction temperature. These three heat exchangers alone already represent 77 % of the maximum heat recovery achievable in a perfect heat exchanger network with 12 heat exchangers.
a greater extent in France than in rival countries, the short-term price competitiveness of French industry would be penalised, resulting in a decline in both export activity and employment. However, at a time when energy prices are expected to increase by 50% (with the exception of coal) over the next twenty years, directing industrial innovation eﬀ orts and goods and service production towards energy-saving initiatives is absolutely essen- tial with regards to the dynamics of competitive advantage. The tension between these two requirements, namely remai- ning competitive in today’s world whilst preparing for the future, requires the right signals to be sent to economic players. It should be borne in mind that the price of energy is a short-term cost and a long-term signal. A high energy price, or the anticipation thereof, is an incentive to invest in new tech- nologies, new products and new services. There are seven pro- positions that we would draw from this.
We report an atomistic insight into the mechanism regulating the energy released by a porphyra-334 molecule, the ubiquitous photosensitive component of marine algae, in a liquid water environment upon an electron excitation. To quantify this rapidly occurring process, we resort to the Fourier analysis of the mass-weighted auto-correlation function, providing evidence for a remarkable dynamical change in the number of hydrogen bonds among wa- ter molecules and between the porphyra-334 and its surrounding hydrating water. Hydrogen bonds between the porphyra-334 and close by water molecules can act directly and rather eas- ily to promote an efficient transfer of the excess kinetic energies of the porphyra-334 to the surrounding solvating water molecules via an activation of the collective modes identified as hydrogen-bond stretching modes in liquid water which eventually results in a disruption of the hydrogen bond network. Since porphyra-334 is present in seaweeds, aquatic cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) and red algae, our findings allow to address the question how algae in oceans or lakes, upon sunlight absorption, can release large amounts of energy into surrounding water without destabilizing neither their own nor the H 2 O molecular structure.
The WAN optimization is a complex task, especially when multiple contaminants are treated in the same plant with par- ticular emphasis on selecting the use of many regeneration units. The existence of several contaminants has been identi- fied in many works ( Takama et al., 1980; Wang and Smith, 1994; Bagajewicz et al., 2000; Gunaratnam et al., 2005; Karuppiah and Grossmann, 2006; Alva-Argáez et al., 2007; Feng et al., 2008; Dong et al., 2008; Leewongtanawit and Kim, 2008; Kim et al., 2009; Tudor and Lavric, 2011; Poplewski et al., 2011; Hu et al., 2011; Boix et al., 2011; Ahmetovi´c and Kravanja, 2013; Deng et al., 2013; Hou et al., 2014; Ibri´c et al., 2014; De-León Almaraz et al., 2015; Yan et al., 2016a ), some of these works involve not only WAN but also HEN optimization. However, the water treatment or recycling in the network has been considered in fewer works ( Takama et al., 1980; Gunaratnam et al., 2005; Karuppiah and Grossmann, 2006; Feng et al., 2008; Dong et al., 2008; Poplewski et al., 2011; Boix et al., 2011; Tudor and Lavric, 2011; Ibri´c et al., 2014; Yang et al., 2014 ). This is an important issue because one of the problems in reducing the water con- sumption in industries is the lack of regeneration units or the bad use of them. In the mathematical model, the addition of constraints related to the regeneration units gives more com- plexity to the WAN design especially when several processes and contaminants are also involved resulting in a large-size problem.
Depending on the source, water can be classified as freshwa- ter, regenerated (recycled) waterand wastewater. Freshwater (e.g., tap water) can be entered into the system from surface, urban or underground sources. This kind of water is assumed to be zero contaminant (but for specific processes additional purification processes are required). Once the water is used in a process it can be discharged as wastewater or sent to treatment units to remove the contaminant load for reuse purpose. In this case, two types of treatment exist, first treat- ment for process reuse (respecting the contaminant bounds defined for each process) and second treatment of waste- water before its discharge out of the plant respecting the regulations. The reuse of water is possible in plants equipped with treatment units andwater exchange among plants can be offered by industrial eco-parks. Industrial eco-parks, also commonly known as eco-hubs or eco-parks, manage to recon- cile business and the environment, by exchanging materials, energyand information, so as to achieve a triple environmen- tal, social, and financial goal, known as industrial symbiosis. One problem related to the reduction of water consumption in industries is the lack or scarcity of regeneration units. Another problem to reuse water is linked to the multiple contami- nants that must be treated by the processes. As reported in the dedicated literature, the study of a multi-contaminant water network can be simplified by using the commonly called “key parameter” approach. The study of only one “key” contami- nant has been presented in ( Wang and Smith, 1994; Bagajewicz et al., 2000 ), however, sometimes it is difficult or impossible to target the key contaminant. Moreover, for multi-objective WAN design, a study based on the key contaminant is valid for the reach of the minimum freshwater target but can- not be implemented for designing an optimal water network regarding several objectives ( Boix et al., 2011 ).
employed: chamber measurements were performed by CESBIO (using a Ciras-1 PPSystems infrared gas analyser), and CNRM used the eddy-correlation meth- od (using a SOLENT ultrasonic anemometer, and a LICOR LI-6262 infrared gas analyser). The chamber measurements enable estimation of the dierent com- ponents of the net CO2 ¯ux: (1) the unscreened chamber over the undisturbed canopy provides the net CO2-¯ux; (2) by screening the chamber over the undisturbed canopy, one obtain the total soil and leaf respiration (photosynthesis is suppressed); and (3) by cutting the vegetation before the observation, an estimate of soil respiration is obtained (photosynthesis and leaf respira- tion are suppressed). The ®rst term should correspond to the atmospheric ¯ux measured by the eddy-correlation method. Figure 7 presents a series of bioclimatic variables observed on DoY 247 in 1997. The atmo- spheric net CO2-¯ux obtained by the two methods (either chamber or eddy-correlation measurements) are in good agreement. The canopy net assimilation An (i.e. the quantity of CO2 integrated into the vegetation biomass through the photosynthesis process) may be much higher than the measured atmospheric CO2-¯ux presented in Fig. 7 because the plant may absorb the CO2 emitted by the soil, also. An estimation of An is the dierence between the atmospheric CO2-¯ux and soil respiration: on DoY 247 in 1997 (Fig. 7), the obtained net assimilation reaches 0.5 mg m )2 s )1 at about 0900 LST and 1500 LST, whereas the atmospheric CO2-¯ux does not exceed 0.3 mg m )2 s )1 . The An and evapotranspiration `plateau' observed between 0900 and 1500 LST (Fig. 7) may be related to stomatal closure due to high temperatures or to a large saturation de®cit of the air within the canopy. It is interesting to note that the average behaviour of the canopy in terms of
Figure 4 represents the variation of the programme size (box) and the theoretical density probability (solid line) defined by the isomorphism between the number of accessible states of the system (including statistical fluctuations) and the size of an optimised computer programme constructed with the composition of two algebra Huf RLE D . The good agreement seems to conclude that the algebra Huf RLE D tends to be maxi-ultimately-uniformly-contractile to allow us to describe the thermodynamic equilibrium system and its fluctuations.
Semiconductor switches provide the core functionality of today’s power electronics systems and can comprise 50% of the cost. Silicon-based power electronics systems will be increasingly challenged to cost-effectively meet the new capabilities and growing performance demands of future grid applications, limiting deployment. Next-generation power electronics systems based on advanced materials, such as wide bandgap (WBG) semiconductors or diamond, allow for new designs and capabilities that can dramatically shift the cost- performance curves including with significant reduction in terms of size of overall systems (e.g. converter). This is crucial especially in several sectors such as automotive, space, industry and offshore applications where WBG semiconductors can reduce the size of the equipment and consequently, the costs. Such approach should encompass maintenance-free and long- lasting autonomy of power systems.
The case of lipids has been specifically investigated to elucidate whether they represent a risk factor per se. As a matter of fact, lipid intake is highly correlated with energy intake, and this colinearity is very difficult to disentangle. Several statistical models have been developed in an attempt to control the caloric effect of lipid (reviewed and discussed in Kipnis et al., 1993). Whereas the residual model (Willett and Stampfer, 1986) does not attribute any role to lipids in breast cancer risk, the partition model (Howe, 1989) attributes a significant effect to lipids. Physiological considerations support this finding. Fats appear as the most efficient macronutrients to make up adipose stores, because they are oxidised after carbohydrates to fuel the energy demand, and tend to accumulate (Astrup et al., 1994; Flatt, 1995). Fat has been irregularly found as a risk factor for breast cancer (Clavel-Chapelon et al., 1997), but more consistently for endometrial cancer (reviewed in Gerber, 1996; Goodman et al., 1997), ovarian (Risch et al., 1994) and prostate cancers (reviewed in Thorling, 1996). Among fats, saturated fatty acids or animal fats, the least oxidisable fatty acids, are most often found as risk factors. This was recently confirmed in a study on breast cancer, using the different statistical models for energy adjustment (Decarli et al., 1997). Monounsaturated fatty acids are also found as a risk factor in countries where meat is the major contributor of oleic acid. It is not clear whether it is a risk factor per se, or a marker of meat intake (Gerber and Richardson, 1995), which is a major source of saturated fatty acids, since in Mediterranean countries where olive oil is the major contributor of oleic acid, monounsaturated fatty acids do not seem to be a risk factor (Martin-Moreno et al., 1994; Trichopoulou et al., 1995). The difficulty in distinguishing between the
Water that moves through a material in a liquid state can also produce many harmful effects. The most obvious is the efflorescence that often disfigures the face of a building. Migrating water dissolves salts from some position inside the material and then deposits them on the surface as the water evaporates. Usually this effect is not destructive but merely disfiguring. If a vapour-permeable but water-repellent membrane is applied to the outer face of the wall, however, the water may be caused to evaporate from behind it, so that the salts are deposited behind the surface layer and the resulting force of crystallization can cause the skin to spall. The subject of efflorescence has already been dealt with at considerable length in CBD 2 and need not be examined further here. It should be noted, however, that the spalling produced by the crystallization of salts behind the surface of the material is very similar in appearance to that produced by frost action, and in many cases it is difficult to determine which mechanism has caused it. Surface treatment of masonry may promote further complications if it restricts the escape of vapour that is migrating from inside the building. This vapour may be forced to condense behind the surface and lead to, trouble under freezing conditions.
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