Table 1: Main use of AM.
Nevertheless, before producing any final part available on the marketplace, it is necessary to focus on the design phase, which involves the rapid manufacture of many prototypes, mainly for conceptual and functional assessment . Prototypes requirements are usually lower than final part ones (not fully functional or good material for example). Thus, our hypothesis rely on the fact that the quality (shape, roughness, dimension) will be sufficient for the intended use. In fact, the main goal of a prototype is to have a proof of concept and the designer’s attention is focused on the four main “Unique Capabilities” of AM processes . More specifically, the earlydesign stages are crucial as they determine more than 70% of the future product’s environmental impact . A prototype classification has been proposed, based on designer’s expectations :
Figure 2: Ranking the most important features of a BPS tool
The following chapters will present an outline of the comparison. Firstly, we present some of the most important, drawbacks of existing earlydesign tools in relation to the design process of NZEBs. Secondly, we present a basic cross comparison of the ten tools. Finally, recommendations for tools are given and improvements for future research are suggested. DESIGN PROCESS & TOOLS OF NZEB The building delivery process has been traditionally a linear and sequential set of activities (Mahdavi et al., 1998 and Lam et al.,1993). However, the ‘net zero’ objective is a cyclic energy performance based design goal that embraces the integration of energy performance goals early in the design process. Architects are forced to expand their scope of responsibility beyond function and aesthetics. The design process of NZEBs shows that the design is not intuitive and energy performance requirements must be determined in the earlydesign stages. Therefore, BPS tools are a fundamental part of the design process (Hayter, et al. 2001, Athienitis, et al. 2010 and Donn et al., 2009). During earlydesign phases 20% of the design decisions taken subsequently, influence 80% of all design decisions (Bogenstätter 2000). In order to apply simulation during earlydesign phases it is better to understand the current building design and delivery process of NZEBs because the effectiveness of tools are affected by process.
To be attractive for shipyards, scantling optimisation has to be performed at the preliminary design stage. It is indeed the most relevant period to assess the construction cost, to compare fabrication sequences and, to find the best frame/stiffener spacings and most suitable scantlings to minimize the production costs. The LBR-5 package performs such earlydesign least cost optimisation.
and SIMULIA TM DesignSight Structure help to overcome the
limitations in traditional product development processes where analyses are carried out by a separate group and not the de- signers. Most of these commercial tools still require well de- fined solid models as input and do not support freehand sketches, an integral part of the earlydesign stage of product develop- ment. To this extent, we present APIX (acronym for Analysis from Pixellated Inputs), a tool for quick analysis of two dimen- sional mechanical sketches and parts from their static images us- ing a pen-based interface. The input to the system can be offline (paper) sketches and diagrams, which include scanned legacy drawings and freehand sketches. In addition, images of two- dimensional projections of three dimensional mechanical parts can also be input. We have developed an approach to extract a set of boundary contours to represent a pixellated image us- ing known image processing algorithms. The idea is to convert the input images to online sketches and use existing stroke-based recognition techniques for further processing. The converted sketch can now be edited, segmented, recognized, merged, solved
To design a product that meets all requirements, perfor- mance has to be evaluated throughout the design process. The main problem of evaluation is the lack of data. As indi- cated earlier, the product is not sufficiently well defined dur- ing the earlydesign stages, meaning that evaluations need specific methods and tools to be accurate. In the next three subsections, we focus on evaluation tools in three different domains: innovation, sustainability, and AM. The case study described in Sect. 4 looked at assessment across the four dif- ferent design stages, in order to identify the different types of performance involved.
Despite all the available solar technologies and the opportunity to reduce energy demand, solar energy systems are in most cases not used in buildings today. The lack of technical knowledge among architects is one of the main barriers according to the IEA-Task 41 entitled Solar Energy and Architecture . In fact, several problems face architects during the design and set-up of buildings that integrate PV systems, for example, the complexity and uncertainty of estimating the PV performance. To overcome this problem and to examine these opportunities, this study developed a decision tool to guide architects to size PV systems during earlydesign stages. The aim of the study was to help give architects a generic idea of the potential of PV as an energy source and how to integrate PV in the building architecture. The tool is based on a transient simulation database built using TRNSYS16 and underlies research considering PV technology parameters and local climatic conditions of Egypt. Simulations of three PV systems are compared with measured data in order to form a basis for optimal design and prediction of PV system performance. For this tool we developed and presented simple graphical visualization of the verified performance indices. For example, yearly maximum output energy of PV modules, for different inclinations and orientations for Aswan, Alexandria and Cairo. The overall benefit of this simple decision tool is informing and assisting architects and designers in order to increase the use of solar energy in buildings
Owing to an increase in requirements and a reduction in time to market, evaluation phases have become particularly cru-cial steps in the design process, specifically during the earlydesign stages. New domains of expertise are constantly being added to design processes, and the performance evaluation tools that are currently available are too heterogeneous to be used together. The differences mainly concern performance domains, which rely on different types of data. It is therefore necessary to create a methodology for merging compatible tools (i.e. usable during the same phase of the design process) and establishing the most appropriate form of evaluation. In this paper, we begin by describing the Creation of MultiDisciplinary Evaluation Tool methodology. This takes place in four stages: the analysis of existing tools, followed by their evaluation, selection and merger. This methodology will help designers create multicriterion evaluation tools that are tailored to their needs. We then report a case study involving the design of a sustainable and innovative product for additive manufacturing, where the characteristics of each domain were taken into account.
Designed objects have functional attributes as they operate in someway to perform the task for which they are made for and used. That’s why an important portion of the value assigned to products may be attributed to their utility. This comprises practical qualities such as function, intuitiveness, performance, efficiency and ergonomics that should be taken into account from the earlydesign phases. Semantic approaches are available for designers in order convey these various aspects of the product usability through the different sensory channels , some of them being for instance the use of metaphors , of semantic layers or of metonyms. Moreover, the perceived meaning of a product not only influences the user’s understanding (the product usability) but also the user’s experiencing (the product experience) which is now requested by customers .
A. AMRANE, P. RIGO
ANAST – University of Liège, Chemin des chevreuils, 1, 4000 Liège, Belgium
ABSTRACT: Fatigue aspects are leading criterion for the scantling optimization of ships structures. LBR-5 software is an integrated package which performs, at the earlydesign stage, cost and/or weight optimization of ships structures (scantling). This software takes into account structural constraints (yielding, buckling, dis- placement, ultimate strength). Until now, the fatigue failure issue was not implicitly included in the optimiza- tion loop. At the earlydesign stage, limited information and details are available. Therefore simplified meth- ods have to be applied. LBR-5 software provides the nominal stress, so chosen procedure uses the nominal stress and the Miner’s rule. This approach requires a library of stress concentration factors for predefined typi- cal structural details. The goal of the present work is to develop a tool for fatigue assessment that can be inte- grated on LBR5 optimization process, to realize global optimization taking into account the fatigue issues. Until now, the integration of the fatigue tool is not finished. Only fatigue verification on the optimized struc- ture is possible. On the present paper, the procedure adopted is presented and a longitudinal scantling of the mid-ship section of a LNG is optimized with LBR-5. Production cost is considered as objective functions. The optimized scantling is checked by the fatigue tool. The fatigue criterion is not respected on some panels. Cor- rections are performed on these panels to have an optimized scantling without fatigue problems.
We propose that an effective methodology for cost and value estimation in the earlydesign of phases of engineered products should follow a systems engineering approach. Systems engineering emphasizes formally defining stakeholder re- quirements before providing a value analysis of product components and function- ality, while considering the costs of its supporting development, manufacturing and servicing apparatus to determine overall generated value. Individual dedicated models exist for product, service and system cost/value estimation techniques. In- tegrating these may provide an extensive, holistic, and more accurate, methodolo- gy or model of cost/value estimation.
Handle ID: . http://hdl.handle.net/10985/14195
To cite this version :
Floriane LAVERNE, Enrico BOTTACINI, Frédéric SEGONDS, Nicolas PERRY, Gianluca D'ANTONIO, Paolo CHIABERT - TEAM: a Tool for Eco Additive Manufacturing to optimize environmental impact in earlydesign stages - In: PLM 2018, Italie, 2018-07 - 15th IFIP WG 5.1 International Conference, PLM 2018 Proceedings - 2018
Keywords: Additive Manufacturing, Sustainable Manufacturing, EarlyDesign Stages 1. Introduction
Presented as one of the pillars of Industry 4.0 by the Boston Consulting Group (Gerbert et al., 2015; Stock & Seliger, 2016), Additive Manufacturing (AM) is attributed a key role in the future. Originally invented for the production of prototypes, this technology is now able to manufacture fully functional parts (Petrovic et al., 2011) and can be integrated into the real production (Gershenfeld, 2012). At the same time, the awareness of environmental consequences of a product is increasing in public (Garetti & Taisch, 2012). Even if “AM holds great potential in improving materials efficiency, reducing life cycle impacts, and enabling greater engineering functionality compared to conventional methods” (Peng, Kellens, Tang, Chen, & Chen, 2018), fundamental studies and data collection are required to develop new tools for sustainable AM. Reducing resources consumption is a key input data for reducing global environmental impact of products.The objective of this research is to provide designers, by considering the environmental impact of their activities, with adequate tools or guidelines to help them having an efficient use of AM machines when they get physical representations of a product.. Thus, the context of this case study is the EarlyDesign Stages (EDS) of the product development process, where AM is used to get physical representations of the product, usually called prototypes in EDS. More specifically, this paper addresses the following research questions:
Kansei information processes in earlydesign: design cognition and computation
Carole Bouchard, Jean-François Omhover, Jieun Kim
Abstract: This chapter considers the Kansei information processes involved in the earlydesign process. It emphasizes the necessity of formalizing the earliest phases of design, i. e. the information phase. After a longitudinal research led since 1997, a theoretical model of the information phase of design was proposed. This model was then refined through experiments that we led from various research projects that were developed during the last years thanks to national and European supports. In the framework of the research presented here, the objective was to refine the model especially by considering the cognitive implicit operations which occur in the early generative phases, i. e. between the inspirational phases and the sketching ones. The paper starts with the definition of the following terms: design process, design information, sectors of analogy, kansei information, kansei structures and kansei rules. Kansei information characterizes the whole corpus of information which the designers deal with in the earlydesign process. Especially, from the information phase, the creative process based on metaphors and analogies is decrypted and formalized, with the extraction of generic rules that, after understanding, may be used more systematically in the generative phase of design through future computer aided design tools. Finally we discuss some advances related to cognition and computation of Kansei processes in design.
Schedulability Analysis at EarlyDesign Stages with MARTE
Chokri Mraidha, Sara Tucci-Piergiovanni, Sebastien Gerard
Abstract The construction of a design model is a critical phase in real-time systems (RTS) development as the choices made have a direct impact on timing aspects. In traditional model-based approaches, the design relies largely on the designer expe- rience. Once the design model is constructed, a convenient schedulability test has to be found in order to ensure that the design allows the respect of the timing con- straints. This late analysis does not guarantee the existence of a test for the given design and does not allow early detection of unfeasible designs. In order to over- come this problem, this chapter proposes the first UML/MARTE methodology for schedulability-aware real-time software design models construction.
3.2 Integration with Design Process
The optimized template using CLIMA+ can be imported to Grasshopper by using Archsim’s Zone component. This optimized template can then be integrated with a new design geometry. The designer has the option to re-evaluate the performance of the design during the design process using CLIMA+. One of the buttons in the top left corner of the interface that has a CSV file icon is designed to import such type of EnergyPlus simulation result files (see Figures 30 and 31). The Building Performance Simulation (BPS) engine that is used by Archsim is EnergyPlus (Crawley et al., 2000). The journal paper by ANSI/ASHRAE (2011) has stated that EnergyPlus has been thoroughly validated and tested in practice so that whole buildings can be modeled reliably and in great detail (Archsim Primer). The first generation of BPS engines emerged in the eighties and nineties to overcome limitations of the until then common steady-state single room heat balance models. The purpose of “dynamic” models using computational heat transfer methods such as response functions or finite-difference methods was to model transient thermal-mass effects (Clarke, 2000).
NZEB design approaches
A NZEB is a grid-connected and energy-efﬁcient building that balances its total annual energy needs by on-site generation  . The main concern of NZEBs design is robustness through the metric-based design or the performance-based design (PBD) approaches. As formulated by Kalay, the PBD approach emphasises the design decision making in relation to performance  . Similar to the evidence-based design (EBD) approach that emphasises the importance of using credible data in order to inﬂuence the design process in healthcare architecture, the PBD has become a funda- mental approach to evaluate the energy performance of buildings in environmental architecture. Experience with constructed NZEBs shows that their design process is based on performance-based decision making that effectively integrates, early on, all aspects of passive building design, energy efﬁciency, daylight autonomy, comfort levels, renewable energy installations, HVAC solutions, in addition to innovative solutions and technologies [13,18,19] . Thus, evaluating different design combinations and parameters based on their performance became an additional activity during the earlydesign stages of NZEBs. To put the design process of NZEBs in perspective, designers have to meet with successive layering con- straints with a performance-based objective, where “form follows performance”. Designers have to deﬁne their work in a set of per- formance criteria, rather than work out the design traditionally in a prescriptive objective. The implications of the NZEB performance based design approach on the design process are discussed in the next paragraph.
5.3 Development of a tool to assist collaboration in earlydesign stages
We believe the complexity of the architectural redesign process justifies the need for a new tool to manage the building lifecycle, albeit with a stronger focus on UCD than existing (BIM) software. Our tool is specifically geared to assist cognitive synchronisation, assessment of solutions, and proposing solutions (Détienne et al., 2004) in the early stages of architectural rehabilitation. Thanks to this software, many stakeholders will be able to access building-related information stored in a database. This tool prototype relies first and foremost on capitalising the data generated by the design team in the early stages of redesign, including – but not limited to – data pertaining to user-centred aspects of design. For example, Figure 5 shows the possibility to report the results of user observations in annotations made on lightweight representations of key locations within the building. This can, in turn, help the client better specify the architectural programme.
5.2 PROTOTYPING AS A COGNITIVE MECHANISM OF EXPERIENTIAL LEARNING IN DESIGN
The implications of these results align well with Kolb’s theory of experiential learning. Applied to this research challenge, experiential learning theory would assert that designers who spent earlydesign stages diverging and interacting with these quickly-produced physical models would have an advantage over those who produced fewer preliminary prototypes and moved on. This is because, as the quantity of preliminary models created and explored increases, even as their individual quality suffers, the designer undergoes more repetitions of the learning cycle—forming and re-forming ideas as a result of vacillations between concrete and abstract, engaging all adaptive ability stages. Participants who divided time among multiple prototypes increased the quantity and breadth of interaction with their physical models, and thus were able to supplement their learning process with concrete feedback that their counterparts who remained mostly in abstract conceptualization were not able to do. Therefore, even though their preliminary prototypes may not have been as robust as 1-Design prototypes because each idea was given limited attention, 5-Design participants learned from those early interactions to improve upon their designs.
3 Design collaboration: methods, tools and importance of PLM
3.1 Early interactive design process
The classical approaches supporting design and manufacture phases have to mute [ 18 ]. In today’s product design, there is a real need to communicate and collaborate on design concepts and to share data interactively in a real-time. However, a com- prehensive system for developing new products that satisfies all the necessary requirements is still unavailable [ 13 ]. The earlydesign phases correspond to a series of crucial steps for the product. It is well known that at this earlier stage, every decision on the product engages the majority of the future costs of design, production, assembly, maintenance, and dis- assembly [ 18 ]. The interactive product design is of major eco- nomic and strategic importance in the development of new and innovative industrial products and processes. Interac- tive design is especially developed to support the knowledge modelling in preliminary design. In interactive design, the creation of a product is considered to be constrained by three factors: the expert’s knowledge, the end-user satisfaction and the realization of functions [ 18 ]. Moreover, the usability [ 19 ] of the user interface is a key aspect for the success of indus- trial products. This assumption has led to the introduction of numerous design methodologies addressed to evaluate the user-friendliness of industrial products [ 7 ].