The CT-scan measures density throughout the volume of the scanned material. Frozen water has a different density than liquid salt-water (brine) or air. Brine loss is expected as soon as the ice core is removed from the temperature gradient of the ice cover and transported south. The brine drainage channels, even emptied or a little transformed, should still be visible on the CT- scan, as well as any air bubbles within the ice. In DeceptionBay, cores were taken above the SWIP (underwater sonar) for CT-scanning in both January 2017 and April 2017. Figure 42 shows a 2D picture of the complete 3D scans of both ice cores, in a color representation of density adapted for ice. Frozen water appears transparent and air is bright blue, highlighting inclusions. The salinity profiles for the same locations are also reproduced. Arrows along the length of the scans identify at which depth salinity measurements were done. Color bars along the length of the scans outline sections of dense air bubbles in green and brine channels in red.
standards (IAEA-CH 3 + CH 6 ) cross calibrated to International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) standards: CH 6 for δ 13 C.
Figure 9. Length standardized logTHg (mg/kg) significantly
increased (p=0.0344) with rising δ 13 C values in Arctic
charr muscle tissue collected from DeceptionBay during August 2016.
Revised: 30 March 2020 – Accepted: 23 April 2020 – Published: 26 May 2020
Abstract. This article presents a case study for the combined use of TerraSAR-X and time-lapse photography time series in order to monitor seasonal sea ice processes in Nunavik’s DeceptionBay. This area is at the confluence of land use by local Inuit, ice-breaking transport by the mining indus- try, and climate change. Indeed, Inuit have reported greater interannual variability in seasonal sea ice conditions, includ- ing later freeze-up and earlier breakup. Time series covering 2015 to 2018 were acquired for each data source: TerraSAR- X images were acquired every 11 d, and photographs were acquired hourly during the day. We used the combination of the two time series to document spatiotemporal aspects of freeze-up and breakup processes. We also report new X-band backscattering values over newly formed sea ice types. The TerraSAR-X time series further show potential for melt and pond onset.
5.3.3. Analysis of sonar data (2015-2019)
As fully described in previous reports, we have installed two underwater sonars to measure continuous ice thickness in DeceptionBay. The shallow water ice profiler (SWIP) was installed in 2015 near Moosehead Island and the ice profiling sonar (IPS) was installed in 2016 in the area were the icebreakers manoeuver to turn around when approaching and exiting the docks. We retrieve the instruments every year for maintenance and data transfer and then put them back into the water.
5.4. Data analysis
Analysis of time-lapse photos for freeze-up and breakup processes
The dates presented here are determined through interpretation of the photos from the Panasonic camera near the port facilities. It is not always clear when ice is moving or not and when water leads are frozen or not. Therefore, there may be some uncertainties when determining the exact freeze-up and breakup dates and interpretation may differ slightly from one interpreter to the other. It nonetheless gives a good qualitative portrait of the ice cycles in DeceptionBay.
The ice reaches its maximum thickness of about 1.7 to 2 m around late May. In June, melting of the ice can first be seen by puddles forming over the ice cover, and then by open areas where the Deception River and other rivers discharge freshwater into the bay. Before June ends, the ice-free area extends from the head to the middle of DeceptionBay around Pointe Théron. Where the pack ice remains, it is too thin to safely travel over it. In late June, or early July at the latest, southeasterly winds may completely free the bay of ice in a single day, while winds in the opposite direction can push floes into the bay. As with ice formation, global warming seems to be changing the break-up period, which recently tends to occur earlier (Don Cameron, Nuvumiut Developments Inc., pers. comm., 2007).
The Bay of Palma was sampled for Dissolved Inorganic Carbon (DIC) variables during 11 surveys in March 2002 (EUBAL I) and June 2002 (EUBAL II) in the framework of the EU project EUROTROPH. In June 2002, DIC values were systematically lower over the Posidonia oceanica meadow. The difference of DIC between the Posidonia meadow and the rest of the Bay of Palma, allowed the computation of the Net Ecosystem Production (NEP). The short-term variability of NEP was related to light availability. This allowed to integrate NEP for the sampling period based on continuous light measurements and the integrated value is in fair agreement with the estimates based on concomitant pelagic and benthic O 2
Le développement industriel est basé sur l'exploitation des ressources naturelles à cause du rôle majeur qu'occupent ces dernières dans la fabrication des produits finis ou semi-finis pour les secteurs-clés de l'économie. La production de différents articles tels que les téléphones portables, les pièces d'avions, le matériel de construction, etc. est tributaire de ces ressources. La région du Nunatsiavut regorge d'énormes stocks de ressources naturelles par exemple le nickel, qui fait objet d’un développement entrepris par la firme Voisey's Bay Nickel Company (VBNC). Cette firme envisage d'exploiter 32 millions de tonnes de nickel dans un site à ciel ouvert et plus de 118 millions de tonnes de nickel dans un site souterrain dans la province de Terre-Neuve et Labrador. L’exploitation de ce gisement minier fut initialement prévue pour une durée de 12 ans, mais pourrait se prolonger selon les disponibilités de la ressource après les recherches souterraines. Selon le Rapport publié par l'Association des Inuits du Labrador en 1996, VBNC a obtenu un certificat d'exploration depuis janvier 1996 du gouvernement de Terre-Neuve et Labrador. Le développement de la mine devait se faire moyennant un accord conclu entre le gouvernement, la VBNC et l'Association des Inuits du Labrador (Labrador Inuit Association) afin de considérer les exigences du peuple inuit qui dispose des droits ancestraux sur le territoire. Le compromis trouvé était d'inclure leurs revendications dans les ententes sur les répercussions et les avantages qui découleraient des activités d'exploration et éventuellement de développement de la mine de Voisey's Bay. Selon les points de vue des représentants du peuple Inuit, les éléments importants qui faisaient partie des revendications pouvaient se regrouper dans sept catégories : droit de propriété, contrôle de la terre et des ressources, informations et communications, protection et impacts environnementaux, impacts sur la culture Inuit, emploi et formation, services sociaux, santé et sécurité, compensation, redevances et autres bénéfices.
Figure 1: Coccolithophorid Emiliania huxleyi. Figure 2: The study area: Bay of Biscay. Arrows indicate the general current pattern. Figure 3: Composite satellite image of May 2007 (provided by Steve Groom, Remote Sensing Group, Plymouth Marine Laboratory, Plymouth, UK), where the high reflectance patch indicates the decline of the coccolithophorid bloom.
Results & discussion
We installed and tested an autonomous and continuously measuring ERT monitoring system in the vicinity of shal- low boreholes at the Crater Lake CALM-S site, Deception Island, with the objective of evaluating its potential in a re- mote area without maintenance for a full year. The Crater Lake CALM-S site is typical for conditions found in Antarc- tica, where year-round stations are scarce, and most research stations are only operated in summer. Data were collected to monitor subsurface freezing and thawing processes on a daily and seasonal basis and to detect seasonal trends as well as the impact of short-lived extreme meteorological events. Short-lived meteorological events are rarely addressed in per- mafrost studies, but they reflect the impact of fast-changing meteorological conditions on the upper soil horizons. In the context of climate change, with increasing frequency of at- mospheric extreme events, these events may also become more frequent. Being able to identify them in the ERT se- ries allows for a better characterization of the links between soil thermal regimes and geomorphic dynamics.
How can this kind of semantic extension be accounted for? Rather than being an instance of metaphor, in this case the sense of deception and that of deprivation are probably related to each other through conceptual association, in turn a result of their frequent co-occurrence. In the context of mediaeval literature, this is not surprising, as it is frequently concerned with the taking of lives and kingdoms of saints, noblemen and kings, which, if not of open battle, is often the result of treachery. Consider in that respect (22), which illustrates the conceptual contiguity of deception (‘darkly misled’) and bereavement (‘despoiled of joy’, presumably as the result of being darkly misled), and also (24), where a different reading of ber ǣ dan as ‘deprive so. [of his life]’ is evoked by the co-ordinated clause & hine acwellan.
Once ice-tolerant tidal current harvesting devices are developed, they may be deployable in other jurisdictions with energetic tidal flows which experience more severe conditions of sea ice than the headwaters of the Bay of Fundy.
In North America, these locations might include Northumberland Strait (between Prince Edward Island and New Brunswick), the Gulf of St. Lawrence (Quebec), the Strait of Belle Isle (Newfoundland and Labrador), Cook Inlet (Alaska), and Ungava Bay (Quebec).
sis spp./Fossula arctica) was observed, mostly in western
areas still covered by sea ice and/or more influenced by Pacific waters flowing down from the northern part of the Baffin Bay. This assemblage was associated with much less productive waters, with low biomass. It contributed on average only 3% of total POC, implying that other phy- toplankton groups were dominating the bloom in these areas. Some extremely high abundances of Phaeocystis spp. were found to co-occur with this diatom assemblage at certain locations. Yet despite lower total Si produc- tion, this assemblage presented slightly higher specific Si uptake rates at stations located under the ice pack, prob- ably reflecting early stages of the bloom not yet experi- encing nutrient limitation.