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Transformation of dairy production systems in Indonesia : assessing sustainability and long term trajectories of farms

Transformation of dairy production systems in Indonesia : assessing sustainability and long term trajectories of farms

ABSTRACT In Indonesia, smallholders dairy farm play a key role in the economic development of rural areas. However, farmers face some limitation to develop dairy production. They respond differently to overcoming the constraints of production factors. To understand the strategy in the development of dairy production in farmers’ level to ensure income and to provide national market, we conducted a study in West Java Province. We collected informations into two steps included formal survey from May to September 2015 and in-depth interview from January to April 2017. First step, we carried out a formal survey which covered total of 355 farms to build farm typology and to characterize each type of farm. Second, we conducted two times in-depth interview to 20 farms which represented of each type to understand their farm trajectory. Our result indicated that the net dairy income increases according to the herd size. Around 55 percent of farmers who have three cows, reached income treshold. We also identified four types of farm including very small specialized dairy farm (T1), dairy farm with an off farm activity and with very limited land (T2), small specialized dairy farm (T3), and mixed crop-dairy farm (T4). The technical-economic performance vary according to the type of farm. The 6 trajectories exist in the study area. The main dynamic was to add off farm activity for poor farmers as a response to face their limitations or abandon off farm activity due to limited family worker. Another dynamic is the increase of herd size for the specialized farm with higher working capital. Meanwhile, diversified farm (crop-dairy business) enlarged land access but relatively stable for the herd to manage both activities proportionally. Even though, T3 might play a key role to the milk market, but focusing only on this type for national production could not be relevant because the difference of size between producers is not too much. It underlines the importance of understanding farm trajectories to design appropriate policy for the development of dairy production.
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Multi-functionality of livestock helps develop dairy production in Indonesia

Multi-functionality of livestock helps develop dairy production in Indonesia

MULTIFUNCTIONALITY WORKSHOP | INTERNATIONAL R A N G E L A N D CONGRESS Saskatoon – July, 16-17 2016 Edi Basuno 1 , Pria Sembala 1 , Justine Rivaton 2 , Isabelle Vagneron 3 , Guillaume Duteurtre 4 , Jean-François Tourrand 5 Multi-functionality of livestock helps develop dairy production in Indonesia

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Room for manoeuvre in time of the workforce in dairy production systems

Room for manoeuvre in time of the workforce in dairy production systems

Received August 19, 2011 and accepted July 24, 2012. Corresponding author: joelcarneiros@gmail.com Introduction In the last decades, many changes have occurred in rural areas, and one of them concerns to work organization. The volume of work has increased and the number of workers has decreased in the agricultural production systems, especially in familiar agriculture (Ferris et al., 2006; Madelrieux & Dedieu, 2008; Hostiou & Dedieu, 2009). These changes were not different in dairy production. This activity is extremely demanding in work and many farmers claim not to have enough time available to spend more on family or off-farm activities. In this sense, according to Ulbricht (2007), workers from dairy production systems (DPS) of the Parana State, Brazil, present a high-level workload (average of 65 hours per week). The work is done everyday including weekends and holidays (Ulbricht, 2007), since there are tasks to be performed daily. The milking and feeding tasks are those which demand more time in the daily routine of these dairy production systems (DPS) (Guillaumin et al., 2004; Chauvat et al, 2003; Ulbricht, 2007).
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EIP-AGRI Focus Group ‘Robust and resilient dairy production systems’

EIP-AGRI Focus Group ‘Robust and resilient dairy production systems’

A balanced breeding goal is important to achieve genetic progress for resilience and efficiency. Most countries in Western Europe have either implemented a breeding index or have it under development. An index is an overall score of genetic merit combining the relative economic values of several traits. Resilience is not currently included as a specific trait in any country, but traits like health, longevity, reproduction are included in some way in many countries. Moreover, currently genetic evaluations are done assuming that all environments are equal even though there may be huge differences in terms of weather, herd production, health status, management system (grazing, indoor, etc.). Models need to be developed to handle these differences. Precision Livestock Farming (PLF) can be defined as the management of livestock farming by continuous automated real-time monitoring or control of production, reproduction, health and welfare of livestock and environmental impact. PLF 2 can be used in several fields related with dairy husbandry, including animal welfare and cow fertility, health, and performance. It can also support the genetic improvement described above by generating valuable data for the development of new selection models.
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Dairy Production And Sources Of Cellular Variability Of Milk Of Cow's In Two Large Farms In Semi-arid Environment (tunisia Coastal)

Dairy Production And Sources Of Cellular Variability Of Milk Of Cow's In Two Large Farms In Semi-arid Environment (tunisia Coastal)

Les mammites sont, depuis l’apparition de la traite mécanique, sources des pertes économiques les plus importantes en élevage bovin laitier [4] et peuvent représenter un danger pour la santé humaine, notamment avec les fromages au lait cru [5]. Les pertes correspondent au coût du traitement, aux réformes de vaches incurables et aux baisses de production laitière [3]. Le dénombrement des cellules somatiques, reflétant la santé de la glande mammaire [6], est utilisé comme caractère indicateur d’une infection mammaire clinique ou subclinique de la vache [7]. Un lait avec un dénombrement de cellules somatiques peu élevé est synonyme de vaches avec un pis en santé et de production d’un lait d’excellente qualité [8]. Lorsque le pis est exempt d’infection, il ne réplique pas et on se sert de cela comme d’un indice de qualité du lait [6]. Le suivi cellulaire mensuel admet d’avoir une idée exacte de la dynamique des infections mammaires [9].
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Socia-technical changes in the dairy production systems and milk marketing in Sikasso periurban zone (Mali)

Socia-technical changes in the dairy production systems and milk marketing in Sikasso periurban zone (Mali)

En effet, l’élevage sédentaire est aussi pratiqué par les commerçants, les artisans, les fonctionnaires, du domaine publique et du secteur privé. Ces nouveaux acteurs résident dans les centres urbains. Ils investissent les revenus ou l’épargne de leur activité dans le bétail. Cette forme d’élevage sédentaire est un des facteurs à l’origine du développement des ceintures laitières aux alentours des grands centres urbains et des villes secondaires. Les fonctions premières de cet élevage, l’épargne et le prestige social, évoluent rapidement vers une fonction de production (embouche bovine ; production de lait) pour profiter du marché urbain. Pour ces acteurs bien capitalisés, le foncier est le principal facteur limitant au développement de l’élevage péri-urbain, en fait un système hors sol. Le pâturage est restreint par le développement de l’agriculture péri-urbaine et l’extension de la ville. A cet effet, l’acquisition de foncier de terre de culture est difficile dans les alentours immédiats des villes. Cet élevage péri-urbain né de l’élevage sédentaire se caractérise par l’utilisation accrue d’aliments complémentaires produits ou achetés, de produits vétérinaires et par l’amélioration génétique. Autres caractéristiques de ce système d’élevage, la proportion de femelles est élevée en lien avec l’objectif de production de lait. Une étude a été effectuée en 1989 sur 54 troupeaux de production laitière de la zone péri-urbaine de Bamako par le programme FAO/Gouvernement (Coulibaly, 1993). Cette étude a concerné 9150 têtes d’animaux enquêtés, montre que le pourcentage de femelles dans le troupeau périurbain de Bamako (74,5%) est supérieur à celui du troupeau national (65%). Cette variation concerne essentiellement la présence de génisses (17,4% contre 11,4%) et de veaux femelles (15% contre 10,6%). Le nombre de mâles (taureaux et bœufs) est de 5,7% du troupeau périurbain alors qu’il s’agit respectivement de 8,1% et 12,7% pour le troupeau national. L’auteur conclut à une volonté des éleveurs de la zone péri-urbaine de Bamako pour la reproduction et peut- être la fonction laitière comme style d’exploitation. En gardant davantage les génisses, l’élevage concerné se situe dans l’optique d’augmenter à court terme le nombre de vaches laitières au sein d’un troupeau a priori en bonne expansion économique.
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Developing Advanced Management and Selection Tools for Dairy Cattle

Developing Advanced Management and Selection Tools for Dairy Cattle

Keywords: breeding, management, modeling, dairy cattle INTRODUCTION In the next decencies, dairy production will be under even more pressure to provide healthy milk from well-managed and robust cows producing under economically and ecologically sustainable conditions. Performance recording has been for years linked to genetic improvement and to basic farm management. For yield traits, efforts to model, still in a genetic perspective, this type of longitudinal data focused on random regression, also called random coefficient, models. Other data from performance recording is available as linear data, body condition scores, health (i.e., somatic cell count), fertility and longevity data. In this presentation we will show how extensive data recording, combined with statistical modeling is the basis for the development of advanced management and selection tools for dairy cattle.
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Strategies of the Walloon dairy producersfaced to the uncertain dairy future

Strategies of the Walloon dairy producersfaced to the uncertain dairy future

Increase Constant Stop Farms characteristics - Workforce Dairy production alternative valorisation No Yes Farms characteristics - Year of installation Diversification Yes No Farms [r]

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Scale Economies and Technical Efficiency of Quebec Dairy Farms

Scale Economies and Technical Efficiency of Quebec Dairy Farms

The technology in milk production has been the object of many studies in the United States and Europe. For example, Fernandez et al. (2002 and 2005) estimated an input distance function with good and bad outputs and showed that there is much variation in technical efficiency amongst Dutch dairy farms and that technical efficiency scores are positively correlated with environmental efficiency scores. They also found evidence of increasing returns in the production of good outputs and decreasing returns in the production of bad outputs. Rasmussen (2010) compared the crop sector, the pig sector and the dairy sector in Denmark in terms of technical efficiency and output scale efficiency. They found that dairy farms operate at a high degree of technical efficiency. Interestingly, Danish dairy farms did not get closer to the efficient output scale between 1985 and 2000 even though the average herd size increased from 35 to 62. However, they began to get closer to the efficient scale between 2000 and 2006 as the average herd size increased from 62 to 97. Historically, the issues of returns to scale and technical efficiency in dairy production have attracted much attention in the United States because of the wide range of herd sizes observed. Kumbhakar et al. (1991) found that large farms operated by producers with a higher level of education tend to be more efficient, technically and allocatively. Even though they did not find evidence of increasing returns to scale, they found that larger farms had lower returns to scale than smaller ones and this along with their results on efficiency prompted them to predict that the number of larger farms would continue to grow over time. This prediction turned out to be right according to Figure 2 in Moshein and Lovell (2009) which shows that the contribution of farms with less than 200 cows to the US dairy herd fell from about 60% in 1998 to 34% in 2007 while that of the farms with at least 2000 cows increased from 7% to 23%. This study applied a shadow cost model to assess the relative importance of scale effects, technical efficiency and allocative efficiency in explaining variations in costs of production across farms. They too found that large farms are more efficient than smaller ones. However, their results clearly show that the main driver behind the consolidation in the US dairy sector is scale economies. Interestingly, their model shows that diseconomies of scale eventually occur as the herd size reaches a certain threshold, but even the largest farms in
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Feeding practices of dairy cows in Algeria: Characterization, typology, and impact on  milk production and fertility

Feeding practices of dairy cows in Algeria: Characterization, typology, and impact on milk production and fertility

Data analysis First, the nutritional values of the rations were calculated from the Ruminant Feed Nutritional Value, Tables of Institut National de Recherche Agronomique (INRA) [7] to deter- mine their total dry matter (DM), net energy, nitrogen, and mineral intakes (calcium and phosphorus). Afterward, the theoretical needs of cows were calculated. Maintenance needs were first estimated according to an average live weight of 600 kg, production needs were determined upon the daily milk yield average, which allows evaluating the coverage rates of different nutrient requirements of dairy cows per farm. The average dairy performances per cow, per farm, and per day were estimated for the month cor- responding to the visit by dividing the total amount of the produced milk during this month by the number of the days and by the number of the lactating cows. Concerning the assessment of the fertility in the farms and the calving interval (CI), the most technico-economic criterion in dairy production [8,9] was deduced by calculating the average of the recorded intervals.
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Improved management to limit milk production losses resulting from the transition to once-a-day milking in dairy sheep

Improved management to limit milk production losses resulting from the transition to once-a-day milking in dairy sheep

At the farm level, flock management adaptations can compensate for the decrease in household income but not for the decrease in total milk yield. However, considered at the level of the whole dairy production area, the different ways of implementing ODM in farms would affect the volume of milk available for cheese production, in addition to the frequency of collection. For origin labels for which twice-a-day milking is an obligation for cheese production, a transition to ODM at the level of the dairy area would require modification of the PDO specifications, which currently do not include this management option. For example, Roquefort cheese is produced from 50% of the milk collected under the PDO specifications, and the remaining 50% is used for pressed or salted cheeses or other products (another ewe milk cheese named Pérail, yoghourt, etc.). In practice, simulations at the dairy area level can help measure the impact of the collective implementation of ODM. However, even without any change in PDO specifications, it is already possible for farms that are not involved in a cheese label to use ODM. For instance, approximately 13% of the total ewe milk produced in France, which represents approximately 450 breeders, does not comply with PDO specifications (Anonyme, 2016). This proportion increased by almost 3% between 2010 and 2015. For other
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Economic impacts of mastitis in canadian dairy herds

Economic impacts of mastitis in canadian dairy herds

Figure 3. Kaplan-Meier survival curves for CM in 1 st , 2 nd , and 3 rd lactation ; reproduced from Elghafghuf (2014) 1.2 Subclinical mastitis The term subclinical mastitis (SCM) can be used to describe an inflammation of the mammary gland that is neither accompanied by visible abnormality of milk or the udder, nor by systemic signs. Alike CM, SCM is generally the result of an IMI caused by bacteria. Although signs of inflammation are not visible, milk yield is often reduced and milk composition is changed. Laboratory tests (e.g. somatic cell count, milk bacteriological analyses) are required to diagnose this condition. In the study by Djabri et al. (2002) mean SCC of healthy and infected quarter milk samples were compared. It was demonstrated in this latter study that intramammary infections caused by different pathogens result in different elevations in SCC (Tableau Ⅲ). Subclinical mastitis is often of longer duration than CM and, therefore, more prevalent. Subclinical mastitis also causes greater economic losses compared to CM, mainly due to the sustained decreased milk production (Halasa et al., 2007a). After treatment of SCM, the production level does not usually get back to pre-mastitis level (St.Rose et al., 2003).
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Impact of udder disorders on culling of dairy cows

Impact of udder disorders on culling of dairy cows

early culling in the current and following lactations. Mastitis and high milk cell count were associated with an increased risk of late culling in the current and following lactations, respectively. dairy cow / culling / disease / udder I risk Résumé ― Impact des troubles de santé de la mamelle sur la réforme des vaches laitières. Des données issues d’une enquête prospective longitudinale conduite dans 47 troupeaux bovins lai- tiers Holstein de l’ouest de la France de 1986 à 1990 ont été utilisées pour mesurer l’impact de troubles de santé liés à la mamelle sur le risque de réforme des vaches laitières. Des analyses par régression
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TECHNICAL CHALLENGES IN CHOLESTEROL REMOVAL FROM DAIRY PRODUCTS

TECHNICAL CHALLENGES IN CHOLESTEROL REMOVAL FROM DAIRY PRODUCTS

Short Path Molecular Distillation 70-90% Low Molecular weight Triglycerides & flavor compounds distill out Supercritical Fluid Extraction 90-95% Remove lipid-soluble components,[r]

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Effect of the milk recording time  on the genetic parameters  of milk production and  mid-infrared milk components  in Luxembourg dairy cattle

Effect of the milk recording time on the genetic parameters of milk production and mid-infrared milk components in Luxembourg dairy cattle

To improve fertility or other desired traits, some US graziers have chosen bulls from New Zealand (NZ), which relies extensively on seasonal calv- ing and grazing. To compare performance of daughters of NZ and North American (NA; Canadian and US) AI Holstein (HO) and Jersey (JE) bulls, the model included fixed effects for US herd-year-season, parity (≤5) and semen source. Cows that calved between January 2000 and July 2010 in all US herds were included as well as in a subset of seasonally calving herds (≥60% of calvings in February through April). First-lactation HO data included records from 438 herds with 1,443 daughters of 54 NZ bulls and 26,444 daughters of 3,055 NA bulls; JE first-lactation data included records from 538 herds with 2,714 daughters of 65 NZ bulls and 76,281 daughters of 1,631 NA bulls. The seasonal calving subset included 22 HO and 26 JE herds. All differences mentioned were significant (P < 0.05) unless designated otherwise. Mean milk and protein yields across all parities were higher for NA daughters than for NZ daughters (497 kg milk and 6 kg protein for HO; 264 kg milk and 3 kg protein for JE); mean fat yield was nearly equal for HO but lower (2 kg) for NA JE daughters. Mean somatic cell scores were higher for NZ than NA daughters (0.15 for HO; 0.08 for JE). Mean days open were fewer for HO (9.9 d) and JE (1.3 d, nonsignificant) NZ daughters. Difference between NZ and NA HO daughters for calving ease and stillbirth rate was small and nonsig- nificant. Results for seasonally calving herds were similar. For 17 HO type appraisal traits, NA daughters scored higher for stature, fore udder attachment, rear udder height, and udder depth. For 13 JE type appraisal traits, NA daughters scored higher for stature, dairy form, fore udder attachment, rear udder height and width, and udder depth but lower for strength and thurl width. Overall, NA HO bull daughters produced more milk and protein but were less fertile than NZ bull daughters. For JE, fertility was not different between NA and NZ daughters. Overall merit of various selection alternatives should be judged on performance of all traits with economic value considered.
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Typology of dairy farms in Ba Vi

Typology of dairy farms in Ba Vi

 Durabilité économique : le revenu par main-d’œuvre des types 2 et 5 est meilleur que celui du type 1 et type 4 (petites exploitations). Toutefois, le niveau de risque est aussi plus élevé car les revenus ne sont pas diversifiés dans les types 2 et 5. Actuellement, on connait peu l’efficacité économique de la production laitière entre les types du fait du manque d’indicateurs pour calculer la marge brute. Mais si le prix de lait baisse, peut-être que les plus petites fermes seront plus durables que les grandes parce que le revenu de la famille se basera sur une diversité d’activités. D’autre part, la capacité d’accès au crédit bancaire est difficile pour les grandes exploitations du centre de recherche car ils n’ont pas de carnet rouge pour leurs surfaces (une condition très importante pour accéder au crédit bancaire au Vietnam).
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Cocoa byproduct in diets for dairy heifers.

Cocoa byproduct in diets for dairy heifers.

The cocoa byproduct tested in the present study was obtained from CEPLAC (Comissão Executiva de Planejamento da Lavoura Cacaueira; Linhares, ES, Brazil) and producing farms in the region. It was composed of peels, which, after drying in the sun, were stored in drums. Subsequently, the material was ground and added to the diet provided to animals, which was offered in two daily meals (7:00 and 16:00 h). Leftovers were harvested every morning, weighed, and the amount of feed supplied was based on that quantity plus the amount necessary to maintain leftovers at 10%. A mixture of urea:ammonium sulfate was used at a ratio of 9:1. Diets were isonitrogenous and formulated according to the nutritional requirements of dairy cattle (NRC, 2001) (Tables 1 and 2).
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Dairy product consumption in french children in 2010

Dairy product consumption in french children in 2010

sommations Alimentairesen France-study. Seven-day questionnaires were administered to free- living individuals from autumn 2009 to summer 2010. Subjects were children (n = 1171) aged 3 - 17 years. Dairy products contributed substantially to the intake of calcium, phosphorus, potas- sium, zinc, vitamin B2 and vitamin B12. A general decrease in DP consumption has been observed since 2003. This is most notably due to a lower milk intake which is not compensated by increased cheese or fresh dairy products. Most of children (67%), and up to 73% of adolescents (15 - 17 y), did not reach the recommended “3 servings of dairy products per day”. Twenty percent of children from the age of 6 and nearly 2/3 of female adolescents did not reach their estimated average re- quirement for calcium. The overview of French dairy food consumption during childhood, of par- ticular Public Health concern, emphasizes the need to encourage dairy consumption and particu- larly milk consumption at breakfast in order to maintain a nutrient adequacy in children and adolescents.
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Sequential Evaluation of Longitudinal Conformation Data in Dairy Cows

Sequential Evaluation of Longitudinal Conformation Data in Dairy Cows

A&M University, Huntsville. Records for Boer (n = 132), Kiko (n = 92), and Spanish (n = 79) does across 6 yr of production were processed to assess doe fitness traits among meat goat breeds when managed on southeastern US pastures. Does were mated in a complete 3-breed diallel each fall for spring kidding. A total of 1042 doe-yr units were observed with does ranging from 2 to 8 yr of age and managed together in a semi-intensive manner. Herd health records were analyzed for each production year. Does were treated for foot scald and foot rot upon observed lameness. The herd was not vaccinated for foot rot. Breeds differed (P < 0.01) for lameness cases treated during the year. Boer required more (P < 0.01) treatments for lameness (1.8 ± 0.1 cases/doe) than Kiko (0.6 ± 0.1 cases/doe) or Spanish (0.9 ± 0.1 cases/doe). A larger (P < 0.01) proportion of Boer required single (75 ± 5%) or multiple foot treatments (49 ± 4%) annu- ally compared with Kiko (36 ± 5%; 17 ± 4%) or Spanish (45 ± 5%; 24 ± 4%). Does received a tactical anthelminic treatment at parturition. Individual does presenting clinical symptoms of endoparasitism during the year received need-based treatment. Breeds differed (P < 0.01) for need-based anthelmintic treatment. Need-based dewormings were more numerous for Boer (0.8 ± 0.1 cases/doe) than for Kiko (0.4 ± 0.1 cases/ doe) or Spanish (0.3 ± 0.1 cases/doe). A larger (P < 0.01) proportion of Boer required single (53 ± 4%) or multiple need-based dewormings (23 ± 4%) per year compared with Kiko (26 ± 4%; 4 ± 3%) or Spanish (23 ± 3%; 7 ± 2%). Fecal egg counts to assess endoparasite loads 3 mo postpartum were higher (P < 0.01) for Boer dams (660 eggs/g) than for Spanish dams (362 eggs/g); Kiko dams were intermediate (500 eggs/g). A smaller proportion (P < 0.01) of Boer does weaned 3-mo-old kids (49 ± 3%) and stayed in the herd (64 ± 3%) annually compared with Kiko (78 ± 3%, 85 ± 2%) and Spanish does (77 ± 3%, 84 ± 2%). Significant differences were evident among meat goat breeds for doe fitness under southeastern US pasture conditions.
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Type trait (co)variance components for five dairy breeds

Type trait (co)variance components for five dairy breeds

Ducrocq, V., and B. Besbes. 1993. Solution of multiple trait animal models with missing data on some traits. J. Anim. Breed. Genet. 110:81–92. Gengler, N., T. Dusseldorf, G. R. Wiggans, J. R. Wright, and T. Druet. 2001a. Heterogeneity of (co)variance components for Jersey type traits. J. Dairy Sci. 84:1772. Online. Available: http://www. adsa.org/jds/papers/0385/JDS0385.html.

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