Beef herds were mainly represented by the Belgian Blue breed. In those 29 beef herds, neonatal diarrhea was a problem in 7 farms, respiratory diseases in 6, high mortality rates in 5, emaciation in 3, myopathy in 3 and lameness in 2 farms. Analyses revealed that 18 herds (62%) were deficient in zinc and that 22 herds (76%) presented copper deficiency. Based on plasma values, SOD and GSH-pxe were below normal range in 14 (48%), and in 21 (72%) farms, respectively. It appeared that 3 herds were deficient in only one trace element, while 24 herds showed multiple deficiencies.
Complete use of nonadditive evaluations would require the use of a mating system (DeStefano, Hoeschele, 1992) as shown in figure 1. This system would be computerized and could be located at data processing centers, national research sites, or at breed associations. Predictions for each mating could be obtained through the Internet. On input, such a system would accept a list of cows to be mated and selection criteria specified by the breeder, such as weights for individual traits and maximum costs of semen. Then the system would consider mating each cow to a number of sires with all effects computed as necessary in the process and would select a combination with the highest overall index. To compute nonadditive adjustments for each potential mating, the mating system would need access to complete results of the recent evaluation and to a complete pedigree. Selection on combining abilities requires calculation of a prediction of the parental combination for all possible pairs of individuals in the population.
In France, a recent breed standard, supported with measurements, was lacking. A first step is made to collect data on measuring cow features of Ferrandaise cows, and they will have to be completed with data on the dairyandbeef production of the breed in the near future. The recorded measurements show that the current Ferrandaise cow is very close to the original one that existed in 1928. When compared to the Villard de Lans‟ cows, the shape of these two breeds seems to be quite similar and it is confirmed with the data obtained that the measures are very close for all the criteria analysed. In Spain, the questionnaires showed that Avileña-Negra Ibérica breeders do not seem to have a high level of specialization. Any of the identified strategies could be incorporated into their system. Even though meat production is a objective for the breed, it is clear that the objective is to produce meat, but at low costs. It is not clear if the breeders that are more oriented towards meat are aware of the need to fully implement a program to incorporate the meat quality in the breeding objective.
Low density chips are appealing alternative tools contributing to the reduction of genotyping costs. Imputation enables to predict missing genotypes in order to recreate the denser coverage of the standard 50K genotype. Two alternative in silico chips were defined. They included markers selected to optimize Minor Allele Frequency and spacing. The objective of this study was to compare imputation accuracy of these custom low density chips with the commercially available 3K chip. Data consisted of genotypes of 4,037 Holstein bulls, 1,219 Montbéliarde bulls and 991 Blonde d’Aquitaine bulls. Criteria to select markers to include in low density marker panels are described. In order to mimic a low density genotype, all markers except the markers present on the low density panel were masked in the validation population. Imputation was performed using the Beagle software. Combining the Directed Acyclic Graph obtained by Beagle with the PHASEBOOK package provides fast and accurate imputation which is suitable for routine genomic evaluations based on imputed genotypes. Ninety five to ninety nine percent of alleles were correctly imputed depending on the breedand the low density chip. The alternative low density chips gave better results than the commercially available Golden Gate 3K chip. A low density chip with 6,000 markers is a valuable genotyping tool suitable for both dairyandbeef breeds. Such a tool can be used for pre-selection of young animals or large-scale screening of the female population.
Prevalence of Mycoplasma bovis in beefanddairy herds in Belgium.
L. Gille*, J. Callens°, K. Supré + , F. Boyen $ , F. Haesebrouck $ , L. Van Driessche $ , K. Van Leenen $ , P. Deprez $ , B. Pardon $
*University of Liège, Belgium; °Animal Health Service Flanders (DGZ Vlaanderen), Belgium; + Flanders
Gembloux Agro-Bio Tech, University of Liège, B-5030 Gembloux, Belgium; email@example.com Abstract. Developing advanced management and selection tools for dairy cattle is the current
challenge our research group is facing. Based on existing, or new data, we have described the development of these tools. They will allow dairy farmers in the Walloon Region to reduce their costs and increase product quality.
The technology in milk production has been the object of many studies in the United States and Europe. For example, Fernandez et al. (2002 and 2005) estimated an input distance function with good and bad outputs and showed that there is much variation in technical efficiency amongst Dutch dairy farms and that technical efficiency scores are positively correlated with environmental efficiency scores. They also found evidence of increasing returns in the production of good outputs and decreasing returns in the production of bad outputs. Rasmussen (2010) compared the crop sector, the pig sector and the dairy sector in Denmark in terms of technical efficiency and output scale efficiency. They found that dairy farms operate at a high degree of technical efficiency. Interestingly, Danish dairy farms did not get closer to the efficient output scale between 1985 and 2000 even though the average herd size increased from 35 to 62. However, they began to get closer to the efficient scale between 2000 and 2006 as the average herd size increased from 62 to 97. Historically, the issues of returns to scale and technical efficiency in dairy production have attracted much attention in the United States because of the wide range of herd sizes observed. Kumbhakar et al. (1991) found that large farms operated by producers with a higher level of education tend to be more efficient, technically and allocatively. Even though they did not find evidence of increasing returns to scale, they found that larger farms had lower returns to scale than smaller ones and this along with their results on efficiency prompted them to predict that the number of larger farms would continue to grow over time. This prediction turned out to be right according to Figure 2 in Moshein and Lovell (2009) which shows that the contribution of farms with less than 200 cows to the US dairy herd fell from about 60% in 1998 to 34% in 2007 while that of the farms with at least 2000 cows increased from 7% to 23%. This study applied a shadow cost model to assess the relative importance of scale effects, technical efficiency and allocative efficiency in explaining variations in costs of production across farms. They too found that large farms are more efficient than smaller ones. However, their results clearly show that the main driver behind the consolidation in the US dairy sector is scale economies. Interestingly, their model shows that diseconomies of scale eventually occur as the herd size reaches a certain threshold, but even the largest farms in
Having set the boundaries of this study from cradle to the exit gate of the processing plant, the on-farm con- tributions were estimated to be about 90% (Canadian average) of total GHG emissions. Variations between provinces were related to on-farm practices and envi- ronmental conditions, such as climate, and, to a lesser extent, off-farm parameters such as energy source. The on-farm emissions are potentially better controlled by the dairy sector than off-farm emissions because they are mainly related to farm practices and less by uncon- trollable parameters such as weather. Off-farm emis- sions are mainly linked to the use of energy, primarily electricity. In the present study, GHG emissions from industrial wastewater treatments were estimated but this aspect of the modeling deserves improvement, thereby allowing consideration of the abatement po- tential of the associated mitigation practices. However, the contribution to the total emissions is relatively low. Finally, for comparison purposes, the reporting unit must be defined on the basis of the function of the food products and a comparison of all products presented cannot be done. This study indicated that any inter- pretation based on the current units (mass of product or protein content) might not be ideal when reporting emission intensities for food products. A protein basis was used in this study, but a similar problem would be encountered if using the percentage of either fat or car- bohydrate. Functionality has to be considered, but it might be insufficient for food product labeling because different reporting units (adapted to a specific food product) will be used, and the resulting confusion could lead consumers to lose confidence in such labeling. One common function to describe all of these products is the need to feed people. Therefore, is it also possible to find a common reporting unit for all food products? A standardized methodology will certainly have to be de- veloped and a more comprehensive approach will have to be used. More research is therefore needed to explore this very important LCA topic.
Whole blood viscosity and viscoelasticity in healthy dairy cows Sandersen C., Dringenberg B., Vandeputte S., Sartelet A. , Amory H. Guyot H.,
It has recently been shown that bovine erythrocytes have a particular phospholipid composition, consisting largely of sphingomyelin and few or no phosphatidylcholine. The membrane composition is known to have a major impact on the erythrocytes membranes fluidity and deformity. Little information is known about the rheological behavior of bovine blood, although red blood cell deformity, whole blood viscosity, and viscolelasticity are influenced by numerous physiological, pathological and pharmacological conditions. The rheological properties of blood themselves influence shear stress in blood vessels and can be of importance in the understanding of pathological mechanism of certain diseases, like e.g. babesiosis or postparturient haemoglobinuria. The aim of the study was to measure whole blood viscosity and viscoelasticity of clinically healthy animals in order to establish reference values that can be compared to values obtained in sick animals in the future. Ten healthy Holstein-Frisian cows were studied. Blood was sampled on EDTA vacutainer tubes. Packed cell volume, red blood cell count, and hemoglobin concentration were determined with a cell analyzer (Medonic CA50), total protein content was measured colorimetrically. Whole blood viscosity and viscoelasticity was measured at shear rates of 2.2, 12 and 62 s -1 using the Bioprofiler (LAT -Labor- und Analysen-Technik, Garbsen, Germany).
1 University of Liège, Gembloux Agro-Bio Tech, 5030 Gembloux, Belgium - 2 Walloon Breeding Association, 5590 Ciney, Belgium
The Piétrain breed is used worldwide as a terminal sire line in industrial crossbreeding schemes. This breed confers high leanness and muscling as well as good conformation to its progeny. Pure Piétrain breeding is done in two different contexts: 1- by breeding companies through private industrial lines; 2- by a low number of breeders, a community that continues to decrease. In the Walloon Region of Belgium, the population of purebred Piétrain, kept by breeders and used to obtain finishing pigs, is of very limited size. This implies that this breed may be endangered and requires preservation measures in Wallonia.
Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease. Due to the risk of dog-to human transmission of leptospirosis and the need of monitoring urine output in dogs with acute kidney injury it is highly recommended to place an indwelling urinary catheter during hospitalization. Urinary catheteriza- tion can predispose to urinary tract infection (UTI). The aim of this ret- rospective cohort study was to evaluate type and frequency of UTI in dogs with leptospirosis and to identify risk factors associated with UTI in leptospirotic dogs.The electronic data-base of the San Marco Veteri- nary Clinic P.O.A System-Plus 9.0 was searched between January- 2008 and December-2018 for dogs with diagnosis of leptospirosis (n = 78). Diagnosis of leptospirosis was consistent clinicopathologic signs, a positive microscopic agglutination test (titer ≥1:1600 in vacci- nated dogs, titer ≥1:800 in non-vaccinated dogs or ≥ 4-fold increase in convalescent titer) and/or a positive PCR (urine and/or blood). Dogs with leptospirosis to be included in the study need to met the following criteria: negative urine sediment and urine culture at arrival, ≥ 3 days hospitalization, and a urine sample for cytologic examination and bac- terial culture during hospitalization. Dogs meeting inclusion criteria were divided in 2 groups: catheterized dogs (group 1) and non- catheterized dogs (group 2). Differences in UTI frequency between groups was evaluated (Fisher's exact test). Association between dura- tion of catheterization and risk of developing UTI was analysed (Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test). Age, sex, diarrhoea, antecedent anti- bacterial and/or immunosuppressive treatment were evaluated for association with UTI (Chi-square test). Significance level for all statisti- cal test was set at α < 0.05. A total of 76 dogs met inclusion criteria: 25 in group 1 and 51 in group 2. Overall 5/76 (7%, all in group 1) dogs developed a UTI. Identified bacteria were: Escherichia coli (3 dogs), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (1 dog) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (1 dog). All UTI were defined as multidrug-resistant. Frequency of UTI was signifi- cantly higher in group 1 (5/25, 20%) compared to group 2 (0/51, 0%; OR = ∞; CI = 2.082 — ∞). Infected dogs had a significantly longer cath- eterization time (median = 6 days, IQR = 2.3) compared to non- infected dogs (median = 2 days, IQR = 2.6; P = 0.026). Age, sex, diar- rhoea, antecedent antibacterial and/or immunosuppressive treatment were not significantly associated with UTI. Urinary catheterization and duration of urinary catheterization represented important risk factors for development of UTI in dogs with Leptospirosis.
In this investigation chest size and body length have the highest direct impact on body weight, closely followed by chest width. This result reveals the extent to which independent variables (cs, bl, cw) influenced directly the independent variable (body weight). According to this, a good decision and selection could be made through phenotypic correlation alone. The present finding in Ouled-Djellal ewes is the first one in Algeria, where chest size and body length were to be traits of a great importance in the prediction body weight from measurement of sheep. This could be a result of the fact that muscle and a little fat (due to a long march) along with bone structure contribute to the formation of a large chest size with a long body.
OF THE WALLOON DAIRY BREEDERS
FACED TO THE UNCERTAIN DAIRY FUTURE
A.-C. Dalcq* 1 , T. Dogot 1 , H. Soyeurt 1 , Y. Brostaux 1 , F. Vanwindekens 2 , E. Froidmont 2 , P. Rondia 2 , B. Wyzen 3 , A. Masure 4 , C. Bauraind 5 and Y. Beckers 1
Ouled-Dlellal breed, survival rate, viability, non-genetic effect, lamb, management
Lamb survival of 327 progeny of Ouled-Djellal ewes was investigated. There was no difference in survival rate between singles (88%), twins (80%) and triplets (88%). The second main effect, sex there was a significant difference between males (81%) and females (89%), showing a difference of 8% (P<0.05). The overall mean lamb survival rate was of 85%. The majority of lamb died (58.8%) during the first week from non-genetic effect. It is suggested that nutritional management and absence of care of the ewe was a fault.
III-1. Un modèle bioéconomique pour simuler les ajustements optimaux aux aléas de prix et de production végétale
Climate change, agricultural policy reforms or market evolution are potential sources of changes to append to usual variabilities of production and market. These shocks challenge farmers, who need to adapt their farming system continuously and reactively, as well as policy makers and insurers who need to understand how farms are affected by these shocks. Suckler cow systems which consist in raising calves with their mother’s milk in order to produce meat are an important feature of French agriculture. The 4.3 million French suckler cows indeed represent more than one third of all European suckler cows and supply around 60% of the beef production in France. They also participate in rural development, as few economic alternatives to livestock farming exist in these areas and they help in maintaining large areas under grassland which favours biodiversity and limits pollution and erosion (Le Goffe, 2003). However, these farms are highly dependant on public subsidies (Veysset et al., 2005a), they rely on pasture production which is very sensitive to weather conditions (Gateau et al., 2006) and they sell mostly only beef, which makes their income fluctuate with beef market conditions. Numerous sources of flexibility in production management can help farmers to cope with these shocks. Firstly, a large range of animal products can be sold regarding their sex, their age, their live weight and their technology of production (Liénard and Lherm, 1986). Secondly, thanks to the compensatory growth and adaptive capacity of animals (Hoch et al., 2003; Blanc et al., 2004), temporary modifications to production conditions do not necessarily affect sales objectives. Crop production and feed supply management also add some margins of manoeuvre. The suckler cow production cycle lasts several years; therefore, adjustment decisions may impact not only on current production and profit but also on future farm outcomes. Neglecting the adjustment capacity of farmers or ignoring its long term impacts can lead to misevaluating shock impacts (Antle, 1983). Consequently, it is of great interest for farmers, as mentioned by Pannell et al., (2000), to gauge “how
slaughterhouse should be supple and that conflicts should be solved internally; the w
should represent an image of good cohesion, stability and respectability to the outside world. B
years an important degree of trust is created with the producers of the cooperative. This is an important aspect for the farmers when taking otherwise too risky decisions in the process of developing high quality organic beef, applying higher quality standards than prescribed by th (inter)national reference on organic production. For example the trust built up helped the farmers of the cooperative to change to a breed with more potential in the organic market, breed which made a return to conventional farming very costly and thus in practice sometimes impossible.
The hundred F344 rats were randomized to ten groups after initiation, and fed on dry powdered diets, based on a modified AIN 76 formula (UAR, Villemoisson, France). Five groups received a relatively "low fat" diet containing 14% fat and 23.5% protein. Five other groups received a very high fat diet containing 28% fat and 40% protein. Fat represented 32% of calories in "low fat" diets, and 51.5% in high fat diet. These values are below and above the average human intake in affluent countries (40%). Fat and protein were provided either by dry powdered cooked meat, making 30 or 60% of the diet, or with olive oil (Carrefour, France) and vitamin-free casein, or with lard and vitamin-free casein (UAR, Villemoisson, France) (Table 1). Two sources of fat were used to make two control diets: olive oil and lard. Olive oil was chosen because it is "neutral" in colon carcinogenesis studies, since it does not enhance or reduce tumor incidence. Lard was chosen because its fatty acids composition is the same as bacon, and is halfway between beefand chicken. Beef (hamburger Carrefour), chicken (with skin, Gastronome) and bacon (Herta) were obtained from a local supermarket (Carrefour Purpan, France). The 3 types of meat were cooked in an oven for 15 min at 180-185°C. Each dish contained 500 g of meat on a thickness of 1 cm. These cooking conditions may generate 1-15 ng/g of heterocyclic amines in beef, 15-65 ng/g in bacon, and 40 ng/g in chicken (17). After cooling, there were minced, frozen for 24h at -20°C, then freeze dried. After the analysis of fat and protein contents in
2.5 Experimental Setup
Aseptic inoculation was realized with microorganism seed culture prepared previously. Biodegradation tests were performed in batch into Erlenmeyer flasks (500 ml) containing 150 ml of the collected dairy wastewater samples. Two sets of experiments were carried out in duplicate. For the first set of experiments, the selected bacteria and yeast strains was added separately in the test samples with a concentration of 1% (v/v) and incubated in the orbital shaker with a rotation speed of 150 rpm at 30°C for 25 days. A blank experiment which consisted of non- inoculated dairy wastewater sample was run in the same condition of the test samples. The COD measurement was carried out on aliquots samples at different intervals (0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 days). For the second set of experiments, three inoculums rate (1, 5 and 10% (v/v)) were tested. A bacteria and yeast mixed culture was prepared by taking 1:1 bacteria strains and 1:1 yeast strains, respectively. Bacteria and yeast inoculums were added separately in the test samples and incubated in the orbital shaker with a rotation speed of 150 rpm at 30°C for 25 days. Blank experiment which consisted of non-inoculated dairy wastewater sample was run in the same condition of the test samples. Aliquots of the samples were removed at different intervals (0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 days) and analyzed for the chemical oxygen demand (COD), proteins and total sugars. For the two sets of experiment, when the aliquots were removed from the samples for the analysis, a same volume of sterile deionised water was replaced to keep the concentration gradient constant and to compensate evaporation that could occur. Adjustment of pH (7-8) was done at the beginning of the tests. The chemical oxygen demand (COD) was measured using the HACH method (25-1500 mg/L range) in COD vials (CSB-Kuvettentest, Merck, Darmstadt, Germany), which involves heating at 150°C during 2hr and then spectrophotometric reading. Total sugars were determined spectrophotometrically according to the method of Dubois  and the protein content was determined according to the method of Lowry  with bovine serum albumin (BSA, 1 mg/mL) as the protein standard. The protein content was determined by reading the absorbance at 600 nm.