Cross sectional epidemiological study

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Cross-sectional epidemiological study on water and sanitation practices in the northern region of Ghana

Cross-sectional epidemiological study on water and sanitation practices in the northern region of Ghana

Pure Home Water (PHW) is a social business enterprise to implement, monitor, and evaluate household drinking water treatment and safe storage technologies in the N[r]

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Association between trial registration and positive study findings: cross sectional study (Epidemiological Study of Randomized Trials—ESORT)

Association between trial registration and positive study findings: cross sectional study (Epidemiological Study of Randomized Trials—ESORT)

Our study also has limitations. Firstly, by sampling a one month period in PubMed, we inherently included trials across the spectrum of medical journals. There- fore, the quality of reporting in several trials was poor. However, we accounted for differences in the quality of reporting in registered and non-registered trials through the use of multivariable regression. Secondly, 25% of the studies included in our analysis had unclear fund- ing sources. This limited the number of non-industry and industry funded trials we were able to identify in our analysis and contributed to imprecise relative risk estimates. None the less, the sample sizes of our sub- groups were comparable to, if not larger than, the total number of trials in each of the previous methodological studies examining whether trial registration was asso- ciated with positive study findings. 4 5 13 Thirdly, we ana- lysed trials published in 2012 and it is likely that many of these studies were initiated well before then. Trial registration practices and patterns may have changed over the time that trials in our analysis were initiated and conducted. However, trial registration is now prev- alent and it would be more difficult to assess the associ- ation between trial registration and positive study findings with a more contemporary cohort of clinical table 2 | methodological items of included studies
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Effect size for the main cognitive function determinants in a large cross-sectional study

Effect size for the main cognitive function determinants in a large cross-sectional study

24. Giordano N, Tikhonoff V, Palatini P, Bascelli A, Boschetti G, De Lazzari F, et al. Cognitive functions and cognitive reserve in relation to blood pressure components in a population-based cohort aged 53 to 94 years. Int J Hypertens. 2012;2012:274851. 25. Knecht S, Wersching H, Lohmann H, Bruchmann M, Duning T, Dziewas R, et al. High-normal blood pressure is associated with poor cognitive performance. Hypertension. 2008 Mar;51(3):663-8. 26. Waldstein SR, Giggey PP, Thayer JF, Zonderman AB. Nonlinear relations of blood pressure to cognitive function: the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging. Hypertension. 2005 Mar;45(3):374-9. 27. Ganguli M, Du Y, Dodge HH, Ratcliff GG, Chang CC. Depressive symptoms and cognitive decline in late life: a prospective epidemiological study. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2006 Feb;63(2):153-60. 28. Kohler S, van Boxtel MP, van Os J, Thomas AJ, O'Brien JT, Jolles J, et al. Depressive symptoms and cognitive decline in community-dwelling older adults. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2010 May;58(5):873-9. 29. Lee RS, Hermens DF, Porter MA, Redoblado-Hodge MA. A meta-analysis of cognitive deficits in first-episode Major Depressive Disorder. J Affect Disord. 2012 Oct;140(2):113-24.
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Chronic Pain with Neuropathic Characteristics in Diabetic Patients: A French Cross-Sectional Study

Chronic Pain with Neuropathic Characteristics in Diabetic Patients: A French Cross-Sectional Study

A few other epidemiological surveys in diabetic patients have used screening tools for neuropathic pain. Two studies carried out in the Middle East Area and based on the DN4 questionnaire reported higher prevalence rates than in our study. In one study carried out Saudi Arabia [28] on a cohort of 1039 patients, the prevalence of pain with neuropathic characteristics was of 53.7%, but the site and duration of neuropathic pain were not reported in this study. The prevalence of chronic neuropathic pain was, therefore, probably much lower. This conclusion is supported by the results of another study carried out in several countries of the Middle East [29], which reported an overall prevalence of pain with neuropathic characteristics of 65.3%, but a prevalence of 38.0% for pain with a duration of at least one year. In another study in specialized centers in Belgium including more than 1100 type 1 or type 2 diabetic patients [13], a combination of the DN4 questionnaire and the monofilament test was used for PDPN diagnosis, giving in a prevalence of 14.1%. This relatively low prevalence, may reflect the low sensitivity of the monofilament test for the diagnosis of polyneuropathy, particularly when this condition preferentially affects the small fibers, as this test assesses only the function of large fibers. A similar prevalence of PDPN of 16.0% was reported in a study from Turkey combining nerve conduction studies and the use of another
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Factors associated with postpartum hemorrhage maternal death in referral hospitals in Senegal and Mali: a cross-sectional epidemiological survey

Factors associated with postpartum hemorrhage maternal death in referral hospitals in Senegal and Mali: a cross-sectional epidemiological survey

Julie Tort 1,2,3,8* , Patrick Rozenberg 4,5 , Mamadou Traoré 6 , Pierre Fournier 7 and Alexandre Dumont 1,2 Abstract Background: Postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) is the leading cause of maternal mortality in Sub-Saharan-Africa (SSA). Although clinical guidelines treating PPH are available, their implementation remains a great challenge in resource poor settings. A better understanding of the factors associated with PPH maternal mortality is critical for preventing risk of hospital-based maternal death. The purpose of this study was thus to assess which factors contribute to maternal death occurring during PPH. The factors were as follows: women ’s characteristics, aspects of pregnancy and delivery; components of PPH management; and organizational characteristics of the referral hospitals in Senegal and Mali.
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HYPERSEXUALITY AND PATHOLOGICAL GAMBLING IN PARKINSON'S DISEASE: A CROSS-SECTIONAL CASE-CONTROL STUDY

HYPERSEXUALITY AND PATHOLOGICAL GAMBLING IN PARKINSON'S DISEASE: A CROSS-SECTIONAL CASE-CONTROL STUDY

Introduction Impulse control disorders or addiction behaviors are often reported during the post-treatment evolution of parkinsonian patients: they include pathological gambling (PG) 1 , compulsive shopping 2 , eating disorders 3 and hypersexuality 4 . The global prevalence of addictive disorders in Parkinson’s disease (PD) is estimated to be around 14% 5 . However, it is unknown whether the prevalence of addictive behaviors in PD differs from that observed in the general population (after controlling for gender and age). In fact, some addictions such as pathological gambling 6 seem more frequent in Parkinson’s disease and others, such as addiction to alcohol and tobacco, less frequent. Many studies have reported a lower prevalence of smoking and alcohol consumption (known as the most common substance addictions) in PD than in general population 7-9 . Based on those observations, we proposed a descriptive epidemiological study to define prevalence and characteristics of addictions (gambling and hypersexuality, tobacco and alcohol) in PD patients compared with a matched paired sample originating from the general population.
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Hepatitis B and C virus seroprevalence, Burkina Faso: a cross-sectional study

Hepatitis B and C virus seroprevalence, Burkina Faso: a cross-sectional study

The Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) Program 20 conducts large, multistage, clustered, population-based sur- veys in low- and middle-income countries. By collecting and analysing accurate and representative data on population and health, including blood sample collection (dried blood spot) and storage on filter papers for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing, one can evaluate the impact of existing health programmes and develop strategies for improvement. Here, we demonstrate how these surveys provide an opportunity for affordable hepatitis testing and epidemiological studies. Using the DHS database and dried blood spot samples acquired from May 2010 to January 2011, we estimate the viral hepatitis B and C seroprevalence in the HIV-negative adult population of Burkina Faso.
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Behavioral and physiological regulation of body fatness : A cross-sectional study in elderly men

Behavioral and physiological regulation of body fatness : A cross-sectional study in elderly men

Position papers 6–8 have concluded, according to popula- tion-based epidemiological studies, that weight gain and disease risk, particularly cardiovascular risk, were limited with increasing amounts of daily physical activity even of low intensity. Current public health recommendations for physical activity promote 30 min of moderate-intensity activity each day. However, more recently, this amount of physical activity was shown to be insufficient to prevent

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Serum cytokines associated with behavior: A cross-sectional study in 5-year-old children

Serum cytokines associated with behavior: A cross-sectional study in 5-year-old children

number of events per variable (EPV) is low, performs variable selection and computes estimates, while addressing the issue of multicollinearity among variables ( Bunea et al., 2011; Pavlou et al., 2016 ). While Elastic Net was first used to analyze omics data in genetic studies ( Waldmann et al., 2013 ), it has been recently applied to neuroimaging ( Abram et al., 2016; Bunea et al., 2011 ) and epidemiological data ( Lu and Petkova, 2014; Philippat et al., 2019; Vasquez et al., 2016; Walter and Tiemeier, 2009 ). Following variable selection, it is a common practice to apply classical statistical inference, e.g. computing coefficients esti- mates, confidence intervals and p-values, on the same datasets. This may result in misleading conclusions because the statistical inference theory assumes data to be generated from a known model, and not that the model is selected based on the data used for inference ( Leeb and Potscher, 2006 ). For this reason, we chose to readily interpret the Elastic Net penalized odd-ratios, keeping in mind that we could un- derestimate the size of the variable effect on the outcome. Conse- quently, we did not compute confidence intervals and p-values but rather used the weighted mean and weighted 95% CI of the odd-ratios and used the VIP as an estimate of the stability of the reported asso- ciations. As the size of epidemiological datasets tends to increase, we believe that the Elastic Net should be used more often for both variable selection and coefficients estimation, especially when there is no a priori or compelling evidence for selecting a small set of these variables. In previous studies, maternal depression and emotional distress appeared to be risk factors for emotional problems ( D'Souza et al., 2018 ), while having older siblings could be protective ( de La Rochebrochard and Joshi, 2013 ). Also, being a male is a risk factor for neurodevelopmental disorders ( Davis and Pfaff, 2014 ) and low family income/financial difficulties are risk factors for abnormal socioemotional development of the child ( Noonan et al., 2018 ). We consistently found these covariates to be associated with difficulties in at least one dimensions of behavior. The later observations lend support to the pertinence of our variable selection process.
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SPINAL PAIN IN FIELD HOCKEY PLAYERS: A CROSS SECTIONAL STUDY

SPINAL PAIN IN FIELD HOCKEY PLAYERS: A CROSS SECTIONAL STUDY

Universite Catholique de Louvain, Louvain, Belgium; 7 Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Cliniques Universitaires Saint-Luc, Brussels, Belgium * Corresponding author. Background: Hockey is a popular sport. In Belgium the participation in field hockey increased from 20.000 members in 2007 to 35.000 members in 2014. Epidemiological studies have consistently shown that injuries in field hockey are numerous. In addition to injuries to the extremities and the head, spinal pain is frequently mentioned in the scientific literature. However, studies examining spinal pain in field hockey players are lacking. Purpose: The main aim of the present study was to examine the preva- lence of spinal pain in amateur field hockey players and its relationship with pain catastrophizing.
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Descriptive study of sedentary behaviours in 35,444 French working adults: cross-sectional findings from the ACTI-Cités study

Descriptive study of sedentary behaviours in 35,444 French working adults: cross-sectional findings from the ACTI-Cités study

NutriNet-santé cohort The NutriNet-Santé study is a large ongoing web-based prospective study launched in France in May 2009, with a scheduled follow-up of 10 years, with a main focus on studying the relationships between nutrition and chronic disease risk as well as determinants of dietary behav- iours. Using a dedicated personalized website, recruit- ment is carried out with the aim to register up to 500,000 volunteer Internet-users, among whom 60% are expected to have complete baseline data in order to be included. Participants aged 18 years or older living in France and having access to the Internet fill in self- administered web-based questionnaires at baseline and then regularly during follow-up. A detailed descrip- tion of the NutriNet-Santé cohort has been published previously [24].
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Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Designs in Animal Models

Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Designs in Animal Models

Secondly, the cross-sectional design implies that the studied trait is not linked with lifespan, but in many cases there is no basis for such an assumption. If the measured trait is linked with lifespan, the age effect may partly reflect a differential survival effect linked to the trait under study. Figure 1 shows the case where the value of a trait does not change with age, with animals displaying the highest value dying the first. In such an extreme case, the average value observed at successive ages would decrease while the value of this trait, measured on the same individuals at different ages, does not change with age. Therefore, this study would spuriously conclude that the trait decreases with age, while no age-related decrease is observed in any individual. Obviously, this is only a theoretical example, as observing absolutely no effect of age on a trait while lifespan is highly dependent on this trait is surely a rare event. As a more realistic example, it has been reported that the loss of weight between 22 and 28 months of age was 2.27 g in a sample of 76 mice, but it was only 1.35 g if only mice alive at 28 months of age were taken into account (n = 54). Therefore, ca 40 % of the weight loss was due to selective mortality, heavier mice dying the first, between 22 and 28 months of age [4].
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Cross-Sectional Analysis through Rank-based Dynamic Portfolios

Cross-Sectional Analysis through Rank-based Dynamic Portfolios

3. Applications 3.1. Application to the study of the Momentum Effect In this section, we use the relationship (7) developed in Section 2.1 to study the momentum effect in the U.S. and European markets. These markets are constituted by the ten sectoral indexes provided by Datastream. 5 The data are daily and range from 01/01/1973 to 02/08/2010. In the same way as in Billio et al. (2011a), we study the momentum effect through the dynamics of the optimal dynamic portfolio which is the sequence of portfolios, among the LSEW portfolios, providing the highest returns over successive periods. In the case of LSEW portfolios, the optimal portfolio is long the half best performers and short the half worst performers of each period. Here, the optimal portfolio is built each day using the daily returns of the assets. We note γ t the optimal portfolio built using the return of the assets on day t.
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A Cross-Sectional Performance Measure for Portfolio Management

A Cross-Sectional Performance Measure for Portfolio Management

The paper is organized as follows. In Section II, we introduce the score which quantifies the quality of an allocation over a given period. In Section III, we study and compute this score under fair assumptions. Considering the LSEW investment strategy and assuming that the returns are characterized by generalized hyperbolic distributions, we detail the influence of the distribution parameters on the score. Section IV is devoted to three applications of this score. The first one investigates the relevance of the assumptions. The second one shows how to close the positions of a LSEW portfolio using the methodology developed in the previous sections. The last one monitors a LSEW portfolio in real time. In Section V, we build a performance index based on our score. We show through examples that the choice of portfolio obtained using our index outperforms those using the Sharpe and Sortino ratios. Section VI concludes.
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Cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy study of femtosecond laser-irradiated selenium-doped 'black' silicon

Cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy study of femtosecond laser-irradiated selenium-doped 'black' silicon

Selenium-doped black silicon that had been annealed at different temperatures were studied using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and electron diffraction.. The goal of[r]

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Barriers to achieving controlled rheumatoid arthritis in the United Arab Emirates: a cross-sectional study

Barriers to achieving controlled rheumatoid arthritis in the United Arab Emirates: a cross-sectional study

Although this study represents a unique and novel opportunity to examine controlled RA barriers within the UAE, several limitations are recognized. Due to the short data collection period, several patients fell into the MHDA group due to insufficient time to assess present treatment effects. Hence we cannot be sure if the aforementioned patients’ treatment plans were later effective. In addition, we recognize that patient data for this study was collected at one private clinic within the UAE; however, given the small number of practicing rheumatologists within major UAE cities, we felt we captured a relatively accurate picture of the general RA cohort within the nation. We also
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Mastery, perceived stress and health-related behaviour in northeast Arnhem Land: a cross-sectional study

Mastery, perceived stress and health-related behaviour in northeast Arnhem Land: a cross-sectional study

taging experiences of Indigenous people, to actual health behaviour. Little empirical research has targeted mastery or "control" in seeking to understand Indigenous health in a context of westernisation and disadvantage. Our find- ings that mastery was positively related to health behav- iour for individuals ≥25 years of age, while being negatively related to health behaviour for those <25 years of age, indicate that the health correlates of mastery are not invariably positive. Such results suggest that, depend- ing on age or maturity, health salience, or perceived health, mastery may be expressed in different ways. A broader, more positive influence of mastery consistent with findings amongst individuals ≥25 years of age is indi- rectly supported by a study showing improved health sta- tus for Indigenous Australians who relocated to traditional lands relative to counterparts in regional cen- tres [31]. Collectively, homelands dwellers have auton- omy, an elevated capacity for self-determination, and less environmental stress. Therefore, at the population level, mastery, conceptually linked to Indigenous people's con- nection to traditional lands, offers explanatory as well as preventive salience within the context of this analysis. Used to explain how health is affected by the quality of experience in one's environment, mastery has the poten- tial to contextualise the legacy of colonisation experienced by Indigenous communities and to capture feelings of alienation relevant to marginalised peoples. Alienation in this sense can be understood as a dissociation of people from meaningful work, their social collectivities, or their own identities, or of being distanced from power and resources that may enable self-determination in political, economic, and social settings [32]. Such cognitions may be more common or salient among individuals aged 25
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Mode of delivery and severe stress incontinence. a cross-sectional study among 2,625 perimenopausal women.

Mode of delivery and severe stress incontinence. a cross-sectional study among 2,625 perimenopausal women.

17 Kuh D, Cardozo L, Hardy R. Urinary incontinence in middle-aged women: childhood enuresis and other lifetime risk factors in a British prospective cohort. J Epidemiol Community Health 1999;53:453–8. 18 Groutz A, Rimon E, Peled S et al. Cesarean section: Does it really prevent the development of postpartum stress urinary incontinence? a prospective study of 363 women one year after their first delivery. Neurourol Urodyn 2004;23:2–6.

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Relations between childcare and language development among four-year-old neglected children: A cross-sectional study.

Relations between childcare and language development among four-year-old neglected children: A cross-sectional study.

•  In our study, Instructional Support, which is known to best support children’s language skills (Logan et al., 2011) , ranges in the low level of quality. •  A minimal level of quality of interactions must be reached in order to observe a positive impact on language skills (Weiland et al., 2013) . Some researchers suggest that this minimal level of quality is

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Determinants of information technology outsourcing : a cross-sectional analysis

Determinants of information technology outsourcing : a cross-sectional analysis

an organizational economic model of IT outsourcing; (b) a diffusion process model. of IT outsourcing; and (c) an organizational process model of IT outsourcing[r]

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