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Hybrid Behavioral Control Architecture for the Cooperation of Minimalist Mobile Robots

Hybrid Behavioral Control Architecture for the Cooperation of Minimalist Mobile Robots

24 Rue Alain Savary, 25000 BESANCON, France {Lounis.Adouane & Nadine.Piat}@ens2m.fr Abstract - This paper presents a hybrid control architecture based on subsumption and schemas motors principles in order to achieve complex and cooperative tasks. The control architecture implemented is constituted by a set of independent and elementary behaviors organized in layers of skills. Specific low-level behaviors, called altruistic behaviors and inspired by societies of insects (attractive or repulsive signals), are used to improve the efficiency of the control. Therefore, competitive and cooperative mechanisms are used in an unique hybrid architecture of control to perform a complex box-pushing task by a set of mini-robots. The analysis of an elevated number of simulations allows us to have statistical results (time to complete the task was chosen as performance criteria) which show the existence of an optimal number of robots to achieve the box-pushing task and underline the importance of the use of altruistic behaviors to enhance the cooperative task. Index Terms - Cooperative robotics, Behavioral architecture of control, Altruistic behavior, Box-pushing task.
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Hybrid and Safe Control Architecture for Mobile Robot Navigation

Hybrid and Safe Control Architecture for Mobile Robot Navigation

I. I NTRODUCTION The control of mobile robot navigation in cluttered envi- ronment is a fundamental problem that has been receiving a large amount of attention. The main issues in this field is how to obtain accurate, flexible and reliable navigation? One part of the literature in this domain considers that the robot is fully actuated with no control bound and focuses the attention on path planning. Voronoï diagrams and visibility graphs [1] or navigation functions [2] are among these roadmap-based methods. However, the other part of the literature considers that to control a robot with safety, flexibility and reliability, it is essential to accurately take into account: robot’s structural con- straints (e.g., nonholonomy); avoid command discontinuities and set-point jerk, etc. Nevertheless, even in this method, there are two schools of thought, one uses the notion of planning and re-planning to reach the target, e.g., [3] and [4] and the other more reactive (without planning) like in [5], [6] or [7]. Our proposed control architecture is linked to this last approach. Therefore, where the stability of robot control is rigourously demonstrated and the overall robot behavior is constructed with modular and bottom-up approach [8].
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Semi-Autonomous Haptic Teleoperation Control Architecture of Multiple Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

Semi-Autonomous Haptic Teleoperation Control Architecture of Multiple Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

Paolo Robuffo Giordano, Member, IEEE Abstract— We propose a novel semi-autonomous haptic tele- operation control architecture for multiple unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), consisting of three control layers: 1) UAV control layer, where each UAV is abstracted by, and is controlled to follow the trajectory of, its own kinematic Cartesian virtual point (VP); 2) VP control layer, which modulates each VP’s motion according to the teleoperation commands and local artificial potentials (for VP-VP/VP-obstacle collision avoidance and VP-VP connectivity preservation); and 3) teleoperation layer, through which a single remote human user can command all (or some) of the VPs’ velocity while haptically perceiving the state of all (or some) of the UAVs and obstacles. Master-passivity/slave-stability and some asymptotic performance measures are proved. Experimental results using four custom-built quadrotor-type UAVs are also presented to illustrate the theory.
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Toward an hybrid control architecture for a mobile multi-robot systems

Toward an hybrid control architecture for a mobile multi-robot systems

{V i (at the time when Σ i switched in) ≤ V i (at the last time when Σ i switched in)} Then the hybrid system is Lyapunov stable (figure 2). In our case, it is possible to use this theorem to guarantee stability of the robot during all its navigation. Since we use controllers that stability is proven by the simple Lyapunov theorem, we have only the second condition of the above method to satisfy. Moreover, we have to satisfy this condition for the trajectory tracking only. Indeed, obstacles that the robot meets are independents, and the obstacle avoidance controller is normally activated only one time for each obstacle. Therefore, our idea is to use a specific “go-to-goal” controller (cf. subsection 3.4). This one is stable and is activated once the obstacle is avoided. Its role is to lead the robot toward the reference trajectory until the Lyapunov function of the trajectory tracking controller becomes less than the last time this one is switched in. The proposed control architecture is given in figure 3.
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A Visual-Based Shared Control Architecture for Remote Telemanipulation

A Visual-Based Shared Control Architecture for Remote Telemanipulation

A Visual-Based Shared Control Architecture for Remote Telemanipulation Firas Abi-Farraj, Nicol`o Pedemonte and Paolo Robuffo Giordano Abstract— Cleaning up the past half century of nuclear waste represents the largest environmental remediation project in the whole Europe. Nuclear waste must be sorted, segregated and stored according to its radiation level in order to optimize maintenance costs. The objective of this work is to develop a shared control framework for remote manipulation of objects using visual information. In the presented scenario, the human operator must control a system composed of two robotic arms, one equipped with a gripper and the other one with a camera. In order to facilitate the operator’s task, a subset of the gripper motion are assumed to be regulated by an autonomous algorithm exploiting the camera view of the scene. At the same time, the operator has control over the remaining null-space motions w.r.t. the primary (autonomous) task by acting on a force feedback device. A novel force feedback algorithm is also proposed with the aim of informing the user about possible constraints of the robotic system such as, for instance, joint limits. Human/hardware-in-the-loop experiments with simulated slave robots and a real master device are finally reported for demonstrating the feasibility and effectiveness of the approach.
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A centralized multilayer LPV/H-infinity control architecture for vehicle’s global chassis control, and comparison with a decentralized architecture

A centralized multilayer LPV/H-infinity control architecture for vehicle’s global chassis control, and comparison with a decentralized architecture

∗ Sorbonne universit´es, Universit´e de technologie de Compi`egne, CNRS, Heudiasyc UMR 7253, CS 60 319, 60 203 Compi`egne, France. ∗∗ ESEO-IREENA EA 4642, 10 Bd Jeanneteau, 49100 Angers, France. Abstract: This paper deals with the development of Global Chassis Controller where the Active Front steering, Direct Yaw Control and Active Suspensions, are coordinated together in the aim to improve the overall vehicle performance i.e maneuverability, lateral stability and rollover avoidance. The main contribution of this work is the integration of the Active suspension system (AS) in a centralized multilayer control architecture to control the roll angle. A polytopic approach is used to find the LPV/ H ∞ controller where an offline Linear Matrix Inequality (LMI) optimal solver is used to realize the optimality of this controller. The different layers of this architecture are detailed. The proposed LPV/ H ∞ controller is validated by simulation using Matlab/Simulink, and a comparison is done with a
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Design of a  flight control architecture using a non-convex bundle method

Design of a flight control architecture using a non-convex bundle method

Keywords: Non-smooth optimization, non-convex bundle method, feedback control, multi-objective H ∞ -control, flight-controller and autopilot for longitudinal flight. 1 Introduction Automatic control of aircraft generally follows a scheme known as guidance, navigation, and control (GNC), which stipulates the use of architectures with interconnected control loops at different levels [1, 2]. Figure 1 presents such a multi-level control architecture for the case of longitudinal flight. The inner loop (the control loop) governs the short term dynamics in high frequency. It is represented by the flight controller in the red box. The outer loop (the guidance loop) serves to control the long term dynamics in low frequency, represented by the autopilot shown in the cyan boxes. Roughly, GNC
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"An Asynchronous Distributed Access Control Architecture For IP Over ATM Networks"

"An Asynchronous Distributed Access Control Architecture For IP Over ATM Networks"

Keywords: Access Control, Management, Security, ATM, Agents, IP-over-ATM. 1. Introduction In the recent past, much attention has been paid developing security services for ATM networks. This resulted in the creation of many working groups within (and outside) the standardization bodies. One of them is the security Working Group of the ATM Forum created in 1995, which released its version 1.0 specifications in February 1999. Confidentiality, authentication, integrity and some kind of access-control have been considered. Access control as defined by the ISO in [1] is a security service used to protect resources against unauthorized use. The ATM technology has been specified to transport various kinds of flows and allows users to specify the QoS (Quality of Service) applying to these flows. Communications are connection oriented and a signalling protocol is used to set up, control and release connections. In this article we show that the classical approach supplying the access control service (commonly called firewall) is unable to preserve the QoS. We then describe a new access control architecture for ATM and IP-over- ATM networks which does not alter the negotiated QoS.
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A decentralized multilayer sliding mode control architecture for vehicle’s global chassis control, and comparison with a centralized architecture

A decentralized multilayer sliding mode control architecture for vehicle’s global chassis control, and comparison with a centralized architecture

All these interesting research have motivated us to study the control of the vehicle yaw rate, the side slip angle and the roll angle in order to improve the overall vehicle perfor- mance. Thus, in our present work, a decentralized multilayer control structure, based on sliding mode super-twisting control approach, is developed to improve the maneu- verability, lateral stability, and rollover avoidance using steering, braking actuators and active suspension system. A comparison between the proposed controller and a central- ized architecture presented in [10] is done. The paper structure is as follows: Section 2 exposes the extended bicycle model of the vehicle based on the combination of the coupled lateral (yaw and side-slip) and roll motions. In Section 3, the proposed decen- tralized control architecture is detailed. Simulation validation of the proposed approach is reported in Section 4. Finally, the conclusions and the perspectives of this work are given in Section 5.
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Control Architecture for Cooperative Mobile Robots using Multi-Agent based Coordination Approach

Control Architecture for Cooperative Mobile Robots using Multi-Agent based Coordination Approach

in terms of time, power, etc.), raise the development of autonomous robots. The ultimate goal is the capability of achieving coordinated movements and of carrying out tasks that usually require human assistance. This need for autonomy requires from the robot a certain capacity of being able at any moment to assess both its state and its environment that are usually combined with different other robots states as well as with its mission requirements in order to make coherent control decisions. If we consider navigation aspects, autonomous mobile robots are usually embedded with sensors/actuators according to the mission to be performed. This complexity induces major challenges both at the development of robotics control architecture system but also at the design of navigation software. Indeed, an autonomous mobile robot has to carry out a set of sensors/actuators dedicated to its own navigation and another sensors set that can change accord- ing to the mission to be performed. Therefore the navigation software developed for these vehicles become complex and requires a design methodology.
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Control Architecture Concepts and Properties of an Ontology Devoted to Exchanges in Mobile Robotics

Control Architecture Concepts and Properties of an Ontology Devoted to Exchanges in Mobile Robotics

3.3 System and Kernel 3.3.1 System The present ontology follows a system-based or system-driven architecture. All the logical units or logical entities which achieve an interaction (either physical or logical interaction) with another entity in the ontology, are considered as a system. We can think of a system as a block which triggers interactions and is impacted by interactions coming from other systems, and which owns an input/output interface that we will call 'ports'. Thus, this logical entity is the basic communication unit of the PROTEUS ontology. Consequently, the control architecture of the final platform will rely and will be inspired somehow on this ontological basis. A clear evidence of this system-based ontology can be appreciated considering the development of the PROTEUS DSL; the language will have an important part of its architecture based on block entities with message passing between them by means of interconnected ports. This schema answers to the ontological basis of “system”. Hence, the final code generation and control architecture of the platform will be guided by the DSL and in turn by the ontology.
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"An Alternative Access Control Architecture for IP over ATM Networks"

"An Alternative Access Control Architecture for IP over ATM Networks"

The ATM technology has been specified to transport various kinds of flows and allows users to specify the QoS (Quality of Service) applying to these flows. Communications are connection oriented and a signaling protocol is used to set up, control and release connections. In this article we show that the classical approach supplying the access control service (commonly called firewall) is unable to preserve the QoS. We then describe a new access control architecture for ATM and IP−over−ATM networks which does not alter the negotiated QoS.

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Passive Control Architecture for Virtual Humans

Passive Control Architecture for Virtual Humans

(5) cannot be enforced. Thus in the general case, projecting external interactions can break passivity. As explained earlier, projections are useful in case of conflicting targets, in the case when the manikin cannot achieve what it is asked to do. It means that a real human with the same morphology as its virtual counterpart, could neither achieve the movement. In the case of engineering, we do not look for controlling virtual humans, in cases where they cannot achieve the target motion. We only want to know if the movement is feasible or not. Thus the proposed control is rather simple, but behaves well in case of unfeasible movements, and is able to warn in case of infeasibility.
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The Backseat Control Architecture for Autonomous Robotic Vehicles: A Case Study with the Iver2 AUV

The Backseat Control Architecture for Autonomous Robotic Vehicles: A Case Study with the Iver2 AUV

Newport, RI 02421 Email: donald.eickstedt@navy.mil; scott.sideleau@navy.mil Abstract— In this paper, an innovative hybrid control architec- ture for real-time control of autonomous robotic vehicles is de- scribed as well as its implementation on a commercially available autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV). This architecture has two major components, a behavior-based intelligent autonomous controller and an interface to a classical dynamic controller that is responsible for real-time dynamic control of the vehicle given the decisions of the intelligent controller over the decision state space (e.g. vehicle course, speed, and depth). The driving force behind the development of this architecture was a desire to make autonomy software development for underwater vehicles independent from the dynamic control specifics of any given vehicle. The resulting software portability allows significant code reuse and frees autonomy software developers from being tied to a particular vehicle manufacturer’s autonomy software and support as long as the vehicle supports the required interface between the intelligent controller and the dynamic controller. This paper will describe in detail the components of the backseat driver architecture as implemented on the Iver2 underwater vehicle, provide several examples of its use, and discuss the future direction of the architecture.
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Control architecture for adaptive and cooperative car-following

Control architecture for adaptive and cooperative car-following

2.4.2.3 KONVOI The KONVOI project [Kunze et al., 2010] was founded by German’s Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology in collaboration with RWTH Aachen University, industry and public institutions. Its main objective was to explore potential benefits of electronically coupled truck convoys over traffic capacity and fuel economy. One of its scenarios, called driver organized truck platoons, targets the systematic grouping of compatible trucks suggesting that drivers should schedule the meeting place, destination and vehicle features employing a Driver Information System (DIS). High interaction with the driver through HMIs is present over all platforms, so the platoon negotiation, joining and splitting could be triggered by the driver through the DIS. From the implementa- tion point of view, the leading vehicle is driven manually while the followers account with a lateral control system that considers lane relative position and leading vehicle lateral offset. For the longi- tudinal axis, each follower has an embedded ACC system commanded with a reference acceleration given by the gap regulation control, which also employs V2V communication and radar, camera and LiDAR in the loop. The KONVOI system was tested in motorways at speeds between 37 and 50 mph, achieving fuel savings up to 21% with 10 meter gaps between trucks inside platoons of maximum five members.
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Dependability Issues in a Robot Control Architecture

Dependability Issues in a Robot Control Architecture

We have briefly presented the LAAS architec- ture, its components and its integrated tools. Then the presentation focuses on the Execu- tion Control Level of this architecture and its main component, the Requests and Resources Checker (R2C). This layer of the LAAS archi- tecture has a critical role with respect to safety and faults protection. It must guarantee that the functional modules which “act” on the real physical system are properly controlled and do not engage in “dangerous” situations with re- spect to the “commands” they are executing. As a result, this component of the LAAS archi- tecture has a critical role, with respect to de- pendability.
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A parity-based architecture for decentralized discrete-event control

A parity-based architecture for decentralized discrete-event control

We now show how one can can assign local control de- cisions in such a way that when they are fused using the XOR (⊕) operator, the correct global control decision can be reached. To ensure that ⊕ produces the anticipated result for the global decision function, we must adhere to the parity rules for ⊕. In the general case, a global disable decision can only be reached if an odd number of controllers take a local decision of disable. This is a significant difference from the way in which local control decisions are assigned when K is unconditionally or conditionally co-observable. Thus, when assigning local control decisions, it may be the case that al- though controller i 0 s local view of a sequence t ∈ K indicates
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A Delay-Aware Cyber-Physical Architecture for Wide-Area Control of Power Systems

A Delay-Aware Cyber-Physical Architecture for Wide-Area Control of Power Systems

{damoon,alvarezf, aanna}@mit.edu A. Chakraborty is with North Carolina State University Raleigh, NC 27695, USA achakra2@ncsu.edu other ongoing applications, giving rise to not only transport delays, but also significant delays due to queuing and routing. Figure 1(a), for example, shows an example of a large-scale spatially distributed power network (a 50-machine Australian power system, which will be used for our simulations), consisting of four balancing regions under different utility companies, each equipped with multiple PMUs; Figure 1(b), on the other hand, shows the envisioned architecture of wide-area communication, where PMUs inside any balancing region send data to their local controllers via a common virtual private network (VPN), and to remote controllers in other regions over a multi-hop wide-area network, an example of which can be a Software Defined Network (SDN) [4]. Each area is equipped with its own dedicated VPN server which routes the incoming PMU data-streams to the respective controllers. Currently, there is very little insight on how the different protocols for PMU data transport through this network may lead to a variety of delay patterns, and how controlling these delays can potentially help wide- area control designs. Majority of the ongoing NASPI-net activities are devoted to the hardware planning aspects of the communication [5], [6]. Only a modest effort has been made so far to study the impact of delays [7], [8], with the typical approach being to design a nominal controller and testing its robustness and sensitivity to the worst-case delays.
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Acute alcohol intoxication and expectations reshape the spatiotemporal functional architecture of executive control

Acute alcohol intoxication and expectations reshape the spatiotemporal functional architecture of executive control

First, we expected to replicate alcohol-induced impairments in inhibitory control performance (e.g. Ostling and Fillmore, 2010 ; Tsujii et al., 2011 ) and post-error slowing (PES, Jedema et al., 2011 ). Second, for the functional analyses of executive control processes, we expected an effect over the stimulus-locked 200 –350 ms N2 component arising from the anterior cingulate ( Huster et al., 2013 ; Van Veen and Carter, 2002 ; Yeung et al., 2004 ). The N2 is sensitive to conflicts between a stimulus-driven response tendency and task demands, as it is the case when a NoGo stimulus prompts for the suppression of a prepotent motor response in Go/NoGo tasks ( Nieuwenhuis et al., 2003 ; Sehlmeyer et al., 2010 ; Wessel et al., 2012 ). We also expected an effect over the 300 –500 ms P3 component ( Easdon et al., 2005 ) arising from lateral and medial prefrontal areas ( Huster et al., 2010 ). The P3 is sensitive to the engage- ment of the suppression of the motor response to a NoGo stimulus ( Ramautar et al., 2004 ; Wessel and Aron, 2015 ), suggesting that it in- dexes the implementation of motor inhibition process and its evaluation ( Gajewski and Falkenstein, 2013 ; Huster et al., 2013 ; Wessel and Aron, 2015 ).
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A Domain-specific Language for The Control of Self-adaptive Component-based Architecture

A Domain-specific Language for The Control of Self-adaptive Component-based Architecture

is a component model for building applications based on the Service Oriented Architecture principles. SCA provides means for constructing, assembling and deploying software compo- nents regardless of the programming language or protocol used to implement and make them communicate. Figure 15 depicts the basic concepts of SCA model illustrated with the Znn.com example. A component can be defined as simple or compos- ite, that is, composed of other components. A simple compo- nent is defined by an implementation, a set of services, refer- ences and properties. The implementation points to the actual implementation of the component (e.g., a Java Class). A ser- vice (resp. reference) refers to a business function provided (resp. required) by the component and is specified by an inter- face (e.g., via a Java Interface). Properties are attributes defined within components whose values can be set /got from outside the component. In order for services, references and proper- ties be accessible from /or access outside the composite, they should be promoted to composite (or external) services /refer- ences /properties. Bindings define which methods and/or trans- ports (e.g., HTTP, SOAP 2 ) are allowed to access services or
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