Continuation-passing style translation

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A continuation-passing-style interpretation of simply-typed call-by-need λ-calculus with control within System F

A continuation-passing-style interpretation of simply-typed call-by-need λ-calculus with control within System F

The different syntactic categories can be understood as the different levels of alternation in a context- free abstract machine [2]: the priority is first given to context of level e (lazy storage of terms), then to terms at level p (evaluation of µα into values), then back to contexts at level E and so on until level F. These different categories are directly reflected in the definition of the continuation-passing-style translation, and thus involved when typing it. We choose to highlight this by distinguishing different types of sequents already in the typing rules in the next Section.
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A calculus of expandable stores: Continuation-and-environment-passing style translations

A calculus of expandable stores: Continuation-and-environment-passing style translations

Although the MAD arguably provides us with the easiest presentation of a lazy abstract machine, it does not directly lead to an operational semantics for control operators (or, equivalently, to the definition of a continuation-passing style translation). While the addition to the KAM of the call/cc operator, which allows to capture the current stack into a continuation, is very natural, it is less obvious to determine its behavior in the MAD. Especially, it is not clear a priori how control operators should handle the global environment and the dump. More generally, the problem of soundly defining a CPS translation for the call-by-need λ-calculus turns out to be trickier than the call-by-value and call-by-name cases. In particular, a first attempt by Okasaki, Lee, Tarditi [29] was latter shown to be non-normalizing on simply-typed terms [5].
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Normalization and continuation-passing-style interpretation of simply-typed call-by-need λ-calculus with control

Normalization and continuation-passing-style interpretation of simply-typed call-by-need λ-calculus with control

Closures l :: = cτ and the reduction, written →, is the compatible reflexive transitive closure of the rules given in Figure 2 . The different syntactic categories can be understood as the different levels of alternation in a context-free abstract machine [ 2 ]: the priority is first given to contexts at level e (lazy storage of terms), then to terms at level t (evaluation of µα into values), then back to contexts at level E and so on until level v. These different categories are directly reflected in the definition of the continuation-passing-style translation, and thus involved when typing it. We chose to highlight
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Continuation-and-environment-passing style translations: a focus on call-by-need

Continuation-and-environment-passing style translations: a focus on call-by-need

If the MAD arguably provides us with the easiest presentation of a lazy ab- stract machine, it does not directly lead to an operational semantics for con- trol operators (or, equivalently, to the definition of a continuation-passing style translation). While the addition to the KAM of the call/cc operator, which allows to capture the current stack into a continuation, is very natural, it is less obvious to determine its behavior in the MAD. Especially, it is not clear a priori how control operators should handle the global environment and the dump. More generally, the problem of soundly defining a CPS translation for the call-by-need λ-calculus turns out to be trickier than in the call-by-value and call-by-name cases. In particular, a first attempt by Okasaki, Lee, Tarditi [35] was latter shown to be non-normalizing on simply-typed terms [5].
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Continuation-passing Style Models Complete for Intuitionistic Logic

Continuation-passing Style Models Complete for Intuitionistic Logic

Another question that could be asked is whether the results of this paper could simply be obtained by applying the double-negation translation to the classical proof of completeness for Kripke models. While it is quite possible that a constructive completeness proof for full intuitionistic logic (without ⊥) could be obtained in such a way, like for completeness of classical logic by Krivine [26, 4], it is clear that that would give a different method of proof. Namely, the classical proofs from [25, 31] are Henkin-style proofs which depend on an enumeration of formulae and a constructive version of the ultra-filter theorem that relies on that enumeration [21, Chapter 1], hence, the obtained constructive completeness could not be expected to produce an NBE algorithm, because the later should depend crucially on structural recursion over the type, like our completeness proof, not on an ad hoc enumeration.
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Sensitivity computations in higher order continuation methods

Sensitivity computations in higher order continuation methods

conception or uncertainty measurement. Proposing sensitivity drivers for the continuation methods is a natural is- sue. This paper discusses several options for the sensitivity analysis with respect to the modeling parameters of the solution branches produced by continuation, including homotopy, together with particular applications and usages. Theoretical developments and implementation are realized in the Diamant framework that combines higher order Taylor approximations to AD, inheriting from the generality of Diamant and AD. Numerical results are presented for a thermal ignition problem and the damped beam problem issued from the NLEVP collection. In both cases, accurate sensitivities are computed.
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Analytic continuation of dimensions in supersymmetric localization

Analytic continuation of dimensions in supersymmetric localization

We then make a proposal for analytically continuing gauge theories with four super- symmetries up to d = 4. The pitfalls of dimensionally regularizing supersymmetric gauge theories have been known for a long time [ 13 , 14 ]. However, except perhaps for anomalies, it appears to work in one- and two-loop calculations [ 15 ]. Analytical continuation of the dimension has also been successfully applied to conformal field theories [ 16 – 20 ]. With this proposal for minimal supersymmetry on S 4 we test it against various cases. We first show that the continuation is consistent with the partition functions for a U(1) vector multiplet or a free massless chiral multiplet. Both of these situations are conformal and so can be mapped from flat space onto S 4 . Since they are free, their partition functions on the sphere are calculable. We next consider a general gauge theory with N = 1 supersymmetry. We show that in the limit of large radius we can extract the correct one-loop β-function.
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Rigid continuation paths II. Structured polynomial systems

Rigid continuation paths II. Structured polynomial systems

algorithms in the Shub-Smale line perform much smaller steps—and consequently many more steps—than heuristic methods for numerical continuation (Beltrán and Leykin 2012 , 2013 ). In spite of progress in designing better and better heuristics (e.g., Timme 2020 ; Telen, Van Barel, and Verschelde 2020 ), the design of efficient algorithms for certified numerical continuation remains an important aspiration. With a view on closing the gap between rigorous step-length estimates and heuristics, a first observation—demonstrated experimentally by Hauenstein and Liddell ( 2016 ) and confirmed theoretically in Part I—highlights the role of higher-order derivatives. Shub and Smale’s first-order step-length computation seems powerless in obtaining polypn, δq bounds on the number of steps: we need to get closer to Smale’s γ to compute adequate step lengths (see Section 2 for a more detailed discussion).
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Adaptive Language and Translation Models for Interactive Machine Translation

Adaptive Language and Translation Models for Interactive Machine Translation

The problem with such a cache-based translation model seem to be similar to the balance between precision and recall in information retrieval. On one hand, we want to add in the cache every word pair in which the two words are in translation relation in the text. We further want to add only the pairs in which the two words are really in translation rela- tion in the text. It seems that with our base model, we add most of the good pairs, but also a lot of bad ones. With the Viterbi alignment and a threshold value of 0.3, most of the pairs added are good ones, but we are probably missing a number of other ap- propriate ones. This comes back to the task of word alignment, which is a very difficult task for comput- ers (Mihalcea and Pedersen, 2003).
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Vecteurs et translation

Vecteurs et translation

Exercice10 Soit 𝐴𝐵𝐶 un triangle isocèle en 𝐴 tel que 𝐴𝐵 = 6 et 𝐵𝐶 = 8 et 𝐴’ ; 𝐵’ ; 𝐶’ les milieu respectifs de [𝐵𝐶] ; [𝐴𝐶] ;[𝐴𝐵] 1) Déterminer l’image de chacun des points B’ ; C’ et A par la translation de vecteur ' 

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Style and Meta-Style : Another way to reuse Software Architecture Evolution

Style and Meta-Style : Another way to reuse Software Architecture Evolution

Software-architecture evolution process modeling aims to capture the main characteristics of the set of activities performed to evolve software architecture. For better process modeling which expands the reuse of experience and knowledge, a variety of styles have been created. To reason out and unify the modeling concepts that formulate these styles, which represents different perspectives of modelers, a metamodeling language (meta-style) comprising the necessary vocabularies is needed. Meta-modeling, as we mentioned, consists of ascending techniques used to define a higher level, where a minimum number of concepts are, in order to define and reason about models in the level below. Meta-style is an intended layer which has the essential concepts to specify an architecture- evolution metamodeling language. To remain compatible with the four modeling levels of the OMG, each evolution model is an instance of the model in the level above (its meta), including the meta-style which is an instance of itself. The meta-style introduces the essential elements and their interrelationships that represent the concepts required for modeling the architecture-evolution process. These concepts are: Operations, Roles, Architecture Elements, Interfaces, and Interactions. These essential concepts are comprised in the meta-evolution style called MES, illustrated in Figure 18. MES is a component-oriented concept for modeling the software-architecture evolution process. Indeed, it is a reflective concept, whereby the concept of the component is reflected on the modeling of the process that evolves it. This is in the sense that everything is a component, such as class in object-oriented modeling where everything is a subclass of the abstract class “model Element”. Thus, the component is the basic evolution entity of the MES model.
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Fine-grained discourse structures in continuation semantics

Fine-grained discourse structures in continuation semantics

Jane said, for example, that Fred is coming with his whole family. This article is organized as follows. In Section 2 , we present the anaphoric character of adverbial connectives. In Section 3 , we start by reviewing the notion of (semantically) parenthetical report— a category that subsumes evidential reports—and we highlight its relation with discourse connec- tives. Next, we sketch our main contribution, namely that parenthetical reports can be modeled by assuming that all connectives behave anaphori- cally, even though different classes of connectives obey different sets of constraints. These ideas are implemented formally using continuation seman- tics in Section 4 . In Section 5 , we discuss related work and Section 6 concludes the article.
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Meromorphic continuation approach to noncommutative geometry

Meromorphic continuation approach to noncommutative geometry

Acknowledgements: I thank Jean-Marie Lescure and Dominique Manchon for their valuable help. 1 Meromorphic continuation via reduction sequences In this section H is a separable complex Hilbert space, ∆ is a self adjoint, positive and invertible linear operator on H with compact resolvent. The spectrum of ∆ is a nondecreasing sequence 0 < λ0 ≤ λ1 ≤ λ2 ≤ . . . of real numbers which diverges to +∞. We denote by Γ a downwards pointing vertical line in C separating 0 from the spectrum of ∆.

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Arvo Pärt - Éléments de style

Arvo Pärt - Éléments de style

Éléments de style La popularité de Pärt est considérable et même extraordinaire. Avec plusieurs centaines de numéros, le musicien avait déjà enregistré, au début du millénaire, plus de disques sans nul doute qu’aucun autre compositeur de son vivant (voir sa discographie complète en ligne). Or, la notoriété du compositeur semble aujourd’hui reliée, surtout, à ce qu’on a appelé le postmodernisme musical. De ce dernier mouvement, la postérité semble peu à peu reconnaître que l’Estonien fut peut-être – finalement – l’emblème privilégié, mieux encore que les Anglo-Saxons (Phil Glass en tête), les Russes (emportés par Schnittke) ou tout autre Européen du Nord. Or, avant d’élaborer son fameux style postmoderne, très personnel (le fameux « tintinnabuli »), le compositeur a déjà signé des œuvres rien moins que négligeables. On peut donc imaginer une première période dans la carrière du musicien (1958-1968), riche en expérimentations assez contrastées, période si l’on veut « moderne », puis une seconde (de 1976 à nos jours), « postmoderne », beaucoup plus univoque, celle d’un musicien qui semble exploiter une veine féconde et semble-t-il encore inépuisée.
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Le style indirect en grec ancien

Le style indirect en grec ancien

permettrait plus de distinguer entre un indicatif aoriste et un subjonctif aoriste accompagné de ἄν du style direct 64 . Thucydide, VII.25.9 : Ἔπεμψαν δὲ καὶ ἐς τὰς πόλεις πρέσβεις οἱ Συρακόσιοι Κορινθίων καὶ Ἀμπρακιωτῶν καὶ Λακεδαιμονίων, ἀγγέλλοντας τήν τε τοῦ Πλημμυρίου λῆψιν καὶ τῆς ναυμαχίας πέρι ὡς οὐ τῇ τῶν πολεμίων ἰσχύι μᾶλλον ἢ τῇ σφετέρᾳ ταραχῇ ἡσσηθεῖεν, τά τε ἄλλα δηλώσοντας ὅτι ἐν ἐλπίσιν εἰσὶ καὶ ἀξιώσοντας ξυμβοηθεῖν ἐπ’ αὐτοὺς καὶ ναυσὶ καὶ πεζῷ, ὡς καὶ τῶν Ἀθηναίων προσδοκίμων ὄντων ἄλλῃ στρατιᾷ καί, ἢν φθάσωσιν αὐτοὶ πρότερον διαφθείραντες τὸ παρὸν στράτευμα αὐτῶν, διαπεπολεμησόμενον. Le participe présent ἀγγέλλοντας note pratiquement le but ici après le verbe principal ἔπεμψαν, verbe de mouvement à l’indicatif aoriste, comme en témoignent les participes futurs qui lui font suite (τά τε ἄλλα δηλώσοντας ὅτι ἐν ἐλπίσιν εἰσὶ καὶ ἀξιώσοντας κτλ.). L’usage de l’optatif oblique dans le discours indirect qui dépend de ἀγγέλλοντας et en précise l’objet (ὡς οὐ τῇ τῶν πολεμίων ἰσχύι μᾶλλον ἢ τῇ σφετέρᾳ ταραχῇ ἡσσηθεῖεν) repose donc sur l’indicatif aoriste du verbe « introducteur » lui-même, sans aucune considération du temps du participe.
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Curveship’s Automatic Narrative Style

Curveship’s Automatic Narrative Style

Curveship, a Python framework for developing interactive fiction (IF) with narrative style, is described. The system simulates a world with locations, characters, and objects, providing the typical facilities of an IF development system. To these it adds the ability to generate text and to change the telling of events and description of items using high-level narrative parameters, so that, for instance, different actors can be focalized and events can be told out of order. By assigning a character to be narrator or moving the narrator in time, the system can determine grammatical specifics and render the text in a new narrative style. Curveship offers those interested in narrative systems a way to experiment with changes in the narrative discourse; for interactive fiction authors and those who wish to use of the system as a component of their own, it is a way to create powerful new types of narrative experiences. The templates used for language generation in Curveship, the string-with-slots representation, shows that there is a compromise between highly flexible but extremely difficult-to-author abstract syntax representations and simple strings, which are easy to write but extremely inflexible. The development of the system has suggested ways to refine narrative theory, offering new understandings of how narrative distance can be understood as being composed of lower-level changes in narrative and how the order of events is better represented as an ordered tree than a simple sequence.
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Langage CSS des feuilles de style

Langage CSS des feuilles de style

• Cohésion de la présentation tout au long du site avec les feuilles de style externes. • Modifier l'aspect d'une page ou d'un site sans en modifier le contenu et cela en quelques lignes plutôt que de devoir changer un grand nombre de balises. • Un "langage" neuf, compréhensible, simple et logique par rapport au Html et à ses différentes versions.

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[PDF] Formation sur les Feuilles de style

[PDF] Formation sur les Feuilles de style

Qu'est-ce que les CSS ? Pourquoi utiliser des feuilles de style ? Cascading Style Sheet (CSS) Le principe de base est le suivant : il faut séparer le contenu de la page, de son apparence. La page html contient l'information, et non la façon dont l'information est affichée. Pour un unique contenu : plusieurs affichages sont possibles. On peut penser à des affichages monochrome, sur de petits écrans, oral (le contenu de la page web est lu), une impression papier, impression sur des transparents, impression en braille…

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[PDF] Les feuilles de style CSS

[PDF] Les feuilles de style CSS

4.4. Sélecteurs d’identifiant Si un style ne doit être appliqué qu’à un élément et un seul (exemple une image dans le coin en haut à gauche de votre page), vous pouvez créer un style qui ne correspondra qu’à l’élément dont l’identifiant est celui que vous aurez spécifié (grace au #) :

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Sur le style de recherche de Louis de Broglie

Sur le style de recherche de Louis de Broglie

cherchées). De la similitude de forme mathématique, de Broglie infère une identité de phénomènes et d'objets. A cet égard, il est peut-être aussi l'héritier de cette autre tradition, alors plus vivace dans le contexte scientifique français, des physico- mathématiciens : c'est la forme mathématique du problème qui guide son raisonnement. Cette double tendance me paraît caractéristique du style propre de Louis de Broglie.

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