Abstract A contaminatedsite related to a former coke factory, located in the
alluvial plain of the Meuse River near Liège was investigated to characterize the nature and extend of underground contamination. The major objective of the investigation was to evaluate whether an interaction exists, at the level of this particular site, between groundwater and surface water, despite the existence of river embankment, to assess the dynamics of such interactions and finally to quantify groundwater fluxes as the main potential vector of mobility of contaminants offsite. Field investigations consisted in (1) a very detailed monitoring of the dynamics of water levels in the Meuse River and in various piezometers located in the site; (2) the application of single well tracer tests using the Finite Volume Point Dilution Method (FVPDM) in different piezometers in order to obtain point estimates of Darcy fluxes. Using cross- correlation analysis, the strong relation between variations in the Meuse water levels and groundwater levels was clearly established. The FVPDM allowed obtaining point estimates of Darcy fluxes at various points along the Meuse- aquifer interface. Using an analytical solution for groundwater flow interaction with adjacent river allowed modelling accurately the dynamics of groundwater levels in function of the dynamics of the river water levels. All these results are presented, analyzed and integrated in order to quantify the groundwater discharge in the Meuse River.
Edaphic characterization characterization of of a a contaminatedcontaminatedsite ( site ( Prayon Prayon , , Belgium Belgium ) ) and
and remediation remediation strategy strategy : influence : influence of of inputs on plant inputs on plant growth growth and
These petroleum wastes are highly toxic to the environment especially to human beings when in a large concentration. The direct contact with petroleum pollutants including skin absorbing and breathing can cause mild to sever illness even cancer, and the indirect contacts such as water and food contamination can also increase the health risk. Some research showed the exposures to the spilled crude oil were associated with significant increases in the period prevalence for diarrhea, sore eyes, itchy skin and occupational injuries (Ordinioha and Sawyer 2010)(Table2). Coincidentally, some animal studies which use food contaminated with crude oil to feed rats and other experimental animals showed sever impact on animal fertility (Adesanya, Shittu et al. 2009).The research based on the plant health under crude oil contamination indicated the oil pollutants could reduce the photosynthesis though the disruption of the chloroplast membranes and inhibition caused by accumulation of end-products (Baker 1970). Moreover, some plants can be directly killed by spraying light oil on young tissues when their stomata are open (Baker 1970).
KEYWORDS: unsaturated zone, geophysics, contaminants
The development of protection and remediation plans for contaminated soil and groundwater require a detailed understanding of the transport of pollutants in the subsurface. However, such understanding is affected by the lack of spatial and temporal coverage provided by the current in situ characterization technologies. A new system has been developed in order to overcome such limitations. The vadose zone experimental setup is a new development combining cross-hole geophysics and the Vadose Zone Monitoring System (VMS).
Analyses of DGGE banding patterns indicated a shift in the bacterial community in soil from the nutrient-amended tank during the freezing phase (Figure S3a, Supporting Information). While the soil was in a semifrozen state (by Day 40), two DGGE bands appeared and these were classified as Corynebacterineae (91%) and Rhodanobacter (91-96%), respectively (Ribosomal Database Project-Release 10 (20)). The band strongly related to a Corynebacterineae-related strain was previously identified in a petroleum-contaminatedsite in the Antarctica and shown to be capable of hydrocarbon degradation (21). In contrast, DGGE banding patterns in soil from the unamended tank revealed a stable microbial community structure, suggesting that the emerging hydro-
A majority of contaminatedsite in France are with organic compounds such as hydrocarbons and chlorinated solvents. These contaminations implies a source zone (a non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL)) a dissolved (and/or gaseous) contaminant plume migrating downstream (/ upward) and biodegradation processes. Therefore, the fate of these contaminants in the subsurface is driven by numerous and highly coupled mechanisms. Whereas many numerical codes include some of these mechanisms, none of them (to our knowledge) allows the modeling of the full set of mechanisms. Therefore, a new code called M 3 for Multiphase, Multicomponent, Multiprocess is being developed by a group of academic researchers (LHYGES, IMFT) and a consulting company (BURGEAP). In the following, are presented a description of the code functionalities that will be included and verification tests of already developed functionalities that highlight the code ability to model various contamination situations.
chelating agent before harvest were evaluated. In the akaline soil tested, the use of the free-acid form of EDTA and exposure time of one to 2 weeks before harvesting, increased the concen- tration of metals translocated to plant tissues. Total heavy metal accumulation (Cu, Pb, and Zn) was in the range of 0.1–0.25% of aerial and root tissues for both willow and fescue. Indian mustard accumulated these metals to an extent of 0.5% and 1.2% of aerial and root biomass, respectively, after a 2 week exposure time to EDTA. The phytoextraction results were lower (i.e., 0.12%) than those obtained by Blaylock et al. (1997) in a pot trial (soil pH 7.3, and using 5 mmol/kg EDTA), where Indian mustard (cv. 426308) accumulated 1% Pb in aerial tissues. Direct comparison of these two studies is diﬃcult however, due to notable diﬀerences in the soils used. The soil used by Blaylock et al. (1997) was a clean silt loam soil amended with heavy metals, whereas the soil used in this study was collected from the site, without metal amendment or pH readjustment. To our knowledge, this is the ﬁrst phytoextraction study focussing on alkaline soils.
total concentration of U, the presence of organic and min- eral ligands (Ragnarsdottir and Charlet, 2000; Davis et al., 2002, 2004, 2006; Denison, 2004; Curtis et al., 2006), and microbial activity (Renshaw et al., 2007). In most surface freshwater (i.e. under oxic conditions, pH 5–9), U is in a free and soluble form, the uranyl ion UO 2+ 2 , which is in the (+VI) oxidation state. Depending on the pH and ionic com- position of the water, UO 2+ 2 can form complexes with other ions, principally hydroxyls or carbonates, phosphates, fluo- rides, chlorides, but also with some organic compounds such as humic acids (Ragnarsdottir and Charlet, 2000; Marang, 2007). Adsorption on mineral (e.g. oxy/hydroxides of iron or manganese and clays) or organic particulate phases also plays an important role by reducing UO 2+ 2 mobility in wa- ter (Curtis et al., 2006). Thus, U coming into contact with sediment is either in soluble form (free or complexed) and will diffuse towards the porewater, or be sorbed to suspended matter and incorporated by sedimentation. In anoxic sedi- ments, U is reduced to insoluble U(+IV) and tends to be immobilised and thus accumulates in the deeper sediment layers by formation of insoluble nanoparticulates or large aggregated oxides like uraninite or schoepite (Liger et al., 1999; Phrommavanh, 2008). Additionally, reduction of U can also occur biotically through metal-reducing bacterial metabolism in sediment (Lovley et al., 1991). This process has notably been used in recent bioremediation programs of contaminated sites where immobilisation of U in sediments was favoured by organic amendment at the sediment surface (Wall and Krumholz, 2006; Wilkins et al., 2006; Renshaw et al., 2007; Barlett et al., 2012).
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Determination of oil content of contaminated soils and sludges
Majid, Abdul; Sparks, Bryan D.
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2 POTENTIAL OUTLETS FOR CONTAMINATED BIOMASS PRODUCED IN PHYTOEXTRACTION
2.1 State of the art methods to reclaim metal contaminated soils
Decision makers are increasingly considering long-term solutions with lower operating-costs to reclaim land, as the cure may be worse than the ailment in terms of environmental impact . The conventional method to remediate heavy metal pollution is excavation followed by burial at a waste site for an estimated cost of $400,000 per treated hectare . At this price, both for mining compa- nies and for the environment, phytoremediation appears as a cost-effective technique to restore metal polluted soils . It also appears as more sustainable, aesthetically more pleasing and boasted bet- ter public acceptance where used . Improvements in reputation for industrial stakeholders implementing phytoremediation could also have a non-negligible value although this has not yet been assessed.
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Chronologie de l’auteur : 59 av. – 17 ap. n.è.
Traducteur : Richard Adam Date de traduction : 1982
Le lendemain, il [le consul Vulso] arriva à Gordion. Ce n’est pas une place importante, mais un marché très fréquenté et achalandé pour un bourg continental : il est situé à distance presque égale de trois mers, l’Hellespont, la côte de Sinope et la côte opposée, où habitent les Ciliciens du littoral ; il est de plus voisin des territoires de plusieurs grandes nations, dont les échanges commerciaux se sont surtout concentrés en ce point. L’armée trouva alors la place abandonnée par les habitants en fuite, et pleine de toutes sortes de biens en abondance. Comme elle y avait pris ses quartiers, des envoyés d’Éposognatus vinrent annoncer qu’ayant rendu visite aux petits rois gaulois, ils n’avaient rien obtenu d’intéressant : les Gaulois émigraient en masse des villages et des champs, trainant avec eux-mêmes, leurs femmes et leurs enfants tout ce qu’ils pouvaient porter et pousser ; ils se dirigeaient vers le mont Olympe pour s’y retrancher, protégés par leurs armes et par le site.
[p. 288 = fig. 4.6 et 4.7]
[p. 289] Le premier siècle de l’occupation (phase 1)
Comme nous l’avons vu plus haut, dans tous les secteurs explorés, les monnaies stratifiées sont relativement nombreuses pour le premier siècle d’occupation du site (du règne de Tibère à celui de Trajan). Pour cette période, plutôt que de se limiter aux seuls chantiers 20 et 21, il a donc paru intéressant d’intégrer les données déjà publiées dans les deux volumes précédents. Ce siècle peut être divisé en deux moitiés : les années contemporaines de l’occupation militaire (phase 1a, de 15/20 à c. 70) et les années postérieures (phase 1b, de c. 70 à c. 120). Cette division se retrouve à la fois dans la zone des sanctuaires (chantier 05/02), dans la zone basse (chantiers 04 et 05/01) et dans la zone haute (chantiers 20 et 21) 7 . La zone des camps n’est pas réoccupée après l’abandon de ces derniers. Par ailleurs, on notera dès à présent que les chantiers 20 et 21 n’ont pas révélé de contextes antérieurs à la fondation du camp B, et rien dans les découvertes monétaires ne vient appuyer l’hypothèse d’une occupation plus ancienne dans le secteur.
and 5.4 km (3.1%) following 4 and 14 days exposure respectively reaching 1.8-fold induc- tions. However, a significant inhibition in EROD activity was observed in fish exposed to groundwater at 2.7 km for all times of exposure at (3.1%) and (50%) concentrations (Figure 2). GST activity in the liver of fish exposed at 3.1% groundwater concentration from the site located at 2.7 km raised significantly after 4 days, reaching 2.1-fold relative to control (Figure 3). However, at (50%) groundwater concentration, GST activity returned to 1.3-fold with respect to control suggesting saturation. Indeed, measurement of GST activities follow- ing 14 days exposure to groundwater at (3.1%) and (50%) revealed no significant effects although the mean activity reached 1.2 and 1.6-fold respectively compared to control. The samples collected from groundwater at 1.2 km and 5.4 km did not trigger the increase in GST activity compared to control.
The architect and his consultants are not often in a position to advise a client before land is purchased or an option taken on it. It is to the owner's advantage, however, to have expert advice on foundation conditions before purchasing, because even a superficial examination can reveal potential dangers from flooding and landslides or subsidence. Examination may also indicate potential problems with filled ground, muskeg or even permafrost. It may be possible to deal with these problems but the resultant site development costs must be recognized as a part of the land cost.