contact-induced change

Top PDF contact-induced change:

Contact-induced change as an innovation

Contact-induced change as an innovation

Contact-induced change as an innovation 1 Claudine Chamoreau 1. Introduction Generally, in a situation of language contact, the syntactic effects on replica language (or receiving language) structure seem to be related to features that have come from one of the languages in contact, frequently the model language (or source language). For example, Thomason’s typology of morphosyntactic changes in contact situations shows three types of effects on a receiving language structure: loss of features as a result of language contact; addition of linguistic features through contact-induced changes; and partial or total replacement of old native linguistic features by interference features (2001:60, 85-91). Heine (2006) indicates that generally in the situation of language contact, “speakers recruit material available in R (the replica language) to create new structures on the model of M (the model language) and … rather than being entirely new, the structures created in R are built on existing use patterns and constructions that are already available in R.”
En savoir plus

19 En savoir plus

Arabic and Contact-Induced Change

Arabic and Contact-Induced Change

3.2 Overview of Part I: Contact-induced change in varieties of Arabic The survey chapters in Part I of this volume offer an extensive overview of contact-induced change in first Eastern (mašriqī) and then Western (maɣribī) Arabic dialects (to use the terminology of the traditional geographical classifica- tion of modern Arabic dialects; cf. Palva 2009; Benkato, this volume). The ma- jority of chapters dealing with types of Eastern Arabic describe varieties spoken by bilingual minorities affected to different degrees by language shift towards local dominant languages. For instance, the Arabic-speaking Maronite commu- nity of Kormakiti is involved in an asymmetric pattern of bilingualism result- ing in a gradual and inexorable language shift towards Cypriot Greek (Walter, this volume). In contrast, speakers of Nigerian Arabic (Owens, this volume), de- spite considerable proficiency in Kanuri and/or Hausa, maintain transmission of their ancestral language to the younger generations. As far as it is possible to tell, a similar situation holds for the Mesopotamian dialects of Anatolia (Akkuş, this volume) and Khuzestan (Leitner, this volume), which are in intense contact with Turkish and Persian respectively (among other languages), but without (yet) showing signs of definitive language shift. Procházka (this volume), on the other hand, describes the effects of contact-induced change in a continuum of East- ern Arabic dialects dispersed across Lebanon, Syria, Iraq, and southern Turkey. In this broader geographical context, Arabic represents the main vernacular lan- guage, affected to different degrees by long-term bi- or multilingualism with Ar- amaic, Kurdish, and Turkish.
En savoir plus

703 En savoir plus

Variation and change in contact settings.

Variation and change in contact settings.

Taking examples from several northern Eurasian languages such as Sakha (a divergent Turkic language spoken in Siberia), Evenki (a Northern Tungusic language), and some Mongolic languages, Brigitte Pakendorf presents evidence for the important role played by language-internal variation in situations of contact-induced change through two different processes. The first of these, also mentioned by Blondeau, Léglise, and Palacios, is known as “frequential copying” or “enhancement.” This refers to a shift in the frequency of use of variant constructions, as discussed by Johanson (2002: 306), Aikhenvald (2002: 238), and Heine & Kuteva (2005: 44-62): “A widely observable process triggered by language contact concerns infrequently occurring, minor use patterns that are activated because there is a model provided by another language” (Heine & Kuteva 2005: 50). In frequential copying, an infrequently used construction in the recipient language can increase in frequency and ultimately even become the norm, if there is a similar construction in the model language. In the cases studied by Pakendorf, two variants of a construction exist side by side and fulfill roughly the same function: this is true for the variation in possessive constructions documented in Old Turkic, the variation in local case functions in the Tungusic languages, and the variation in subject agreement marking on finite verbs in historical written Mongol texts. In such cases, a shift in frequency of use leads to the establishment of one variant rather than the other as the norm within the speech community – without, however, leading to any change in meaning. Thus, she argues, language-internal variation plays an important role in contact-induced language change by providing access to constructions that can be activated by exposure to the neighboring language.
En savoir plus

22 En savoir plus

Contact and calquing

Contact and calquing

‘honey badger’ (lit. ‘ripper of ankles’) Taine-Cheikh (2008: 126) stresses that it is somewhat difficult to trace back the origin of these compounds. Accordingly, she speaks of a process of conver- gence between the two languages, rather than determining the direction of the se- mantic transfer. However, it should be observed that these compound nouns are not attested in other spoken varieties of Arabic. Furthermore, since at least the mid-twentieth century, Berbers in Mauritania have been gradually loosing com- petence in Zenaga, in favour of Arabic (Taine-Cheikh 2012: 100), while Zenaga is rarely acquired as second language by Ḥassāniyya Arabic speakers. In such a context, the most probable agents of contact-induced change were former Berber- dominant speakers who gradually shifted to Arabic. Thus, it seems plausible that the transfer of the semantic properties of Zenaga compounds has been achieved through imposition, rather than through borrowing.
En savoir plus

19 En savoir plus

Variation and change in contact settings

Variation and change in contact settings

Taking examples from several northern Eurasian languages such as Sakha (a divergent Turkic language spoken in Siberia), Evenki (a Northern Tungusic language), and some Mongolic languages, Brigitte Pakendorf presents evidence for the important role played by language-internal variation in situations of contact-induced change through two different processes. The first of these, also mentioned by Blondeau, Léglise, and Palacios, is known as “frequential copying” or “enhancement.” This refers to a shift in the frequency of use of variant constructions, as discussed by Johanson (2002: 306), Aikhenvald (2002: 238), and Heine & Kuteva (2005: 44-62): “A widely observable process triggered by language contact concerns infrequently occurring, minor use patterns that are activated because there is a model provided by another language” (Heine & Kuteva 2005: 50). In frequential copying, an infrequently used construction in the recipient language can increase in frequency and ultimately even become the norm, if there is a similar construction in the model language. In the cases studied by Pakendorf, two variants of a construction exist side by side and fulfill roughly the same function: this is true for the variation in possessive constructions documented in Old Turkic, the variation in local case functions in the Tungusic languages, and the variation in subject agreement marking on finite verbs in historical written Mongol texts. In such cases, a shift in frequency of use leads to the establishment of one variant rather than the other as the norm within the speech community – without, however, leading to any change in meaning. Thus, she argues, language-internal variation plays an important role in contact-induced language change by providing access to constructions that can be activated by exposure to the neighboring language.
En savoir plus

22 En savoir plus

Contact dependent reproducible hypomania induced by deep brain stimulation in Parkinson's disease: clinical, anatomical and functional imaging study

Contact dependent reproducible hypomania induced by deep brain stimulation in Parkinson's disease: clinical, anatomical and functional imaging study

Among the surgically implanted cases, we identified retrospectively PD patients with hypomanic or manic symptoms that were signaled in the postoperative period. Symptoms consisted in transient hypomanic manifestations seen just after surgery and lasting a few hours or days, or in acute manic manifestations observed during the setting of stimulation parameters such as the change of active contacts or increase of voltage. Psychiatric symptoms included: diurnal and/or nocturnal hyperactivity, insomnia, compulsive buying, increased sexual preoccupations, mood liability, and tachypsychia. Only patients with a manic or hypomanic state, as adapted from DSM-IV (detailed below) (9), which was induced in a reversible and reproducible manner by the stimulation of specific contacts were definitely included in this study. Demented patients and subjects with past history of bipolar disorder were excluded. For selected patients, several tests were performed, using the Bech and Rafaelsen Mania Scale (MAS) (detailed below)(10). The “euthymic” stimulation condition was bilateral and led to the best motor improvement without mood disorders and other side effects. The “manic” stimulation condition was bilateral and led to sustained elevated mood (> 1 hour) at a minimum voltage (maximum 4V). Assessments were completed by two neurologists in an open fashion (MU, PD).
En savoir plus

30 En savoir plus

L'être au contact de l'image

L'être au contact de l'image

Pour quelles réalités urbaines vécues ? Quelles réalités vécues sont perturbées par ces reproductions tautiques, par cette omniprésence d’image hyperréelle que Gauthier analyse comme catalyseur de formes de « fuite des responsabilités », « perte du sens », et, plus généralement, « inaction » (p.159) ? Parce que « la signalétique de l’urgence n’a pas le temps de tenir compte de la réponse », l’être au contact des images mass-médiatiques contemporaines est certes forgées par elles, mais il n’a pourtant pas le loisir de les modifier en retour, d’influer et configurer à son tour ce monde industriellement produit qui le conditionne en tant que consommateur, voyeur (cf. les analyses de Günther Anders sur la familiarisation, le caractère « sirénique » du racolage publicitaire, ou encore la livraison du monde à domicile). Infantilisant, mais aussi désubjectivant, cet univers de sens dépossède, au sens où il fait perdre à l’être ses capacités d’être et d’agir dans un milieu librement choisi, authentiquement perçu et singulièrement habité.
En savoir plus

4 En savoir plus

Impact du taux de change réel sur la  politique de change du Cameroun

Impact du taux de change réel sur la politique de change du Cameroun

Le bilan de la méthode de la moyenne géométrique utilisée dans de nombreux travaux de recherche (Kalinda Mkenda (2001), Sinzogan (2000), Hinkle et Montiel (1999), notamment) est très différente. L’indice synthétique obtenu par cette méthode vérifie toutes les conditions statistiques énoncées dans le tableau, et donc respecte aussi les propriétés économiques de réflexivité et de neutralité du choix de l’année de base. En revanche, l’interprétation économique doit être nuancée. Les indices synthétiques obtenus par la méthode géométrique doivent être traduites, non pas à partir du niveau auquel ils se situent, mais à partir de ses variations relatives. La variation relative entre deux dates voisines t et t+1 de l’indice pondéré obtenu par la méthode de la moyenne géométrique est égale à la moyenne arithmétique leurs variations relatives entre les mêmes dates des indices élémentaires de taux de change. Malgré ces limites, l’interprétation économique reste acceptable même si elle ne conduit pas directement à des conclusions concernant la compétitivité comme le permet la méthode de la moyenne harmonique.
En savoir plus

26 En savoir plus

Contact thermal lithography

Contact thermal lithography

The transient heating characteristics of the polymer are used to deduce the appropriate optical intensity and exposure time necessary to cure the resist through its thickn[r]

67 En savoir plus

Ruminal bacterial community change in response to diet-induced variation of ruminal trans-10 fatty acids

Ruminal bacterial community change in response to diet-induced variation of ruminal trans-10 fatty acids

BackgroundandObjective Trans fattyacidsFAareproducedduringthebiohydrogenationoflinoleicacidintherumen.Becauseoftheirhealthpromotingproperties,trans11 isomers,whichare usuallythemostabund[r]

2 En savoir plus

Dynamic change of global and local information processing in Propofol-induced loss and recovery of consciousness

Dynamic change of global and local information processing in Propofol-induced loss and recovery of consciousness

The third result of our study concerns changes in governing principles of information processing during loss and recovery of consciousness. Contrary to a recent study in other species [37], we do find significant changes in global topological measures across levels of consciousness. Consistent with a previous report [25], we find that loss of consciousness is marked by an increase in normalized clustering (c), which measures the ‘cliquishness’ of brain regions, potentially indicating an increase in localized processing and thus a decrease of information integration across the brain. Our multi-stage design, however reveals that clustering remains significantly elevated (as compared to initial wakefulness and sedation) during post-anesthesia wakefulness recovery. This result shows that while it is true that clustering increases once consciousness is lost, it is not a sufficient marker of consciousness, something that the two-point design (i.e., initial wakefulness versus loss of consciousness) in Schro¨ter et al. [25] could not reveal. On the other hand, we find that the normalized characteristic path length (l) is significantly increased only during loss of conscious- ness, suggesting that during unconsciousness the efficiency of information distribution within the network is reduced (a finding that is consistent with a very recent study on loss of consciousness in sleep [16]). Whether this state of increased ‘‘functional distance’’ between regions is causal or consequent to propofol-induced loss of consciousness will have to be addressed in future research. As previously reported, the small-world architecture of brain networks (s) persisted (and in fact increased) in loss of conscious- ness [25], confirming the robustness of this core principle of organization of biological networks despite profound state changes [32]. Mirroring c, however, small-world architecture also remained significantly elevated during wakefulness recovery. Although much weaker, a similar effect of condition was also uncovered for normalized modularity (nQ). Finally, we remark that the presence of different results observed in the two propofol conditions (sedation and loss of consciousness) and, importantly, consciousness recovery, is consistent with the view that changes in global brain topology observed here and elsewhere [25,37] are not simply due to drug exposure, but rather reflect brain state changes relating to the loss of consciousness, supporting a previously expressed view [25].
En savoir plus

14 En savoir plus

Asynchronous Contact Tracing

Asynchronous Contact Tracing

• It is not even necessary for Alice to exist as a physical person, because the virus could transfer on to a surface as a result of coming into contact with other contaminated surfaces, such as articles being sent from an infected region. • If Alice were infected in the same conditions as Bob but two days before in another supermarket, and if Alice had been informed about the potential risk of infection, then she probably would have done a unitary test (RT-PCR) and, if positive, she would not then touch the items in the supermarket because she would have stayed at home, and probably not infecting Bob.
En savoir plus

11 En savoir plus

"Potentiel de contact" des villes

"Potentiel de contact" des villes

L’archive ouverte pluridisciplinaire HAL, est destinée au dépôt et à la diffusion de documents scientifiques de niveau recherche, publiés ou non, émanant des établissements d’enseignemen[r]

2 En savoir plus

Gestes du Contact Improvisation

Gestes du Contact Improvisation

4. JOUER De la chute au jeu, le lien se fait de lui-même : dans quel autre espace les humains s’adonnent-ils à la chute, sinon précisément dans leurs jeux ? Jeux d’enfants d’abord : tournis, balançoires, sauts en l’air, roues intempestives. Mais aussi jeux d’adultes : fêtes foraines, grand huit. Plus récemment, précisément au même moment où le Contact Improvisation voit le jour, toute une culture s’est même développée autour de ces jeux de vertiges : celle des sports de glisse ‒ surf, ski, skate, sauts en parachute et autres sports extrêmes, où les joueurs se passionnent pour le risque acroba- tique de frôler les sommets.
En savoir plus

40 En savoir plus

TP10 - Contact hertzien

TP10 - Contact hertzien

Figure 3  Axes perpendiculaires Exercice 4 Une bille en acier (E = 210000 MP a et ν = 0, 3) vient au contact avec une surface plane en fonte (E = 105000 MP a et ν = 0, 25). Une force verticale F = 500 N est appliquée sur la sphère (gure 4). Le diamètre de la sphère en acier est D = 50 mm.

3 En savoir plus

Preference Change

Preference Change

are pre-defined and that preferences change only when beliefs do. But several decision and game problems lack these features, calling for a dynamic model of preferences: preferences can change when unforeseen possibilities come to light or when there is no specifiable or measurable change in belief. We propose a formally precise dynamic model of preferences that extends an existing static model (Boutilier et al. in J Artif Intell Res 21:135–191, 2004 ). Our axioms for updating preferences preserve consis- tency while minimising change, like Hansson’s (Theory Decis 38(1):1–28, 1995 ). But unlike prior models of preference change, ours supports default reasoning with par- tial preference information, which is essential to handle decision problems where the decision tree isn’t surveyable. We also show that our model avoids problems for other models of preference change discussed in Spohn (Preference change: approaches from philosophy. Economics and Psychology: Springer, pp 109–121, 2009 ).
En savoir plus

23 En savoir plus

Modélisation numérique et approche expérimentale du contact en dynamique : Application au contact aubes/carter de turboréacteur

Modélisation numérique et approche expérimentale du contact en dynamique : Application au contact aubes/carter de turboréacteur

La vitesse de rotation choisie est la vitesse maximale du tour vertical: Ω = 300 tr/min (soit 10π rad/s ou 5 Hz). Si la fr´equence du mode `a n = 10 diam`etres est approch´ee par f c = 200 Hz, il en r´esulte que la fr´equence de l’aube est environ f a = 150 Hz. Une premi`ere s´erie de mesures permet de voir ´evoluer la r´eponse du carter lorsque la vitesse de rotation du tour augmente. Cette s´erie de mesures a ´et´e r´ealis´ee en mettant le tour en rotation, puis en amenant l’aube au contact (l´eg`ere pression: l’aube touche le carter sur une seule zone longue d’environ 30 cm): un enregistrement des r´eponses de l’aube et du carter est fait sur l’intervalle [0..300Hz] avec une moyenne sur 3 acquisitions. Afin d’essayer de limiter les effets du d´efaut de forme, le contact a ´et´e r´ealis´e dans la partie m´ediane du carter (voir figure VI.3). Le contact aurait pu ˆetre cr´e´e dans la partie basse, puisque le rayon y est pratiquement constant, mais trois raisons s’y opposent:
En savoir plus

200 En savoir plus

« Tout change, mais rien ne change ». Les conversions religieuses sont-elles des bifurcations ?

« Tout change, mais rien ne change ». Les conversions religieuses sont-elles des bifurcations ?

Bifurquer (2) : la conversion religieuse comme révélateur de structures Dans le premier point nous avons montré que la notion de bifurcation apparaissait très utile pour analyser des micro-séquences. Ce deuxième point voudrait illustrer une autre utilité de la notion, celle de l'attention à ce qui change d'un point de vue structu- rel. Le fait de penser comme bifurcation, non plus une conversion mais un fait social de conversions en nombre important, nous permet d'isoler des variables et des explica- tions qui renseignent sur des changements au long cours. Nous présenterons deux exemples afin de développer ces idées : les reconversions religieuses aux États-Unis dans les années 1970 et les conséquences politiques de ce phénomène puis les conver- sions au protestantisme dans l'Algérie contemporaine.
En savoir plus

12 En savoir plus

Probing Ca²⁺-induced conformational change of calmodulin with gold nanoparticle-decorated single-walled carbon nanotube field-effect transistors

Probing Ca²⁺-induced conformational change of calmodulin with gold nanoparticle-decorated single-walled carbon nanotube field-effect transistors

Probing Ca 2+ -induced conformational change of Calmodulin with gold nanoparticle-decorated single-walled carbon nanotube field-effect transistors Wenting Shao † , Seth C. Burkert † , David L. White † , Valerie L. Scott † , Jianfu Ding ‡ , Zhao Li ‡ , Jianying

13 En savoir plus

Probing Ca²⁺-induced conformational change of calmodulin with gold nanoparticle-decorated single-walled carbon nanotube field-effect transistors

Probing Ca²⁺-induced conformational change of calmodulin with gold nanoparticle-decorated single-walled carbon nanotube field-effect transistors

change increased linearly with Ca 2+ from 10 -15 M to 10 -13 M (in logarithmic scale), and then reached a plateau after 10 -11 M, showing saturation of the devices (Figure 5d and Figure S6). This can be attributed to the limited amount of CaM detectable on sc-SWCNT devices. As mentioned earlier, AuNP deposition formed larger and denser AuNPs on un-SWCNTs than sc-SWCNTs, but the average size of CaM after

25 En savoir plus

Show all 5352 documents...