When assuming that a system is complex, one has to reject the reduc- tionist idea according to which understanding subsystems perfectly enables a finer understanding of the superior level ( Sapolsky and Balt , 1996 ). When describing social or ecological processes, one could look ever closer, probably without being able to derive useful knowledge at the SES level. Even though interesting and related, it may be irrelevant to go very deep into the study of how tree leaves grow when trying to understand how people manage a common forest. Once again, it is a question of choice. These choices are necessary, and analysts should keep this in mind, especially when presenting results. Despite this limit, which is intrinsic to the study of complex systems, where the whole is not the linear sum of its parts, I believe that adding threats is fundamental. In “a diagnosis approach for going beyond panaceas”, Ostrom ( 2007a ) in- troduces the SES framework. The paper title gives the general idea behind the framework. However, in the SES , there is no apparent mention of free-riding, natural risks, internal pollution patterns, overuse, or other types of threats that actors of the studied SES have to face. As advocated in this chapter, threats are elements that need to be considered while making a diagnosis of a situation. Even more, they can be considered at the origin of rules or in- frastructure as discussed in Section 3.1.3 . There are not simply closer studies of subsystems. The immediate step after making a diagnosis of a situation is to think about consequences and thus make decisions. Threats are part of decisions that need to be made by actors and cannot be left out of a diagnosis. Of course, at the origin of the field are common threats that lie at the very core of NRM . Hardin’s paper and subsequent research by other scholars of the field exist because of the existence of threats, otherwise, there would be little to talk about. Threats are present in the SES framework but not explicitly. For instance, the need for (I9-I10 1
The proposed functional forms are common in the literature (see Erdlenbruch et al.  for an overview). Instantaneous profits describe benefits from selling the harvest in a competitive market and costs of extraction. The natural growth function behaves like a logistic function, most often used in the literature, but has the following two advantages: first, it also allows for asymmetric growth patterns which can be observed in some natural resource stocks; second, it is computationally more tractable.
bre 2005 (lire le compte rendu qui suit). Dans les contributions sur l’Afrique aus- trale apparaissait également la prégnance de l’héritage juridique britannique (fondé sur la Common law) associé à une politique d’administration indirecte. On retrouve en Inde cette influence, combi- née au poids du système social hindou (comme elle a été combinée en Afrique du Sud avec le système de l’apartheid). Ces observations militent pour une prise en compte documentée et comparative des trajectoires institutionnelles et poli- tiques reliant les formes contemporaines de « gouvernance foncière » aux situations coloniales. Cette question n’a pas seule- ment un intérêt académique mais aussi un intérêt en termes de politique économique et de compréhension des « sentiers de dépendance » dans lesquels sont enchâs- sées les réformes foncières actuelles.
While changes are essential in food consumption and production patterns, the ques- tion also arises about the extent of changes needed and the efforts of each person. Better management and protection of naturalresources is a common responsibility for all. Yet the efforts required to achieve this are different in each case, for the legislator, the consumer and the private operator. The International Year of Family Farming declared in 2014 underscored the importance of this type of agriculture for food security, global agricultural biodiversity and sustainable use of naturalresources. In a world marked by climate uncertainty, competition for land and growing urban- ization of lifestyles, coupled with agricultural modernization in countries of Europe and North America, transformation of this kind of smallholder and household farming is a major issue. Aside from the economic and social consequences that it will have on millions of small-scale farmers, it is the coexistence between industrial agriculture and family farming that today warrants careful scrutiny by decision- makers and civil society. These two types of agricultures do not have the same level of access to financial, political, technical and organizational resources. National and local public policies must therefore be defined to help family farmers to meet their food needs, market their output in local supply chains, produce their own energy, etc., as well as to support innovative initiatives such as agroecology, which enables production and processing methods to be adapted to natural environments and economic and social systems. While an essential prerequisite, regulating and setting in place standards is not the only way to achieve better management and use of naturalresources. For example, environmental information and labelling can help to unlock technological and social barriers in production chains through a business to business perspective. It is therefore important to adopt a systemic approach to promote change, while attempting to make the various actors accountable for their commitments. Such accountability will be a decisive factor in achieving the Sustain- able Development Goals, along with governance of the changes that ensue from them.
Consultation with stakeholders was integral to situation analysis in all case studies, including a range of formal and informal approaches. Structured interviews with key individuals formed an important component of preliminary rapid assessments. Formal group consultations were central to the research process in each case study. The format of these consultations varied between case studies, depending on the context, conditions and communities in each. For example, in the Blue Nile / Fogera, where Afromaison worked with the Innovation Platforms (IPs) established under the Nile Basin Development Challenge project, approaches used to engage stakeholders included formal meetings, field visits, the participatory role-playing game, and participatory video 2 , where community members from Fogera produced a video to present their perspectives on land and water management - see Cullen (2013). The consultation process in each case study is summarized below (Section 220.127.116.11). Despite the differences in approach, there were two important points in common across the case studies. Firstly, widely diverse stakeholders were consulted, including farmers and herders, village representatives, religious leaders, non- government organisations and local and district government representatives and decision makers. Secondly, the process of establishing a shared diagnosis was iterative – there was no fixed end-point. As the studies in each case study progressed, understanding of the systems evolved, and each of the stakeholder meetings included a component of revisiting and re-establishing agreement about issues and priorities. Table 3 shows how the focal issues of Afromaison’s intervention evolved along the process from the initial rapid assessment to the role-playing game simulations through the scenario building exercise.
v Gary Dessler, Human Resource Management 11th Eleventh, Prentice Hall 2007 Hardcover.
ˇˈ Guest D.E., Human Resource Management & Industrial Relations, Journal of Management Studies, 1987.
It can be seen from the above definitions that HRM is both the efficient and effective management of personnel, and the system that is concerned with the development of the individual workers and the organization. Human resourcesmanagement, therefore, is necessary not only for recruiting and developing the abilities and skills of the workforce, but also in implementing programs and
RDF (Resource Description Framework)  is a W3C (World Wide Web Consortium) standard intended for the management of metadata. RDF models metadata as 3-tuples (triples) which assert that a resource (identified by URI - Uniform Resource Identifier) has a property (identified by URI) which has a value identified either by URI, or given literally. RDF is suitable for the management of metadata records, each attribute of the record being represented by one or more triples. The linkage between a metadata record and the resource it describes may take one of two forms: elements may be contained in a record separate from the item, as in the case of the library's catalogue record; or the metadata may be embedded in the resource itself . Hence, there are two main solutions for the management of metadata records, either the building of an independent system or the addition of an extension to the resource management system itself.
Behavioral and neural evidence for a close link between different dimensions of magnitude, in particular number and length, has led to hypothesize the existence of a unique, abstract magnitude system representing different levels of magnitude irrespectively of the specific type of dimension considered (see ATOM theory originally described in Walsh, 2003). According to this view, different types of magnitudes are represented in a common neural structure by a dimension invariant code, regardless of whether they are discrete (as numerosity) or continuous (as spatial extent or time) dimensions. While the literature is compatible with such a view, especially behavioral interference and mapping effects, recent brain imaging studies cast doubt on the existence of a unique representational system for magnitude, and are suggestive of the existence of domain-specific magnitude representations. For example, recent human high- resolution fMRI studies using a population receptive field mapping approach have revealed that human parietal cortex hosts overlapping, topographically organized maps for both numerosity and size (Harvey, Fracasso, Petridou, & Dumoulin, 2015; Harvey, Klein, Petridou, & Dumoulin, 2013). Crucially, however, even if positive correlations between numerosity and size preferences were found, and particularly so in the right IPS, indicating a partial alignment across the two representations, the tuning functions describing responses to number and size, as well the precise cortical organization of their respective maps displayed important differences. These results support the conclusion that, while recruiting partially overlapping neuronal populations, thus sharing neural resources, these two quantitative dimensions do not share the exact same neural/representational code.
The question we want to address is the following: Can the ownership of non-renewable naturalresources allow a poor country to make the transition out of a poverty trap? We suppose that the production function is convex for low levels of capital and concave for high levels. The conditions of occurrence of a poverty trap are then ful…lled (Dechert and Nishimura, [1983, Azariadis and Stachurski ): the country, if initially poor, may be unable to pass beyond the trap level of capital, that is to say to develop. But the country can also extract its resource, sell it abroad, and use the revenues to import the good. The natural resource is a source of income, which, together with the income coming from domestic production, can be used to consume, or to accumulate capital. The idea is that a poor country with abundant naturalresources could extract and sell an amount of resource which would enable it to accumulate a stock of capital su¢ cient to overcome the weakness of its initial stock. We want to know on what circumstances would such a scenario optimally occur.
From 2004 to 2009, public R&D interventions took place in Baringo to promote aloe cultivation and to build up a certified, sustainable aloe supply chain (Fig. 1). Most activities focused on the more acces- sible agro pastoral areas of southern Baringo, an area in which WAE had never occurred. In contrast to Northern Baringo, opportunity cost of harvesting aloe was higher because smallholders benefited from a relative diversity of livelihood sources and good market access. Smallholders received trainings and aloe seedlings, a sap-processing factory was built in partnership between a private trader and the com- munities, a farmer organization was empowered and Aloe Management Units (AMUs) were established. AMUs were delineated areas from where registered smallholders harvested and sold aloe sap to certified collection points following production rules and quo- tas. Despite this flurry of interventions, several chal- lenges reinforced each other and contributed to the quick paralysis of the newly-emerging certified sup- ply chain: low interest by southern Baringo farmers in aloe cultivation and sap selling, conflicts between project partners leading to market uncertainties and to limited development of certified trade.
Studies of the economic dynamics of common pool resource exploitation typically assume that the economic agents exploiting the resource are all identical. Yet, in many situations, the heterogeneity of the agents is an inescapable characteristic of the problem. Think for example of the case of fisheries, where it is common to find a number of big multinational fishing firms competing with many small local fishermen for the exploitation of a common fishing ground. These big firms have access to large scale technologies and consequently face considerably lower marginal costs than the small local fishermen. Similarly, aquifers are often shared by a few large capacity users — for instance big bottling firms — and many small capacity users. 1 In such cases, it seems important to take into account the heterogeneity of the agents in order to properly characterize the non-cooperative equilibria. It is the purpose of this paper to introduce some form of heterogeneity into a common pool resource model and to analyze the impact of this heterogeneity on the equilibrium outcome of the dynamic game being played by the agents. The emphasis is put on how the slightest heterogeneity can have a drastic effect on the type of equilibria that can be expected, as compared to the homogeneous agents case.
The choice between ownership and common goods also has to be made when turning our attention to incorporeal goods in the field of “intellectual property”. Patents on living organisms, biodiversity or naturalresources , plant breeders’ rights, brands and quality signs are legal instruments whose power is underestimated and whose legitimacy is rarely questioned as though it were obvious. In fact, not every thing should be eligible for ownership, particularly when goods are necessary for people to live. In this case, it should be forbidden on principle for an owner – whoever he or she might be - to have a power of monopoly on goods which people depend on for their very lives. But intellectual property is like any other property: it can be absolute or relative. International law currently provides few limits to intellectual property's absolute scope. States can rule out an invention's patentability so as to protect public order, health and animals or people’s lives or to avoid serious environmental problems.  They can more generally rule out patentability for plants, animals and their breeding processes, providing they organise an alternative way to protect plant varieties.  Exceptions in the International Convention for the Protection of New Varieties of Plants (UPOV) also limit the breeder’s rights.  Besides, the Convention on Biological Diversity provides for the fair, equitable sharing of benefits from the use of genetic resources.  Yet all these limits, exceptions and expectations which could set limits to the “inventor’s” monopoly remain ineffective or too vague to have a full, legal reach, or can be neutralized in contracts between the owners of these monopolies and farmers. There is thus considerable progress to be made in deciding what should be “common goods” as well as in regulating the powers and rights of the “owner” of the variety or characteristics of the new animal or plant.
On the other hand, Georgescu-Roegen’s methodology of “interdisciplinary consistency” is clearly endorsed by Daly and most other ecological economists, as shows their insistence on the role of the laws of thermodynamics. According to this approach, the conceptual structure of the paradigm is inherited from thermodynamics, considered as a relevant sci- entific referent. Nevertheless, it faces similar issues. First, thermodynamics is subject to “equivocal interpretations” that make uncertain its meaning as a scientific referent. In particular, Daly tends to interpret Georgescu-Roegen’s assumption of thermodynamic limits in terms of the conservation of mass, focusing the attention on matter. Conversely, I showed that it was originally formulated as a generalization of Carnot’s coefficient of maximum efficiency, orienting rather toward the role of energy. While the two perspec- tives might be interesting, it shows the potential dilution of the assumption into multiple interpretations. Moreover, even if we agree on one specific interpretation, there is still a step to make sense of it in the analysis of production. The “conceptual translation” issue intends to describes this step and the challenges that face the prospect of translating physical knowledge, such as the laws of thermodynamics, into economic analysis. The debate brings much light on this topic. It underlines that the understanding of produc- tion depends on the relations between naturalresources, the non-material services they provide, and the value of these services. This seems a particularly relevant approach to examine in more details the link between Carnot’s maximum efficiency of a thermal engine and general thermodynamic limits to production, which Georgescu-Roegen only hinted at. Without such an investigation, the confrontation between unbounded resource productiv- ity and thermodynamic limits cannot be settled, because the two assumptions are not based on similar representation and measure of production.
be put on the primitives of the problem (the natural growth function g(x(t)) and the utility
function u(c i )) in order for this property to be satisﬁed?
At equilibrium it will be the case that, taking as given the vector of decision rules φ j (x) =
δ j x, j = i of his (n − 1) rivals, agent i’s own decision rule, c i = φ i (x), maximizes ∞
Why? Small farms are usually located along rivers.
Consequences: the naturalresources of small-sized farms differ from
those of large-sized ones, which contributes to diferent management
practices. For instance, the high proportion of steeped valleys (50-500 m wide) in small farms generates limitations such as lower proportion of mechanizable areas.
information will be hence transformed into structured information relevant for the definition of operational policies. Besides, we have developed dynSMAUG, a dynamic security management framework driven by situations  that combines a dynamic policy based management system with situation awareness. On the basis of our dynSMAUG system (Figure 1), we investigate how to integrate unstructured information coming from social media to dynamic IT management and adapt our management system to crisis management. This analysis highlights broader open research questions related to governing the operational IT infrastructure resilience as well as aligning crisis information system during natural disaster crises.
Objectives and contributions 25 set of REST and OCCI (anti)patterns. We provide a formal specification of OCCI and REST patterns and anti-patterns using an ontological model. The proposed ontologies include the most important and relevant concepts needed for the detection and recommendation purposes. Moreover, we introduce four detection algorithms acting on this specification to detect OCCI (anti)patterns and REST (anti)patterns respectively. Also, in case of any anti-pattern detec- tion, they provide developers with a set of correction recommendations to help them revise and correct their APIs. To validate our work, we developed a proof of concept implementation called ORAP-Detector providing the detection and recommendation support. Finally, using this tool, we evaluated our approach by analyzing both OCCI and REST (anti) patterns on a real dataset that includes five cloud RESTful management APIs: OOi, COAPS, OpenNebula Amazon S3, and Rackspace, and assessing its feasibility in terms of accuracy and usefulness. 2. The second contribution introduces a model-driven approach for streamlining and improving the orchestration of cloud resources. We adopt the TOSCA stan- dard for blueprinting all modeling artifacts related to cloud resources and their orchestration in a technology-independent manner. Moreover, to ease the inte- gration of TOSCA with DevOps technologies, we propose a methodology that enables the automated translation of high-level TOSCA artifacts to underlying DevOps-specific artifacts. Further, we propose a set of high-level connectors acting as a DevOps abstraction layer to automate the end-to-end orchestration tasks while exploiting the obtained specific artifacts. For assessment purposes, we developed a proof-of-concept ToDev , an integrated and standards-driven orchestration framework based on TOSCA and DevOps technologies. The framework includes open-source DevOps tools like Docker, Terraform, and Ku- bernetes and is empowered with MDE facilities to manage the involved models and transformation algorithms. Finally, to ensure the feasibility of our ap- proach, our framework was used in diverse cloud use cases and was evaluated using two experiments to show in particular its transformation performance as well as its gained productivity in comparison to existing DevOps solutions. 3. The third contribution proposes a new cloud Elasticity Description Model
Many organizations have noted that individual offices or workstations are not occupied all of the time, particularly for staff whose jobs involve meetings or visits to other sites. Technology can support remote work and can make materials available from multiple locations. This makes it possible to adopt flexible approaches to space assignment, known by various names: hot-desking; hotelling; alternative work arrangements; activity-based work. These have the common characteristic of not giving individuals a static work location, instead using a scheduling tool to assign a work location dynamically, the duration varying from part of the day to (in some cases) a few days. Real estate costs may drop because space utilization increases. As yet, there are few investigations in the literature to report on their success or failure. It seems likely, however, that success or failure will depend on the fit to the organization, the work unit, its tasks, and the individuals. Organizations that adopt a complete scorecard and obtain comparison data will be able to determine whether or not it works for them.
governed by the market rules, the need for limitations and exceptions to copyright in order to achieve collective objectives as well as private usages, the protection of net neutrality for all actors through law at the multilateral level, and the expansion of CPR as free software or collective information products, ranging from Wikipedia to Open Access to science primary findings, by promotion in school, university or administration, all are global problems that states and multilateral bodies need to address. The community-only approach, which is at the very heart of the internet founder’s ideals (Turner, 2006), is confronting new challenges in this process. A subsidiarity-type of relation needs to be defined between communities and states. Coordinating internal empowerment through sharing and communities self-determination, and social or political position to protect open access and CBPP of digital resources is a key question for the development of digital resources as CPR, and the existence of self-organised communities to produce, maintain and protect them. This further research may help to create bounds with those working on the natural commons dealing with the extension of the concept to global resources and communities (Ostrom & al, 1999), for example climate change or the commons movement’s concept of Rights of Mother Earth and other global commons.
Anopheles revealed no infection to the bacteria. Until recently, Wolbachia infections were mainly limited to species within the
gambiae complex (Baldini et al., 2014; Gomes et al., 2017) and few other species (Baldini et al., 2018; Jeffries, Golovko, et al., 2018; Jeffries, Lawrence, et al., 2018; Niang et al., 2018). Several hypotheses can be put forward to explain this. First, low infection prevalence or local variations could have hindered the discovery of Wolbachia infections, independently of the sampling effort. In our study, most Anopheles species exhibited a prevalence lower than 15% (Table 1). This pattern is common in many other arthro‐ pods (Duron et al., 2008; Zug & Hammerstein, 2012), and it is usually associated with a weak manipulation of the host repro‐ duction and/or imperfect maternal transmission (Engelstadter & Hurst, 2009). In general, our sampling effort was higher than in previous studies (n < 30) (Bourtzis et al., 2014; Osei‐Poku et al., 2012), and this could explain why we found more infected spe‐ cies. Our statistical analysis showed that a sample size of 60 indi‐ viduals per species is needed to quantify correct prevalence rates lower than 15%, with a probability of 95% (Figure S3). Moreover, local frequency variations among populations could also hinder the detection of Wolbachia infections (Dumas et al., 2013). For instance, we sampled An. coluzzii in three different sites, but we only found Wolbachia‐infected mosquitoes at La Lopé (Figure 1, Table S1). Therefore, sampling in different localities and in differ‐ ent seasons might improve detection rates. Second, it could be difficult to detect low‐density Wolbachia infections in Anopheles with the routinely used molecular tools, as previously reported for other arthropods (Arthofer, Riegler, Avtzis, & Stauffer, 2009; Augustinos et al., 2011) and recently in An. gambiae (Gomes et al., 2017). Our results indicate that conventional PCR amplifica‐ tion (wsp‐targeting primers (Baldo et al., 2006)) analysis allowed the detection of Wolbachia infection only in 6 of the 16 spe‐ cies (An. moucheti, Anopheles m. nigeriensis, An. “GAB‐3,” An. nili,