childhood and adolescence

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Changes in Dietary Patterns from Childhood to Adolescence and Associated Body Adiposity Status

Changes in Dietary Patterns from Childhood to Adolescence and Associated Body Adiposity Status

physical activities on the previous day. For example, a range of specific foods have been suggested as important dietary determinants of weight status in childhood and adolescence, including fruit and vegetables [29], fat [30], fast-food [31], and sugary drinks [32]. The PDFQ is a paper and pencil questionnaire, designed to be applied in the school setting as a supervised classroom exercise where children are guided by trained researchers following a standardized protocol [28]. The PDFQ-3 was previously validated in a sample of 6–11-year-old schoolchildren, with direct observation of the food eaten at school meals on the previous day as the gold standard, and demonstrated a reasonable average sensitivity (probability of correctly reporting a food intake) of 70.2% and an excellent average specificity (probability of correctly not reporting a food intake) of 96.2% [28]. The food section of the questionnaire covers six daily eating occasions (three main meals and three snacks) ordered chronologically (breakfast and mid-morning snack, lunch and afternoon snack, dinner and evening snack). Each meal and snack is illustrated with 21 pictures of foods/beverages or food groups (bread and biscuits, chocolate milk, coffee with milk, milk, yoghurt, cheese, rice, beans, pasta, beef and poultry, fish and seafood, leafy vegetables, cooked vegetables, vegetable soup, fruits, fruit juices, French fries, pizza and hamburgers, sweets, salty snacks, and soft drinks). The tool does not assess foods or food groups like water, cooking fats, fat, or sugary spreads on bread (e.g., butter or margarine, honey, jam, chocolate or nut-based products), fat content (e.g., low-fat milk or high-fat milk), types of soft drinks and fruit juices (e.g., regular or diet), or types of cooking methods (e.g., frying, baking, roasting).
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Childhood poverty and behavior problems in early adolescence : examining the links over time and potential mechanisms

Childhood poverty and behavior problems in early adolescence : examining the links over time and potential mechanisms

A comprehensive review on the childhood- and adolescent-onset behavior problems distinction suggests that childhood subtype tend to increase in rate and severity throughout childhood and into adolescence whereas the adolescent subtype is specific to a single developmental stage (i.e., adolescence) and results from a failure to adequately adjust to the developmental demands (e.g., separation and individuation from parents) of that stage (Frick & Viding, 2009). In this study, not only subtypes were presented as following different developmental trajectories over time but they also differed in terms of individual and contextual risk factors. Specifically, the childhood-onset subtype was associated with: a) individual-level risk factors that included cognitive deficits and ineffective socialization as well as temperamental and personality risk factors (e.g. impulsivity); and b) contextual- level risk factors corresponding to homes with greater family instability (e.g., more family conflict, poor parental supervision) and poor quality schools. Furthermore, this subtype was reported as being likely to persist into late adolescence and adulthood. On the other hand, the adolescence-onset subtype was associated with fewer risk factors corresponding to higher levels of rebelliousness and being more rejecting of conventional values as opposed to individual-level vulnerability. This subtype was conceptualized as an exaggeration of the normative process of adolescent rebellion that was less likely to persist beyond adolescence (Moffitt, 2003, 2006). Nevertheless, some studies have reported that both the childhood- and adolescence-onset subtypes contribute to negatives outcomes in adulthood including undetected crimes, school dropout, violence, substance abuse problems and internalizing problems (Monahan et al., 2009; Odgers CL et al., 2007; Pingault et al., 2013).
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Interplay between genetic and environmental influences on the development of aggressive antisocial behavior during childhood and adolescence

Interplay between genetic and environmental influences on the development of aggressive antisocial behavior during childhood and adolescence

Antisocial behavior during childhood and adolescence is an important risk factor for later serious and persistent adjustment problems, including violent and criminal behavior (Nagin & Tremblay, 1999). It is also linked to a number of concurrent negative outcomes, both for the perpetrators (ex., social sanctions) and for the victims (ex., pain, humiliation, and fear). Two types of antisocial behavior have been reported in the literature: aggressive and non-aggressive. Aggressive antisocial behavior refers to behaviors such as aggression, personal violence, and destruction of property, whereas non-aggressive antisocial behavior refers to behaviors such as theft, lying, cheating, and rule breaking. Although correlated (r between .4 and .6), the two types of antisocial behavior are associated with partly different risk factors (Burt, 2009). Aggressive and non-aggressive antisocial behaviors also demonstrate important developmental differences. Aggressive antisocial behavior is typically highest during early childhood and tends to decrease thereafter for most, but not all, children (Tremblay, 2003). In contrast, non-aggressive antisocial behavior tends to increase from childhood to adolescence. These almost opposite developmental patterns suggest that we should distinguish between aggressive and non-aggressive behavior. The focus of this chapter is on aggressive antisocial behavior, but at times we expanded the literature review to include non-aggressive antisocial behavior, as many authors did not distinguish between aggressive and non-aggressive antisocial behavior problems.
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Contribution of genes and environment to the longitudinal association between childhood impulsive‐aggression and suicidality in adolescence

Contribution of genes and environment to the longitudinal association between childhood impulsive‐aggression and suicidality in adolescence

5 childhood, and is followed by a progressive decline in middle childhood and adolescence (Barker, Tremblay, Nagin, Vitaro, & Lacourse, 2006; Teymoori et al., 2018; Tremblay, Vitaro, & Côté, 2018). However, there are large individual differences in this general developmental course. Indeed, while most children show decreasing levels of impulsive-aggression (or related constructs, such as irritability), those showing persistently high or increasing levels are more at risk of subsequent mental health problems in adolescence, including suicidality (Brezo et al., 2008; Orri et al., 2019; Orri, Perret, Turecki, & Geoffroy, 2018). These findings suggest that individual variability in baseline level and developmental change (i.e., decreasing vs stability/increasing) of impulsive-aggression may play a different role in subsequent suicidality. In line with this, genetically informed studies suggest that baseline level and developmental course of aggressive behaviors in childhood may have distinct genetic etiology (Lacourse et al., 2014; Paquin et al., 2017; Pingault, Viding, et al., 2015).
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The association between childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder medication use and symptoms of mental health problems in adolescence : A 15-year longitudinal population-based study

The association between childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder medication use and symptoms of mental health problems in adolescence : A 15-year longitudinal population-based study

25 later suggested that the long-term effectiveness of ADHD medication in the community is comparable to the efficacy of ADHD medication observed in randomized control trials (Barbaresi et al. 2006). An observational follow-up study of 79 subjects provided further evidence on this matter by showing that children who adhered to stimulant treatment showed greater improvements in ADHD symptoms than those who did not continuously take medication for five years (Charach et al. 2004). On the other hand, in a UK cohort study, Langley et al. reported that children who were using ADHD medication at the five-year follow-up in adolescence had significantly higher ADHD scores and greater rates of ADHD diagnoses compared to those who were no longer taking the medication (Langley et al. 2010). In 2009, with the aim of determining the long-term effects of ADHD medication, a longitudinal Multimodal Treatment Study of ADHD (MTA) initially randomized 579 children with ADHD into four treatment groups: medication management, behavioral therapy, combined medication and behavioral therapy or community care. The eight-year follow-up did not reveal any significant difference in ADHD symptoms across the groups, indicating that medication did not have long-lasting treatment benefits. Furthermore, participants in the MTA study fared worse than the non-ADHD classmate sample on hyperactivity/impulsivity and inattention symptoms (Molina et al. 2009). Consistent with previous findings, in a 6-year comprehensive investigation, researchers found that pharmacological treatment of ADHD in children had no positive impact on ADHD related outcomes. In fact, continued medication treatment predicted greater symptom severity (van Lieshout et al. 2016). Lastly, a 14-year longitudinal study, examining the change in ADHD symptoms from childhood to adolescence, determined that stimulant medication use was not associated with long-term improvement in core symptoms of ADHD (Smith et al. 2010).
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Birth Weight, Postnatal Weight Gain, and Childhood Adiposity in Relation to Lipid Profile and Blood Pressure During Early Adolescence

Birth Weight, Postnatal Weight Gain, and Childhood Adiposity in Relation to Lipid Profile and Blood Pressure During Early Adolescence

Background- — Different pathways likely underlie the association between early weight gain and cardiovascular disease risk. We examined whether birth weight for length relationship and weight gain up to 2 years of age are associated with lipid pro files and blood pressure (BP) in early adolescence and determined whether childhood adiposity mediates these associations. Methods and Results- — Data from QUALITY (Quebec Adipose and Lifestyle Investigation in Youth), a cohort of white children with parental history of obesity, were analyzed (n =395). Sex-specific weight for length z scores from birth to 2 years were computed. Rate of postnatal weight gain was estimated using individual slopes of weight for length z-score measurements. Percentage of body fat was measured at 8 to 10 years. Fasting lipids and BP were measured at 10 to 12 years. Using path analysis, we found indirect effects of postnatal weight gain, through childhood adiposity, on all outcomes: Rate of postnatal weight for length gain was positively associated with childhood adiposity, which in turn was associated with unfavorable lipid and BP levels in early adolescence. In contrast, small bene ficial direct effects on diastolic BP z scores, independent of weight at other time points, were found for birth weight for length ( b= 0.05, 95% CI, 0.09 to 0.002) and for postnatal weight gain (b= 0.02, 95% CI, 0.03 to
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The management of cohesion in written narratives in students with specific language impairment: Differences between childhood and adolescence

The management of cohesion in written narratives in students with specific language impairment: Differences between childhood and adolescence

© 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Specific language impairment (SLI) is a developmental disorder of language acquisition that occurs in the absence of mental retardation, neurological damage, hearing deficits, or environmental deprivation ( Bishop, 1992a, 1992b; Leonard, 2014 ). Language difficulties are het- erogeneous and appear essentially at the phonological, morphosyntactic, and semantic levels. These difficulties generally remain through adolescence ( Snowling, Bishop, & Stothard, 2000 ; van Weerdenburg, Verhoeven, Bosman, & van Balkom, 2011 ). Children with SLI also are at risk for developing problems with the acquisition of written language. For instance, children with SLI aged 9; 5 years old produce more spelling errors when composing a letter to their best friend than the TD age-matched participants ( Williams, Larkin, & Blaggan, 2013 ; see also Cordewener, Bosman, & Verhoeven, 2012 ). Broc, Bernicot, Olive, Favart, and Quémart (2013) also pointed out the lexical spelling difficulties of participants with SLI aged from 7 to 18 years old. They however observed that these difficulties were lower in a narrative communicative situation than in an evaluative task, i.e. a dictation of isolated words. In this study, each participant composed a narrative with the presence of the experimenter throughout the entire writing process. The experimenter orally delivered the instruction: participants were asked to write a story about a personal event and to make it as precise as possible, so that she (the researcher) could really understand what happened. In such a situation, performances in the management of lexical spelling by adolescents with SLI (aged from 12 to 18 years old) were not significantly different from performances of their TD age-matched peers.
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The dynamics of interference control across childhood and adolescence: Distribution analyses in three conflict tasks and ten age groups.

The dynamics of interference control across childhood and adolescence: Distribution analyses in three conflict tasks and ten age groups.

sources of interference: On incompatible trials, flankers are simultaneously perceptually di fferent from the target and call for a di fferent response, whereas on compatible ones, they are perceptually identical to the target and prompt the same response. Hence, interference on incompatible trials may rise both at stimulus and response levels. Developmental in- consistencies within this task could then stem from di fferent developmental trajectories of stimulus vs response interfer- ence control (Cragg, 2016). Cragg manipulated these two forms of interference in adapted versions of a flanker task. The results suggested that response interference control is already mature at the age of seven whereas stimulus interfer- ence control has a more protracted development. Indeed, the distributional pattern in the present study might result from the combination of these potentially developmentally asyn- chronous forms of control. Further studies applying distri- bution analyses in versions of the flanker task which allow for dissociating stimulus- and response-conflicts should help overcoming the current inconsistencies. Recently Erb and colleagues (Erb & Marcovitch, 2018; Erb et al., 2018) exam- ined another dissociation of processes that might contribute to the age-related changes in interference control. In two in- dependent studies, using reach-tracking versions of two con- flict tasks (flanker and Simon), the authors provided evidence for two processes underlying inhibitory control: A response- threshold adjustment process that corresponds to a form of global inhibition of the motor output, and a controlled se- lection process that increases the activation of the controlled response. These studies suggested that the controlled selec- tion process may have a more protracted development than the response adjustment one. The present approach based on distributional analyses and the reach-tracking methodol- ogy shed complementary light on the processes contributing
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Disaster-related prenatal maternal stress explains increasing amounts of variance in body composition through childhood and adolescence: Project Ice Storm

Disaster-related prenatal maternal stress explains increasing amounts of variance in body composition through childhood and adolescence: Project Ice Storm

In terms of the mechanisms that translate PNMS into child adiposity, one possibility is the fetal programming of the HPA axis in response to high levels of maternal stress hormones, the al- teration of which has been linked to the regulation of body com- position and energy expenditure ( Amugongo and Hlusko, 2014 ). Another possibility is epigenetics. We recently reported other re- sults from Project Ice Storm demonstrating that objective, but not subjective, maternal stress correlated signi ficantly with the me- thylation level of a large number of CpG sites on the genome-wide level ( Cao-Lei et al., 2014 ). As well, DNA methylation of CpG sites on genes implicated in Type I and II diabetes mediated the effects of the objective stress on the children's BMI and central adiposity at age 13, the same age at which the epigenetic assessments were conducted ( Cao-Lei et al., 2015 ). The importance of objective hardship from the ice storm, but not the mother's degree of dis- tress, in the epigenetic mediation of PNMS on child BMI and central adiposity suggests that these two components of the hu- man stress experience may activate different biological pathways. In Project Ice Storm, we have noted low correlations among our three stress measures (objective hardship, subjective distress and cognitive appraisal) (generally r o0.30 depending on the sample). As such, whether women appraised the consequences of the ice storm crisis to be negative, neutral, or positive was disconnected from both the objective reality of their situation and their sub- jective distress. In the current analyses, we see no evidence that the mother's cognitive appraisal of this severe weather event in pregnancy is predictive of her child's future adiposity. On the other hand, as we have also reported elsewhere ( Cao-Lei et al., 2015 ), these same mothers' cognitive appraisal was an even stronger predictor of genome-wide DNA methylation pro files than objective stress. Preliminary results are suggesting, in fact, that maternal cognitive appraisal may exert an in fluence on the child's metabolic function (i.e., insulin secretion) via an effect on methylation sites of diabetes-related genes (unpublished data). Ultimately, we may find that each aspect of PNMS programs the fetus in different ways with implications for different patterns of outcomes.
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Early Maternal Employment and Non-cognitive Outcomes in Early Childhood and Adolescence: Evidence from British Birth Cohort Data

Early Maternal Employment and Non-cognitive Outcomes in Early Childhood and Adolescence: Evidence from British Birth Cohort Data

sample weight. The Short Mood and Feeling Questionnaire (SMFQ) is a measure of depressive symptoms and mood disorder in children. The scale is inverted so that higher scores represent better emotional well-being. All regressions control for mother’s age at the start of pregnancy, mother’s highest level of education attainment, the child’s ethnicity, the number of siblings of different ages (0-15 years, and 16-18 years) at the time of birth, child’s gender, child’s birth weight, a dummy for whether the child was admitted to a special care unit at birth, father’s highest level of education attainment, father’s social class, father’s employment status at 21 months, father’s pre-birth occupation, parents’ homeownership status at 8 months, whether the parents experienced financial difficulties during pregnancy, a dummy for whether the mother worked during pregnancy, hours worked at last pre-birth job, maternal pre-birth occupation, maternal social networks score, maternal social support score, grandmother’s educational attainment, and mother’s pre-birth body mass index (BMI), the Crown-Crisp Experiential Index (CCEI) used to capture maternal anxiety and depression during the 1 st trimester, maternal locus of control – i.e. the
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Developmental Pathways Linking Childhood Temperament with Antisocial Behavior
and Substance Use in Adolescence: Explanatory Mechanisms in the Peer Environment

Developmental Pathways Linking Childhood Temperament with Antisocial Behavior and Substance Use in Adolescence: Explanatory Mechanisms in the Peer Environment

order dimensions ‘effortful control’, ‘positive emotionality/surgency’ and ‘negative emotionality’, respectively (Else-Quest, Hyde, Goldsmith, & Van Hulle, 2006; Goldsmith, Rieser-Danner, & Briggs, 1991; Rothbart, 2007). Differences in these temperamental traits have been related to various distinct - although related - behavioral problems within the externalizing spectrum, including antisocial behavior and substance use (for an overview of studies addressing the comorbid nature of antisocial behavior and substance use, see e.g., Clark, 2005; Krueger, Markon, Patrick, Benning, & Kramer, 2007; McGue, Irons, & Iacono, 2014). Specifically, differences in effortful control, positive emotionality/surgency and negative emotionality have been associated with overt forms of antisocial behavior, like aggression (Becht, Prinzie, Deković, Van den Akker, & Shiner, 2015; Burt & Donnellan, 2008; Wang, Chassin, Eisenberg, & Spinrad, 2015), covert forms of antisocial behavior, like vandalism and theft (Becht et al., 2015; Carrasco, Barker, Tremblay, & Vitaro, 2006) and illicit substance use, like drug use and alcohol use by minors (Burt & Donnellan, 2008; Dick et al., 2013).
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Risk factors associated with boys’ and girls’ developmental trajectories of physical aggression from early childhood through early adolescence

Risk factors associated with boys’ and girls’ developmental trajectories of physical aggression from early childhood through early adolescence

Like most maximum likelihood models, multitrajectory modeling assumes that data are missing at random. Under this assumption, there is no constraint on the number of missing observations that individuals may have to be included in the estimation sample. Therefore, we included a condition requiring individuals to have at least 10 observations across the 16 observations to be included in the estimation sample. In addition, we checked using single-trajectory modeling whether the attrition at later periods of data collection was systematically different for a given type of physical aggression trajectory or was equally distributed. We estimated the posterior probability or group membership for each period for mother ratings and performed a cross-tabulation between group membership at each period, with nonresponse or participating category at the last 2 periods (ages 12 and 13 years). The results showed that the attrition took place equally in all trajectory groups. Finally, we also estimated the model without having the restriction of at least 10 of 16 observations per person to see if the results changed by the removal of this restriction.
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« “Unease in the Situation of Being Alone” and “Separation Anxiety”: Semeiology from Early Childhood to Adolescence. »

« “Unease in the Situation of Being Alone” and “Separation Anxiety”: Semeiology from Early Childhood to Adolescence. »

Daniel Stern has demonstrated that the normal infant has «the “sense of an emergent self” already at the age of 2 months. Stern also shows that the “sense of a core self” develops between 2 and 7 months of age. “The sense of a core self” includes the experience of self-agency, self-coherence, self-affectivity, self-history, as well as the sense of

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Parents’ Childhood Maltreatment and Subsequent Parenting

Parents’ Childhood Maltreatment and Subsequent Parenting

Chapter 2. Risk Ecology and Exposure to Childhood Maltreatment 2.1 Résumé Le but de cette section est de présenter l’échantillon ainsi que la classification utilisée pour documenter la maltraitance dans le deuxième article de ce projet de recherche. Comme l’objectif de cette thèse est d’étudier les effets de la maltraitance vécue à l’enfance, il a été convenu de conduire cette étude auprès d’un groupe de mères adolescentes, qui, selon la littérature, sont plus susceptibles que les mères adultes d’avoir été exposé à des expériences d’adversité (comme la maltraitance) à l’enfance. Cette section permettra d’ailleurs de vérifier cette hypothèse, alors que le vécu de maltraitance de 72 mères adolescentes sera comparé à celui de 35 mères adultes de la communauté. Les expériences de maltraitance ont été saisies dans l’entrevue d’attachement adulte, réalisée 6 mois post-partum et ont été classifiées selon une grille de classification de la maltraitance inspirée de celle conçue par Barnett, Cicchetti et Manly (1993). 7 types de maltraitance sont définis dans cette grille : 1) abus physique; 2) abus sexuel; 3) abus émotionnel; 4) négligence émotionnelle; 5) négligence physique; 6) négligence morale-légale/éducationnelle; 7) exposition à de la violence. Chaque expérience de maltraitance répertoriée dans l’entrevue d’attachement adulte fût classifiée selon le type de maltraitance et un score de sévérité lui était attribué. Ensuite, des scores d’occurrence, de fréquence et de la somme des sévérités furent calculés pour chaque type de maltraitance. Des analyses comparatives pour chacun de ces indices ont été conduites. Les résultats suggèrent que de manière générale, les mères adolescentes auraient été exposées à plus de types de maltraitance que les mères adultes. Lorsque chaque type de maltraitance fut considéré individuellement en fonction de l’occurrence, de la fréquence et de la somme des sévérités, une tendance similaire était observable. Toutefois, seules les expériences d’abus sexuels se distinguaient significativement d’un groupe à l’autre sur chacun de ces indicateurs. Les impacts potentiels de l’abus sexuel sur le développement psychosexuel ainsi que sur la maternité à l’adolescence sont discutés.
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Phenotypic and Genetic Associations Between Reading and ADHD Dimensions in Adolescence

Phenotypic and Genetic Associations Between Reading and ADHD Dimensions in Adolescence

Phenotypic and Genetic Associations Between Reading and ADHD Dimensions in Adolescence Abstract Multiple studies have shown that reading abilities and ADHD symptoms, mainly inattention symptoms, are phenotypically and genetically associated during childhood. However, few studies have looked at these associations during adolescence to investigate possible developmental changes. The aim of the study is to examine the genetic and environmental etiology of the associations between inattention and hyperactivity reported by parents, and reading accuracy, reading speed, and word reading in a population-based twin sample – Quebec Newborn Twin Study (QNTS). Participants were between 14 and 15 years of age at the time of testing (N = 668- 837). Phenotypic results showed that when nonverbal and verbal abilities were controlled, inattention, but not hyperactivity/impulsivity, was a modest and significant predictor of reading accuracy, reading speed, and word reading. The associations between inattention and all reading abilities were partly explained by genetic and unique environmental factors. However, the genetic correlations were no longer significant after controlling for verbal abilities. In mid-adolescence, inattention is the ADHD dimension associated with reading abilities, but they could also share genetic factors with general verbal skills.
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Childhood Sporting Activities and Adult Labour-Market Outcomes

Childhood Sporting Activities and Adult Labour-Market Outcomes

in contrast to the baseline results in Tables 5 and 6. The variation in these two labour market outcomes (with respect to sport participation) is therefore between families rather than within family. As such, the probability of being a manager could reflect the role of family firms, or family influence within a firm. More generally it could reflect some aspect of upbringing that is shared by all children within the family (such as being encouraged to take decisions for themselves). The same kind of explanation can be advanced for the hourly wage. Children who were raised in a privileged socioeconomic environment will earn higher salaries than others; they may also have better opportunities to practise sport when at school. In this case, the correlation that we observe between adult wages and childhood sport is not causal, but rather reflects some hidden common factor at the family level.
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Childhood Sporting Activities and Adult Labour-Market Outcomes

Childhood Sporting Activities and Adult Labour-Market Outcomes

1 Introduction There is by now a fairly-wide range of research highlighting that those who practise, or have practised, sport do better on many levels in their lives: the results here refer to educational outcomes (Pfeifer & Cornelißen, 2010, Felfe et al. , 2011, Rees & Sabia, 2010, Long & Caudill, 1991), the labour market (Long & Caudill, 1991, Rooth, 2011, Lechner, 2009, Kosteas, 2012, 2011, Barron et al. , 2000, Ewing, 1998) and health. There are a number of potential causal readings of this relationship. An obvious one is that playing sports helps children to develop both cognitive and non-cognitive skills. However, it is also entirely possible that the correlations found in the literature reflect a hidden common factor (the type of school perhaps, or the way in which the child has been raised by her parents) affecting both childhood sport and the outcome in question. In this case, children with greater cognitive and non-cognitive skills will indeed be more involved in sports when young, but the relationship will not be causal (in the sense that if we exogenously made children play more sport, their cognitive and non-cognitive skills would remain unchanged).
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Vaccination card availability and childhood immunization in Senegal

Vaccination card availability and childhood immunization in Senegal

western Senegal, where the estimated immunization coverage rates are highest [ 16 ]. Nevertheless, the enormous gap observed for polio vaccination - 93% among those with vaccination cards and only 32% among the “no card” subsample (and markedly different from the 5 to 10 percentage-point gap for the other vaccines) - is quite disturbing, and a strong reporting bias related to this vaccination may be suspected. As we pointed out in the introduction, a main source of inaccurate reporting of past vaccinations is likely to be poor initial encoding of the memory of the relevant events [ 7 ]. In this case, and contrary to most other childhood vaccines used in Senegal, which are injected, the polio vaccine is taken orally as drops. Al- though this route of administration is common to many treatments in both allopathic and traditional medicine, previous studies have shown that laypeople frequently confuse injection with vaccination since they tend to consider that vaccination always involves an injection [ 26 – 28 ]. This might well explain at least in part the con- siderable discrepancies observed between maternal recall and data from vaccination cards. As a result, parents’ misunderstanding of polio vaccine leads not only to underestimated vaccination coverage among children whose mothers were not able to present their vaccin- ation card to interviewers but also to a massive mechan- ical underestimation of complete immunization coverage.
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Perinatal and environmental risk factors of childhood neuroblastoma

Perinatal and environmental risk factors of childhood neuroblastoma

13 Unité de recherche clinique pédiatrique / Unité d’hémato-immuno-oncologie, Hôpital des Enfants, CHU, Toulouse, France Neuroblastoma (NB) is the most common extra-cranial tumour in children. Little is known about the aetiology of NB. The early age at onset and the embryonic nature suggest a role for perinatal exposures. We conducted a pooled analysis of two French national population-based case–control studies to explore whether there was an association between parental smoking and alcohol consumption and the risk of NB. The mothers of 357 NB cases and 1,783 controls from general population, frequency matched by age and sex, were interviewed on demographic, socioeconomic and perinatal characteristics, maternal reproductive story, and life- style and childhood environment. Unconditional logistic regression was used to estimate pooled odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. A meta-analysis of our findings with those of previous studies was also conducted. Maternal smoking during pregnancy was slightly more often reported for the cases (24.1%) than for the controls (19.7%) (OR 1.3 [95% CI 0.9–1.7]; summary OR from meta-analysis 1.1 [95% CI 1.0–1.3]. Paternal smoking in the year before child’s birth were not associated with NB as independent exposure (OR 1.1 [95% CI 0.9–1.4] but the association was stronger when both parents reported having smoked during pregnancy (OR 1.5 [95% CI 1.1–2.1]. No association was observed with maternal alcohol intake during pregnancy (OR 1.0 [95% CI 0.8–1.4], summary OR from meta-analysis 1.0 [95% CI 0.9–1.2]. Our findings provide some evidence of an association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and NB and add another reason to recommend that women refrain from smoking during pregnancy. Introduction
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The cognitive development during adolescence

The cognitive development during adolescence

Every human being face various problems , so it is the role of adolescents to solve them and don't let them affect negativelly their life or their work . make challenges and have self confidense are better for solving problem .you must take into consideration that it is neccesary to solve problems from the first time but try again and again and learn from your mistakes and to not repeat them in the future.

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